"In like manner did I not stick upon having this commiffion inrolled or affented unto by his Council, nor indeed the feal to be put unto it in an ordinary manner, but as Mr. Endymion Porter and I could perform it, with rollers and no fcrew-prefs.

"One thing I beseech your Lordship to obferve, that though I had power by it to erect a mint any where, and to difpofe of his Majefty's revenues and delinquents' eftates, yet I never did either to the value of a farthing, notwithstanding my own neceffities, acknowledging that the intention of thofe powers given me, was to make use of them when the armies fhould be afoot; which defign being broken by my commitment in Ireland, I made no ufe of thofe powers; and confequently, repaying now whatever was difburfed by any for patents of honour, as now I am contented to do, it will evidently appear that nothing hath ftuck to my fingers in order to benefit or felf-interest; which I humbly fubmit to his Majesty's princely confideration, and the management of my concerns therein to your Lordship's grave judgment, and to the care of me, which your Lordship was pleased to own was recommended unto you by the late King, my most gracious Master, of glorious memory; and the continuance thereof is most humbly implored and begged by me who am really and freely at your Lordship's disposal, firit, in order to his Majesty's fervice, and next to the approving myself,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's most really affectionate June 11, 1660. and most humble Servant,

WORCESTER." Dr. Scrope obferves, in a note, that this letter is decifive of the dispute concerning the authenticity of the commiffion granted to the Earl of Glamorgan. But, in the preface, he retracts this affertion, as too inconfiderately expreffed. The letter, he fays, does not prove the commiffion to be authentic, the proof there refting folely upon the veracity of the writer, a very interelied perfon. The Doctor takes notice, however, that the authenticity of the commiffion is abundantly confirmed by two letters from Sir Edward Hyde to Secretary Nicholas, and by a letter of Monf. Montreuil's to the King, all of which are inferted in this volume. The general fact, therefore, is now ascertained beyond contradiction, whatever credit be paid to fome of the particular circumstances mentioned by the Earl of Glamorgan.

We fhall close the prefent article, with a spirited letter of Lord Culpeper's, concerning the ftate of his Majesty's affairsin 1645-6.

The Lord Culpeper to Mr. John Ashburnham.

"This is again most earnestly to intreat you to bend all your wits to advance the Scotch treaty. It is the only way left to fave the crown and three kingdoms; all other tricks will deceive you. This is no age for miracles; and certainly the King's condition is fuch, that lefs than a miracle cannot fave him without a treaty, nor any treaty (probably) but that. If this take, the King will be in London in peace before Christmas. Therefore, if the opportunity I left in


your power be loft, give not over till you find another; and if you find it not, make it. It is no time to dally upon distinctions and criticisms. All the world will laugh at them when a crown is in question. If you can make the Scots your friends upon any honeft terms, do it. Remember, that kingdom united, and the North, and the King's friends at London, will quickly matter any oppofition which the independents can make. The queftion ought not to be, Whether, but how, you should do it. If you can engage a treaty, get a pafs for me, I will quickly be with you. Whether the King take my advice, or not, he will believe it to be the best counfel that ever was given him. The beft you can hope for in the Weft is a reprieve; Midfummer-day will not leave the King one town in it: Ireland will be a broken reed; neither can I believe much in Scotland without a treaty. As for foreign force, it is a vain dream. As foon as Fairfax advanceth, all the horfe here are in a net, without poffibility either to break through, or to fave themselves in our garrifons. The horfe loft, it will be impoffible ever to get up an army again: and if you faw us, you would believe we are not in condition to fight. The daily venture of the King's perfon will be great; fo will the hazard be of the Prince's efcaping beyond fea, if he should be put to it t and if he were there, it would be a fad condition; and if he were to fall into the rebels' hands, the King were undone, undone. If half your Scots news be true, the interest of that nation is clearly of your fide; and you may gain them, and thereby certainly fave the crown, if you will. But you must not stick upon circumftances, nor part unwillingly with what you cannot keep. Your treaty must not be an underhand one, (that will deceive you) but an avowed one with Lefley and Calander. As foon as they have promifed to protect the King's perfon and his prerogative, he is fafer with them than in Newcaffle. All that they can ask, or the King part with, is a trifle in refpect of the price of a crown. Dispute not whilft you fhould refolve; nor spend in debate that precious time which is only fit for action. This opportunity loft is not to be recovered. Ufe this bearer kindly. If there be a Scotch treaty, his Lord must be at one end of it, and will be very ufeful. He believeth this letter is wholly concerning his Lord. Send him fpeedily back; and write at large by him and all other ways to, &c.


