« ForrigeFortsett »
the sacred historian : “ And there came two bears out of the wood and tore forty and two children of them.” Now whether our beast did not do violence to an equal or a greater number, let the accounts of the Foundling-Hospital declare.— And his mouth was as the mouth of a lion.-Strikingly confirmed again, in that he roareth against Daniel. And the dragon gave him his power, and his feat, and great authority.--Now this dragon is ftrialy symbolical of the mob, which is always personified by some fierce beast, and which gave unto him these things.
3. And I faw one of his heads, as it were wounded to death, and bis deadly wound was healed, and all the world wondered after the beaft. All this too is perfectly accomplished by the diffention that arose between Jacobus Hoppicus, one of the heads, and the beast, wherein the former received many deadly wounds indeed, but they were all healed, and all the world wondered after the beast.
4. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beafl; that in verity they did, even unto idolatry, calling it worthy and independent, and uncorrupt, and virtuous and honourable ;- And they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who can make war with him ? 'O marvellous completion of the prophecy! With mine ears have I heard these their barbarous shouts, Wilkes for ever! Who is like Wilkes? Who can fight with Wilkes?
5. And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things, and blafphemy, and he opened his mouth in blafphemy. -As this hath been verified and confirmed by the decision of the legislature, incredulity itself muft own that this prophecy hath been fulfilled, and that Wilkesius is indubitably the very identical beast spoken of in the Apocalypse.
Many other passages, were there the least shadow of necessity for it, might be adduced in proof of this my expofition, such as his orders, when fitting alderman, to the bakers, plainly foretold in the 17th verse of the same chapter. 17. And that no man might buy or sell
, fave be that had the mark of the beast.
Again the squibs and crackers played off for him by the populace are predicted.
13. And be doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down
Blindness itfelf muft surely see the aptness of these prophecies, and the marvellous accomplilhment thereof.-I might proceed to further argument. The field unfoldeth itself afar, -but the coercive hand of Time is upon me, and with this my latest lucubration, my last bequeft unto the Christian world, I retire from the labours of the pen for ever,
ART. III. A general Idea of a Pronouncing Diationary of the Englife
Language, ou a Plan entirely new, With Observations on several
when he is obliged to pay a regard not only to the usual irritability of an author, but to his immediate and pecuniary interest. The work before us is to be considered not only in respect of its claim to literary fame, but as a proposal for the benefit of the Author : he must'therefore expect that the Public, as well as the Reviewers, will attend to it with rather more than common caution.
We are very willing to allow, to the tra&t now under consideration, its due praise. The general ideas of the Writer, though not new or peculiar to Mr. Walker, are nevertheless arranged and expressed in a judicious and decent manner. We think the Reader may judge, in a great measure, of the merit of this work, from the following quotation :
" When I reflected on the small satisfaction we could receive on this subject from works already published, even an attempt at an improvement was flattered with success. Pronunciation, confidered as a science, I faw was generally treated with contempt, and when authors condescended to give rules, it was always in the analytic way. A few general rules were laid down as applicable to particular words, and a few instances given where these rules take place, but the application of them to every other word was left entirely to the sagacity of the learner; who, in order to find out those rules that related to the pronunciation of a particular word, had no resource but reading a whole treatise with fuch care as to discover, by analogy, every Single word referred to in the general rule; so that the few general rules, and those very few and very general indeed, which are given in spelling- books and grammars, and sometimes prefixed to dictionaries, must be studied as a science before they can be extended to particular words, and therefore it is no wonder if so little attention is paid to them.
· The plan I have to offer aims at a quite opposite method; that is, it proceeds synthetically from parts to the whole. InAtead of supposing the inspector pre-acquainted with rules which are to direct him in his reasonings on every particular word, every word directs to such rules as relate to every part of its pronunciation. It will readily occur, on the flighteft confideration, that if the former method had been cultivated much beyond its present point, it must still be considerably inferior to
the latter, where the object of enquiry is not so much a whole language as particular words : for instead of giving rules which could never be brought down to every particular instance, an inverted but a natural order is adopted, which, by finding out the word, leads us to every rule that concerns the pronunciation of it. Thus, if I would know whether the s in conclufive is pronounced as an s pure or an zy I look at the word, and find not only that the former is the s in this word, but that every adjective of a similar termination has the sharp or hifling s, and tbat the reason of it seems founded on that distinction which custom has almost invariably made between the sounds of this letter in the termination of a noun and a verb.
• In order to give a fuller idea of the manner of explaining words and réafoning on them, I shall make an extract of one which is subject to a double pronunciation, and submit it to the judgment of the Reader.
