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by the way of Catalonia. The letter, upon motion, was brought to the Cortes and read. After acknowledging the letter from the Regency, and expressing his satisfaction with the nation's wishes for his return, which was no less his desire, in order to promote the felicity of his subjects, he mentioned his intention of proceeding as above stated, and concluded, “with regard to the re-establishment of the Cortes, of which the Regency speak to me in their letter, as well as every thing that may have been done in my absence usefully to the kingdom, it will always merit my approbation, as conformable to my royal intentions.” . The letter was received with great applause; but during the reading, at the word subjects, in Spanish vasallos, a voice interrupted the secretary, saying, “we are not vassals P’ A kind of apology was made for the use of this term, as proceeding from the king's ignorance of the constitution, by Senor Arispe, who made a motion for inviting the Regency to adopt the necessary measures for the king's taking the oath to the constitution, which was approved. At length, on March 24th, Ferdinand arrived at Gerona, whence he sent a letter to the Regency, written with his own hand. It contained a general assurance of his wishes to do every

thing that might conduce to the

welfare of his subjects, and an expression of his happiness on finding himself on his own territory, amidst a nation and an army which had displayed so generous a fidelity towards him. A letter from general, Copons, the com

mander in chief of Catalonia, mentioned that his Majesty had been escorted to the left bank of the river Fluvia, by marshal Suchet with a detachment of French troops, and that having crossed the river with a suite of Spaniards only, he had been attended to Gerona by the general. The following circumstance was communicated to the Cortes by . order of the Regency. Marshal Suchet had wished to stipulate with gen. Copons, that the possession of the king's person should serve as a guaranty for the delivering up to the marshal of the French garrisons of the fortresses not yet in the hands of the Spaniards, as well as those of Lerida, Monzon, and Mequinenza; but as this proposal might have added 20,000 men to the French armies opposed to lord Wellington, the General had eluded it, and ob-, tained the person of Ferdinand without acceding to such a demand. The thanks of the Cortes were in consequence voted to him. In Madrid the greatest rejoicings were made on the intelligence of the king's return, in which all ranks and parties appeared to concur. His entrance into Saragossa on April 6th, was attended with the same manifestations of general joy. He proceeded on the 11th for Valentia, accompanied by the Infant Don Carlos; and nothing as yet appeared externally to disturb the feelings of national satisfaction in his extraordinary restoration. Another renovation of the ancient order of things effected by the prevalence of the allied arms, was that of the replacement of the head of the Roman Catholic Church.

upon his seat of authority. The very first act of the French provisional government was an order, that all obstacles to the return of the Pope to his own territories should be instantly removed, and every honour be paid him on his journey. His Holiness accordingly proceeded for Italy, and

having arrived at Viterbo, stopped at that place till the exiled cardinals could be assembled in order to attend him on his solemn entrance into Rome. The important consequences of this event will afford interesting matter for the remaining history of the year.

CHAPTER IV.

Affairs of Norway-Treaties of Denmark with Sweden aud England— Feelings of the Norwegians—Prince Christian Frederick repairs to , Christiana—His Reception—Proceeds to Dromtheim—Returns to Christiana, and is declared Regent—His Proclamations—Count Rosen's Mission from Sweden—Address of the King of Denmark to the Norwegians—Mr. Anker's Deputation to England—Notification of the Blockade of Norway by the English—Parties in Norway— Diet–Christian proclaimed King, and the Diet dissolved—Mr. Morier, Envoy from England—Delegation from the three Allied Powers—Armistice proposed and rejected—State Papers—Envoy's Return and Preparation for War—Proclamation of the Crown Prince of Sweden to the Norwegians—Commencement of Hostilities—Norwegian Flotilla retreats—Swedes cross the Frontier—Actions—Frederickstadt capitulates—Further Success of the Swedes—Frederickstein bombarded—Preparations to surround Christian's Army—He resigns—Convention at Moss—Christian's Proclamation to the Norwegians—Tumult at Christiana—State of Affairs before the Convention—The Diet assembled—Christian's Departure—Election of the King of Sweden to the Crown of Norway—Close of the Diet.

HILST the grand contest in France was proceeding in a manner that foreboded a speedy termination, a cloud was gathering in the North, which was to produce a new storm of war, and for a time retard the restoration of the general tranquillity of Europe. It was clearly discernible at the close of the last year that Denmark, deserted by the ally to whose fortune her's had unhappily been attached, and invaded by a force to which she had nothing adequate to oppose, had no other part to take than that of acquiescence in the conditions imposed upon her, of which the most galling was, undoubtedly, the resignation of that portion of her dominions to which she owed one of her crowns, and