[To be concluded in our next.]

ART. VII. Philofophical Tranfactions. Vol. LXII.
Davies. 1773.

4to.. 14s fewed.



E find, by an advertisement prefixed to this volume, that, in confequence of a refolution, at a council of the Royal Society, Jan. 28, 1773, the Philofophical Tranfactions will be publifhed twice in each year. Accordingly the volume before us, and the 1ft part * of vol. lxiii. have appeared

The volume for each year is for the future, to be published in two parts, under the diftinct titles of "First Part," and " Second Fart, of the volume.



within the fpace of a few months paft. The fixty-fecond volume, however, has the firft claim to a place in our Review; and we shall begin with thofe articles which relate to ASTRONOM Y.

Article 4. Extra of a Letter from Mr. George Witchell, F. R. S. and Mafter of the Royal Academy at Portsmouth, to Charles Morton, M. D. Sec. R. S. inclfing Jome Account of a Solar Eclipfe obferved at George's Ifland, by Captain Wallis; and several afronomical Obfervations made at Portfmouth.

This eclipfe was observed, on the 25th of July 1767, from a point of land, the latitude of which, deduced from the mean of many obfervations, is 17° 30' South; and the longitude, determined, by various obfervations of the distance of the fun from the moon, between 149° 30 and 149° 50' Weft from London. Mr. Witchell computes the longitude from the end of the eclipse, which feems to have been more exactly afcertained than the beginning, and finds it 9 h. 55′ 55′′ Weft from Greenwich, or 148° 58′, which is 41 lels than the mean refult of the Junar observations; a difference, all circumftances considered, not very great, as these were the firft obfervations that were ever made on this ifland.

The other observations contained in this article are those of meridian tranfits for determining the folftices and the oppofitions of the three fuperior planets. They were partly made by Mr. Bradley, and partly by Mr. Witchell. From a comparison of the former obfervations it appears that the true zenith diftance of the fun's center

At. the winter folftice is
And at the fummer folftice

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74° 16′ 13."4 27 19 51.6

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Hence the mean obliquity, Dec. 21,1770, is 23 28 June 21, 1771, 23 28 10.8 And from thefe obfervations the latitude of their observatory at Portsmouth appears to be 50° 48′ 2." 4 North.

Article 6. Directions for ufing the common Micrometer, taken from a Paper in the late Dr. Bradley's Hand-writing: Communicated by Nevil Mafkelyne, Aftronomer Royal, and F. R. S.

The firft ufe of micrometers was only that of measuring small angles, fuch as the diameters of the fun and moon, and other planets, and taking the diftance of fuch objects, as appeared within the aperture of the telescope at the fame time; but they have fince been contrived for more general use; and, in their


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later conftruction, anfwer the end of taking the difference of right afcenfion and declination of thofe objects, which, in their apparent diurnal motion follow one another through the telefcope, provided it be kept in the fame fituation. This paper contains very useful inftructions for applying the micrometer to every kind of observation, of which it is capable. It does not admit of an abridgment, and our limits will not allow us to infert the whole of it.

Article 9. A Deduction of the quantity of the fun's parallax from the Comparison of the feveral Obfervations of the late Tranfit of Venus, made in Europe, with thofe made in George Ifland in the South Seas Communicated by Mr. Euler, jun. Secretary of the Imperial Academy at Petersburg; in à Letter to Charles Morton, M. D. &c.

An abridgment of a differtation on this fubject written by M. Lexell, a member of the imperial academy, and to be inferted in the 16th volume of their Commentaries. By comparing feveral obfervations and applying the neceffary corrections, he makes the fun's parallax 8.′′ 55.

