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Anticosti, as being somewhat similar in sound to its Indian name, Natiscotec. From this Island Cartier continued his course, like an experienced mariner closely examining both shores of the river; and when practicable, opening a communication with the inhabitants. On the 1st September he entered the mouth of the River Saguenay, which is accurately described; and which must have given him an exalted idea of the country he had thus discovered. On the 6th he reached the Isle aux Coudres, so called from its filberts, which he describes as "bigger and better in savour than the French, but somewhat harder."
In the second relation of Jacques Cartier, published in Hakluyt, which we have taken as the basis of this account, it is stated, that he obtained considerable information respecting the country he was approaching, from the two natives whom he had taken to France from Honguedo, or Gaspé, on his previous voyage; and who having been several months in that country, were no doubt able to act the part of interpreters between Cartier and the natives, in his ascent of the St. Lawrence. It would appear from this, that Canada for an immense extent must have been peopled by one widely scattered Tribe of Aborigines-since the language spoken from Quebec to Gaspé was either the same, or so nearly allied, as to enable the interpreters to be serviceable in their capacity. The French, however, from their own ignorance of the Indian tongues, could not detect imposition, if any was practised or intended; and judging as they did from their own momentary impressions, it is evident that they were prepared to receive as entitled to credit all that these men told them. For instance, it is scarcely possible to suppose that the
two interpreters could have been not only personally known to the natives of the shore, as they landed in their boats in various places, but also to those of the St. Charles, near Quebec. It is clear that the Indians must have spoken, as they always do figurately; and that the French understood them literally. At the entrance of the River Saguenay the following incident happened :-"We met with four boats full of wild men, which as far as we could perceive, very fearfully came towards us, so that some of them went back again, and the other came as near us as easily they might hear and understand one of our wild men, who told them his name, and then took acquaintance of them, upon whose word they came to us." Again, on coming to anchor between the Isle of Orleans and the north shore, Jacques Cartier says, "We went on land and took our two wild men with us, meeting many of those country people who would not at all approach unto us, but rather fled from us, until our two men began to speak unto them, telling them that they were TAIGNOAGNY and DOMAGAIA; who so soon as they had taken acquaintance of them, began greatly to rejoice, dancing and showing many sorts of ceremonies and many of the chiefest of them came to our boats, and brought many eels and other sorts of fishes, with two or three burthen of great millet, wherewith they made their bread, and many great musk melons. The same day came also many other boats, full of those countrymen and women to see and take acquaintance of our two men." That the mere enuntiation of their names by the interpreters should have proved a talisman of such power is scarcely credible, if we regard these names merely as proper to the individuals before their first adventure with Jacques
Cartier in the Bay of Gaspé. But the irresistible supposition is, that these names, which seem to have produced every where such extraordinary effect, must have been altogether special and peculiar, adopted by the interpreters themselves, according to the Indian custom, as designating the most remarkable event in their lives—namely, that they had been taken away from their own to a foreign land by white strangers, whence they had returned in safety. In this view only, is it easy to account for the apparent effect of the names when heard; and for the anxiety of the Indians of the St. Lawrence to "take acquaintance" with their travelled brethren,
HE DISCOVERS QUEBEC.
Pursuing his voyage which was now becoming more and more interesting, Cartier left the Isle aux Coudres, and soon reached an Island, which from its beauty and fertility, as well as from the number of wild vines which grew there, he called the Isle of Bacchus. It is now the Island of Orleans, and greatly enhances the beauty of the prospect from the high grounds of Quebec. Here, on the 7th September, he opened a friendly communication with the natives; and on the following day, "the Lord of CANADA, whose proper name was DONNACONA," came with twelve canoes full of his people, eight being in each, to visit the strangers as they lay at anchor between the Island and the north shore. Commanding the attendant canoes to remain at a little distance, Donnacona, with two canoes only, approached close to the smallest of the three vessels. He then commenced the usual oration, accompanying it with strange and uncouth action; and after conversing with the interpreters, who
informed him of their wonderful visit to France, and the kindness with which they had been treated by the white men, penetrated apparently with awe and respect, he took the arm of Cartier, kissed it, and placed it upon his neck, an expression of feeling eloquent of amity and confidence. Nor was Cartier backward in exchanging friendly salutations he immediately went into the canoe of the chief, and presented him and his attendants with bread and wine, of which they partook together, and "whereby the Indians were greatly content and satisfied." He then parted with them on the most satisfactory terms. At this distance of time it is impossible not to feel great interest in Cartier's first interview with the Chief of a country discovered by his perseverance and skill, and destined afterwards to be so celebrated in the annals both of France and England. As we have before mentioned the devout character of Cartier, it is not improbable that some strong religious feeling may have prompted his conduct on this occasion. It is also remarkable, and seems to corroborate the observation, that in this first interview he gave them no presents, reserving that for a future opportunity.
Donnacona departed with the same state in which he came while Cartier, having so far prosperously advanced towards the interior of an unknown country, became desirous of finding a safe harbor for his vessels, then at anchor near the east end of the Isle of Orleans, He accordingly manned his boats, and went up the north shore against the stream, until he came to "a goodly and pleasant sound," and a "little river and haven" admirably adapted for his purpose. In this spot, after some necessary preparations, he safely moored his vessels on the 16th September; and according to his devout and grateful custom, he
named the place the Port of St. Croix, in honor of the day on which he had first entered it; and here Donnacona, with a retinue of five hundred persons hastened to pay him another friendly visit, to welcome his arrival in the territory.
DESCRIPTION OF STADACONA, AND THE HARBOR OF ST. CROIX.
As this event forms one of the most important epochs in the ancient history of the country, we shall be more particular in our account of the proceedings of Jacques Cartier ; and our sketch will now assume "a local habitation" familiar to all who at the present day are acquainted with the scene, and equally interesting, we trust, to the intelligent antiquarian. There can be no doubt, that the "goodly and pleasant sound," above mentioned, was the beautiful basin of Quebec; and that the place selected by Cartier for laying up his vessels, to which he gave the name of Port de St. Croix, and where he afterwards wintered was in the Little River St. Charles, to the north of the city-which name it afterwards received, according to La Potherie, in compliment to Charles des Boues, Grand Vicar of Pontoise, founder of the first mission of Recollets of New France. The old writers, and Charlevoix himself, as has been mentioned above, have unaccountably mistaken the locality of the harbor chosen by Cartier; and misled by the name, have asserted that it was at the entrance of the River now called Jacques Cartier, which flows into the St. Lawrence, about fifteen miles above Quebec. But it has been well observed, that although three centuries have elapsed since the incidents we are recording took place, the localities still remain un