ORTHOGRAPHY. .OR-THOG'RA-PHY, s. (A system of spelling; spelling with,
propriety.) « Or. as the conjunction or. (under which word the found of
o is explained.) 6thog. th, as in thank, rhymes bog. (under thank the sharp
Cound of th is explained.) ra. as a in ide-a, articulated by r. (under idea the a fol
lowing the accent is explained.) phy, ph. as in physic, rhymes fea. (under physica ph is shewn.
to be founded like f.) The unclaffical propensity we have to place the accent on polyfyllables as near the beginning as possible, and the temptation we are under to discover our knowledge of the component parts of words, are very apt to betray us into a different accentuation of the word orthography from that which is here given. We not unfrequently hear the accent placed on the first syllable ; and it is nothing but a certain compactness or unity of sound in the present mode of accentuation that has worn it into use. Those words, which are derived from the Greek, and are compounded of 2670s, have universally given into this enclitical accentuation, if I may call it ro, from the common word apology to the learned combination physicotheology. The same reason appears for a similar pronunciation of all those compounded of ypocou, which is that by placing the accent on the antepenultimate og, the word is pronounced as one, and therefore more agreeably to that unity of idea suggefted by the word, than if the stress were placed on the first and third syllables; for by dividing the accentual force on ortho and graphy, we give the word the found
and appearance of an adjective and a substantive, not sufficiently united to convey at once one complex idea. It is certain, however, that at first sight, the most plausible reasoning in the world seems to lie against the accentuation here given.. When we place the stress on the first fyHable, say our opponents, we indulge our own language in its favourite accent, and give a kind of subordinate stress to the third fyllable graph. Thus the word is divided as it were into its primitives, optos and jęzion, and those distinct ideas it contains are by this means conveyed, which must necessarily be confounded by the contrary mode; and that pronunciation of compounds, say they, must certainly be the best which best preserves the import of its simples. Nothing can be more specious than this reasoning, till we look a little higher than language, and consider its object; we shall then discovery that in uniting two words under one accent, fo as to form one compound term, we do but imitate the superior operations of the mind, which, in order to collect and convey knowledge, unite several simple ideas into one word. « The end of language,” says Mr. Locke, " is by short sounds to fignify with ease, and dispatch , general conceptions, wherein not only abundance of particulars are contained, but also a great variety of independent ideas are collected into one complex one, and that which holds these different parts togerher in the unity of one complex idea, is the word we annex to it. For the connexion between the loose parts of those complex ideas being made by the mind, this union which has no particular foundation in nature, would cease again were there not something that did as it were hold it together and keep the parts from scattering; though, therefore, it be the mind that makes the collection, 'tis the name which is as it were the knot which ties them fast together.” This reasoning, with respect to words and ideas, is so exactly applicable to accent and words, that we need but change the names to have an argument in form for that accentuation which unites the different parts of a word under one forcible pressure of the voice ; for, as Mr. Locke continues, “ Men, in framing ideas, seek more the convenience of language and quick dispatch by short and comprehensive figas; than the true and precise nature of things, and, therefore, he who has made a complex idea of a body with life, fense, and motion, with a faculty of reason joined to it, need but use the short monofyllable, man, to express all particulars that correspond to that complex idea.” So it may be subjoined, that in framing words for the purpose of immediate communication, the end of this communication is best answered by such a pronunciation as unites simples into one compound, and at the same time renders the compound as much a simple as poffible:
but it is evident that this is done by no mode of accentuation but that here adopred in the word orthography, and therefore that this accentuation, without insisting on its superior har mony, must best answer the great end of language.
• If a work of this kind seems to promise utitity, and the few specimens given of it make a favourable impremion, the Author will not hefitare a moment to commit it to the press, and con-. sign it to the candour of the Public; but though the fascination of a new discovery has for years confined him to the magic circle of this single subject, the enchantment is not strong enough to make him risque a publication of this bulk and 'expence on the countenance and encouragement of a few partial friends and acquaintance. If the Public, therefore, by their coldness, fufficiently advertise him of the futility of his project; he is ready to consign to oblivion what is unworthy of their notice, and acquiesce in the fentence of his country:
The Reader will see that Mr. Walket poffeffes many of those peculiar abilities which are necessary in such an undertaking; but we really know nor any Writer who is, in every respect, capable of giving us a pronouncing dictionary of the English language. Perhaps there is no man without fome little oddities, peculiarities, and even faulis, in his own pronunciation, of which he is fond, and which-he would not fail to infert in a. work of this kind. But if this were not the cafe; yer no at: tempt which we have ever seen has in the least altered our opinion that a proper and agreeable pronunciation can be taught only by the voice. Such a dictionary however as the Author proposes, might be of confiderable" service in allifting those English masters who teach our language to 'foreigners. But then, instead of being the work of one man,' we' think it should be prepared under such auspices as should render its decisions a law, in all those doubtful cases which are foʻperplexing both to' natives and foreigners. We must, nevertheless, suspend our judge ment of the claim which Mr. Walker's undertaking may have to the favour of the Public, till the Dictionary itself appears.. An advertisement printed at the end of this preliminary tract, assures the Public that the work is actually now ready for the press. It is intended to be comprized in two volumes, 4to. Subscription One Guinea and an Half.
ART. IV, Philosophical Transactions. Vol. LXH. Part. 1.
4to." 7 s. 6 d. sewed. Davis. 1773.
ASTRONOMY. Article 11. Astronomical Observations made at Chifehurf in Kent;
by the Reverend Francis Woolafton, F. R. S. HIS paper contains an account of the time' kept by an
astronomical clock, with a wooden pendulum; a register of the thermometer and barometer : together with observations