Article 14: A Letter from Mr. Peter Dollond to Nevil Mafkelyne, F. R. S. and Aftronomer Royal; defcribing fome Additions and Alterations made to Hadley's Quadrant, to render it more serviceable at Sea.

The principal improvements introduced by Mr. Dollond in the conftruction of Hadley's quadrant, relate to the methods of adjusting the glaffes for the back obfervation. For this purpose he applies an index to the back horizon glass, by which it may be moved into a parallel pofition to the index glafs: and by moving this index exactly 90°, the glafs is fet at right angles to the index glass, and is properly adjusted for ufe. In order to fix the horizon glaffes in a perpendicular pofition to the plane of the instrument, he has contrived to move each of them by a fingle fcrew, that goes through the frame of the quadrant, and which may be turned by means of a milled head at the back, while the obferver is looking at the object. Mr. D. has likewife placed the darkening glaffes, propofed by the Aftronomer Royal, in fuch a manner, that they may be eafily turned behind either of the two horizon glaffes; and of thefe there are three different fhades.

Article 15.

*Remarks on the Hadley's Quadrant, tending principally to remove the Difficulties which have hitherto attended the Ufe of the Back-Obfervation, and to obviate the Errors that might arife from a Want of Parallelifm in the two Surfaces of the Index-Glafs. By Nevil Mafkelyne, F. R. S. &c.

See the Nautical Almanack for 1774.


Some method of facilitating the back-observation in the use of Hadley's quadrant, is abfolutely neceffary to the perfection of this useful inftrument. In order to this, the back horizon-glass muft be carefully adjusted and the fight must be directed parallel to the plane of the quadrant. Mr. Dollond has contrived to obviate the first difficulty by a new conftruction, of which we have given a brief account in the preceding article. The proper adjustment of the line of fight, or axis of the telescope, is the fubject of this article. If the quadrant be not fitted with a telescope, a director of the fight fhould by no means be omitted: but when a telescope is used, the exact pofition of it is a matter of great importance; and therefore Mr. M. has fuggefted feveral directions for this purpofe. He recommends an adjusting piece to be applied to the telescope, in order to make its axis parallel to the plane of the quadrant; the filvering of the back horizon-glass; and the placing of two filver thick wires within the eye-tube in the focus of the eye glafs, parallel to one another and to the plane of the quadrant. He then propofes two methods for bringing the axis of the telescope into a pofition parallel to the plane of the quadrant. In the fequel of the paper there are many inftructions and remarks, that may be of great ufe, both to thofe who make and to thofe who ufe this inftrument.

Article 24. A Letter from John Call, Efq; to Nevil Mafkelyne, F. R. S. Aftronomer Royal, containing a Sketch of the Signs of the Zodiac, found in a Pagoda, near Cape Comorin in India.

This letter is attended with a drawing, taken from the cieling of a Choultry or Pagoda at Verdapettah in the Madurah country. The cieling is of a fquare figure, from the center of which is fufpended by two hooks a throne on which the Deity. or Swamy,fits, when exhibited to the worshippers. In the fides and at the angular points are delineated the figures of the 12 figns of the Zodiac: Aries and Taurus are to the Eaft; Gemini in the South Eaft angle; Cancer and Leo to the South; Virgo in the South-Weft corner; Libra and Scorpio to the Weft; Sagittarius to the North-Weft; Capricornus and Aquarius to the North, and Pifcis to the North-East. Mr. Call informs us, that he has often met with detached pieces of this kind, but with only one so complete. And he conjectures, that the Signs of the Zodiac now in ufe among Europeans were originally derived from the Indians by Zoroafter and Pythagoras; and as these philofophers are still spoken of in India under the names of Zerdhurst and Pyttagore, he fuggefts the idea, that the worship of the cow, which ftill prevails in that country, was transplanted from thence into Egypt. He thinks it may be fafely pronounced that no part of the world has more marks of antiquity for arts, fciences, and cultivation, than the Penin


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