mencement of the two forts, and appointed the Viscount de Beaupré to the command in his absence, Cartier resolved to carry into effect, as far as possible, the ulterior objects of the expedition; and he accordingly proceeded, on the 7th September, with two boats, for the purpose of examining the Saults or Rapids above Hochelaga, which he believed were to be passed on the way to Saguenay-" in order that he might be the readier in the spring to pass farther, and in the winter time to make all things needful in readiness for the business." On his way up the River St. Lawrence, he did not fail to pay a visit to the hospitable chief of Hochelai, now the Richelieu, to whom in remembrance of his former friendship and services, among other presents, he gave two young boys, that they might learn the language. With a fair wind they arrived at the first Sault above Hochelaga on the 11th September; and having in vain endeavored to pass it in one of the boats doubly manned, they landed and found a portage, which conducted them to the second Sault. These Saults are described as three in number; and form what is now called the Sault St. Louis, between Montreal and Lachine. They found the inhabitants well disposed and hospitable, serving them as guides and supplying them with pottage and fish. Having obtained all the information he could extract by signs as well as words, and having been told of a great Lake above the Saults, Cartier returned to the place where he had left the boats at the commencement of the first rapid. Here they found a large concourse of the natives to the amount of about four hundred, who treated them in a friendly manner; and with whom they exchanged presents. Cartier, however, appears now to have distrusted the Indians whenever


they appeared in numbers; and satisfied with the knowledge he had acquired of the rapids, he prepared to return to the winter quarters at Charlesbourg Royal. On the descent of the river, he again stopped at the dwelling of the Chief of Hochelai, who was absent at Stadacona; whither, as Cartier afterwards. found, he had proceeded to concert with the other tribe what they should do against the French.


We now come to another highly interesting portion of local history. It has been stated that the old historians were apparently ignorant of this last voyage of Cartier. Some place the establishment of the fort at Cape Breton, and confound his proceedings with those of Roberval. The exact spot where Cartier passed his second winter in Canada is not mentioned in any publication that we have seen. The following is the description given of the station in Hakluyt: "After which things, the said captain went with two of his boats up the river, beyond Canada" the promontory of Quebec is meant— "and the port of St. Croix, to view a haven and a small river which is about four leagues higher; which he found better and more commodious to ride in, and lay his ships, than the former ...... The said river is small, not passing fifty paces broad, and ships drawing three fathoms water may enter in at full sea; and at low water there is nothing but a channel of a foot deep or thereabout...... The mouth of the river is towards the south, and it windeth northward like a snake; and at the mouth of it towards the east there is a high and steep cliff, where we made a way in manner of a pair of stairs, and aloft we made a

fort to keep the nether fort and the ships, and all things that might pass as well by the great as by this small river." Who that reads the above accurate description will doubt, that the mouth of the little river CAP ROUGE was the station chosen by Jacques Cartier, for his second wintering place in Canada? The original description of the grounds and scenery on both sides of the River Cap Rouge is equally faithful, with that which we have extracted above. The precise spot on which the upper fort of Jacques Cartier was built, afterwards enlarged by Roberval, has been fixed by an ingenious gentleman of Quebec, at the top of Cap Rouge height, a short distance from the handsome villa and establishment of Henry Atkinson, Esquire. There is at the distance of about an acre to the north of Mr. Atkinson's house a hillock of artificial construction, upon which are trees indicating great antiquity; and as it does not appear that any fortifications were erected on this spot, either in the war of 1759, or during the attack of Quebec by the Americans in 1775, it is extremely probable that here are to be found the interesting site and remains of the ancient fort in question.

On his return to the Fort of Charlesbourg Royal, the suspicions of Cartier as to the unfriendly disposition of the Indians were confirmed. He was informed that the natives now kept aloof from the fort, and had ceased to bring them fish and provisions as before. He also learned from some of the men who had been at Stadacona, that an unusual number of Indians had assembled there-and associating, as he always seems to have done, the idea of danger with any concourse of the natives, he resolved to take all necessary precautions, causing every thing in the fortress to be set in order.

At this crisis, to the regret of all who feel an interest in the local history of the time, the relation of Cartier's third voyage abruptly breaks off. Of the proceedings during the winter which he spent at Cap Rouge, nothing is known. It is probable that it passed over without any collision with the natives, although the position of the French, from their numerical weakness, must have been attended with great anxiety.


It has been seen that Roberval, notwithstanding his lofty titles, and really enterprising character, did not fulfil his engagement to follow Cartier with supplies sufficient for the settlement of a colony, until the year following. By that time the Lieutenant General had furnished three large vessels chiefly at the King's cost, having on board two hundred persons, several gentlemen of quality, and settlers, both men and women. He sailed from Rochelle on the 16th April, 1542, under the direction of an experienced pilot, by name John Alphonse, of Xaintonge. The prevalence of westerly winds prevented their reaching Newfoundland until the 7th June. On the 8th they entered the road of St. John, where they found seventeen vessels engaged in the fisheries. During his stay in this road, he was surprised and disappointed by the appearance of Jacques Cartier, on his return from Canada, whither he had been sent the year before with five ships. Cartier had passed the winter at the fortress described above; and gave as a reason for the abandonment of the settlement, "that he could not with his small company withstand the savages

which went about daily to annoy him." He continued, nevertheless, to speak of the country as very rich and fruitful. Cartier is said, in the relation of Roberval's voyage in Hakluyt, to have produced some gold ore found in the country, which on being tried in a furnace, proved to be good. He had with him also some diamonds, the natural production of the promontory of Quebec, from which the Cape derived its name. The Lieutenant General having brought so strong a reinforcement of men and necessaries for the settlement, was extremely urgent with Cartier to go back again to Cap Rouge, but without success. It is most probable that the French, who had recently passed a winter of hardship in Canada, would not permit their Captain to attach himself to the fortunes and the particular views of Roberval. Perhaps, the fond regret of home prevailed over the love of adventure; and like men who conceived that they had performed their part of the contract into which they had entered, they were not disposed to encounter new hardships under a new leader. In order, therefore, to prevent any open disagreement, Cartier weighed anchor in the course of the night, and without taking leave of Roberval, made all sail for France. It is impossible not to regret this somewhat inglorious termination of a distinguished career. Had he returned to his fort, with the additional strength of Roberval, guided by his own skill and experience, it is most probable that the colony would have been destined to a permanent existence. Cartier undertook no other voyage to Canada; but he afterwards completed a sea chart, drawn by his own hand, which was extant in the possession of one of his nephews, Jacques Noël, of St. Malo, in 1587 who seems to have taken great interest in the further developement

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