a great part of her consequence. Her submission was sealed by treaties of peace concluded at Kiel, on January 14th, with the Sovereigns of Sweden and Great Britain. In the first of these, after a declaration of the renewal of peace and amity between Denmark and Sweden, the King of Sweden engages his mediation for the same purpose with Russia and Prussia; and, on the other hand, the King of Denmark engages to take an active part in the common cause against the French Emperor. The entire and perpetual cession of Norway by Denmark, and of Pomerania and the isle of Rugen by Sweden, is then declared, and reciprocal stipulations are made for the preservation of the rights and privi

leges of the ceded countries on both sides. The King of Sweden further promises to use his best endeavours with the Allied Powers, to procure for Denmark, at a general peace, a full equivalent for the cession of Norway. In the treaty with Great Britain, the articles in substance were, that all conquests were to be restored, with the exception of Heligoland, which was to remain in the possession of England; that the prisoners of war on both sides were to beliberated; that Denmark was to join the allied arms with 10,000 men, on the condition of a subsidy from England, of 400,000l. ; that Pomerania was to be ceded to Denmark in lieu of Norway; that Stralsund was to continue a depôt for British produce; that Denmark was to do all in her power for the abolition of the slave trade; and that England was to mediate between her and the other allies. The effect of these treaties, as far as related to the co-operation of the Danish troops with the army of the Crown Prince of Sweden, has been already noticed. But all difficulties with respect to these compacts were not overcome by the acquiescence of the King of Denmark. The people of Norway are well known to possess a high and independent spirit; and though they have long ceased to constitute a separate nation, and have been annexed to a monarchy which circumstances have rendered nearly absolute, they have been able to preserve constitutional privileges which, combined with their detached situation from the seat of government, have secured to them a considerable share of practical freedom. It was scarcely to be

expected that such a people would readily submit to be transferred, without asking their consent, to a new master; especially to the Sovereign of a country against which that national enmity had been long fostered, which usually exists between bordering neighbours. This dislike too, had recently been aggravated by the severe policy of Sweden, in intercepting all supplies of provision to Norway after a year of scarcity, the consequence of which is said to have been the death of 5,000 persons, in the diocese of Drontheim, of famine and disease. Their governor at this juncture was Christian Frederic, hereditary Prince of Denmark, and Duke of Schleswig Holstein, a

Prince apparently of an active and

enterprising character. On Jan. 18, an officer having arrived with the ratification of the treaty concluded between Sweden and Denmark, the Prince repaired to the country-seat of the Chamberlain, Mr. Carsten Anker, near Christiana, and on the 28th he assembled the most considerable persons, civil, military, and ecclesiastical, together with the merchants and deduties who were met to regulate the affairs of the national bank. After laying before them the treaty, he asked if it was their opinion that the people of Norway were disposed to assert their ancient independence against the claims of Sweden. Their answer was, unanimously, in the affirmative; and they earnestly besought the Prince to remain at the head of the Government, resolving, at the same time, to effect his nomination to the title of Prince Regent of Norway. The Prince, who doubtless had already settled his plans, immediately proceeded to the frontiers, thence to Roraas, and finally across the mountains to Drontheim. He was every where met by the people from the hills and valleys, in crowds, accompanied by their wives and children, who exclaimed, “We will conquer or die for old Norway's freedom,” adding, in their plain and affectionate mode of address, “Thou shalt not leave us.” On arriving at Gulbrandsthal, a pass, famous for the extermination of a band of Swedish invaders by the mountaineers, the Prince alighted at the marble pillar commemorating the event, and having read aloud the inscription in the words of an old ballad, “Woe to every Norwegian whose blood does not boil in his veins at the view of this monument l” he asked the surrounding peasants, if they were willing to imitate this noble example: and was answered by a thousand consenting shouts. Entering Drontheim, he alighted at the house of General Von Krogh, where the principal citizens were assembled at a solemn entertainment. The venerable host, 80 years of age, was unable, through infirmity, to join the company; but he caused himself to be led in at the close of the entertainment, and amidst universal acclamations, drank the health of Christian, as Regent. The Prince, after a stay of four days at Drontheim, returned to Christiana. On the following day all the bells of the city were rung, and the cannon were fired, the town guards and troops paraded the streets, and the Prince repaired to the principal church, where he took an oath as Regent of Norway. On Feb. 19th the 3Danish flag was taken down, a

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ing to stay among them and

hold the reins till an assembly of the most enlightened men of the nation should have formed a wise constitution, on whom it should depend whether he was to continue in the trust now reposed in him. The subject of another proclamation was, the abolition of privateering, and the relation which was to subsist between Norway and other nations. Its preamble acknowledged as a particular benefit conferred upon Norway by the King of Denmark, before he absolved the nation from its oath of allegiance, that he had iven it peace with Great Britain. t proceeded to declare Norway at peace with all Powers, except that which should violate its independence, or attack its frontiers; and to proclaim free access to all its ports to the ships of all nations, with the permission of importing every kind of merchandize by such vessels as should bring twothirds of their cargoes in grain or other provisions. On Feb. 24th, the Swedish Count, Axel Rosen, appeared at Christiana, commissioned to put

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