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lih conftitution by a wretch who wishes its destruction, whofe principles are inimical to the virtues which support it, is less tolerable than his open execration. The foulent breach of lander from an avowed enemy, is perfume, when compared with that of a treacherous friend ; the praise of lying lips and a deceitful heart. As it is to be hoped this is not the current ttyle of patriotism in South Carolina, we shall wait until the subject is handled in a more cleanly manner. Art. 26. Two Chapters of the last Book of Chronicles; Six Letters

to the good People of England, and several other Pieces, relative to the Dispute between Englishmen in Europe and in America. By an Old English Merchant. 8vo. I S, Almon, &c. 1774.

Collected from the news papers, and prefaced by the Author of the most considerable of the Pieces contained in the Pamphlet, viz. the two new chapters of Chronicles; in which the style of the oriental Chronicles is pretty well imitated. This Old English merchant is a friend to New England, &c. He thus apologizes for the liberty taken with the ftyle of the scriptures : It may be objected, that the fcripture style ought not to be trilled with ; but if it is considered that the public attention seemed to be in a lethargic ftatė, that something seemed necessary to rouse it, and, also, that the subject is as confequential to a whole people, confitting of several millions, as that of the children of Israel in the days of old could be to them, the objection perhaps may appear greatly abated. This is but indifferent writing ; but the meaning may be made ous.

POLITICAL. Art. 27. The Substance of the Evidence delivered to a Committee of

the Honourable House of Commons by the Merchants and Fraders of London, concerned in the Trade to Germany and Holland, and of the Dealers in Foreign Linens, as fummed up by Mr. Glover. To which is annexed, his Speech, introductory to the Proposals laid before the Annuitants of Meff. Douglas, Heron, and Co. at the King's-Arms Tavern, Cornhill, on the oth of February 1774. 8vo,

1 s. 6d. Wilkie. Mr. Glover has, at an advanced stage of life, exerted himself in a laudable manner, to investigate and explain the late complaints concerning the linen manufacture, and he has traced them up to a cause which a superficial observer would not have reached. His language is, indeed, rather too Aorid * for a fubject relating to dry matters of fact. To this we may add, that the speech seems to have been transmitted to the press with all the imperfections incident to oral delivery, without those necessary corrections which it ought to have received before it was published. Mr. Glover's general opinion on This important fubje£t, will appear in the following extract:

• In all commercial nations, whenever moderation and frugality bave yielded to extravagance and ambition, wants have been created,

Mr. Gloyer is no less eminent as a poet than as a merchant and politician; our Readers will, therefore, be the less apt to wonder at the declamatory and lowery lyle of his oration. See his Leonidas, Boadicea, &c. li 4


which common profits could not supply; those wants have been the parents of projects, and a rasli, aspiring spirit of enterprise has overborne the sober temper of regular trade. This restless and intemperate fpirit has been predominant among one people, distinguished by a series and variety of recent projects concerted without knowledge, without forecast, without system, executed by rashness, terminating in ruin, almost total to themselves, and detriment almost general among their suffering neighbours. It is from this quarter, we have seen ftupendous' undertakings in buildings, in the cultivation of remote islands, in manufactures upon no other certainty, than an enormous and insupportable expence. It is from this quarter we have seen projects of avarice, of rapacity, productive of milery and depopulation under the mistaken name of improvements. It is from this quarter, that the great markets of trade have been glutted by wild commercial adventurers under the delufion of a temporary but false capital : but above all, the banking adventure is filled moit with the marvellous. That part I shall not detail, merely to avoid an imputation readily thrown upon me, an imputation of amusing the committee with poetic fiction ; but thus much I must say, in one period, that if a certain celebrated Spanish author could revive to exhibit his-hero under the new character of a banker, he might spare his invention every kind of labour, as recent and indubitable facts in our own island could furnish incidents, every one at least opon a par with his windmills :

: yet, Sir, could that most sagacious person travel over that land of projects, and converse with its inhabitants, he would find amonga them erudition and science, jurisprudence, theology, history, oratory-in short, Sir, every sense but that common fort, opon which all worldly welfare, both public and private, depends, by a just application of the elements of trade, manufactures, money and credit to rational and practical improvements, a system yet to be learned by that scientific, lettered, and eloquent nation. Sir, I will now effay to excite your astonishment; these numerous undertakings, I think jusly termed ftupendous, were attempted, nearly at once in the same period, were carried on at the expence of sums incredible, and yet the projectors had no capital of their own. They had, Sir, I prefume, a second fight of immense acquisitions, and one would think pursued their plan by fome supernatural aid. Sir, what they did will not be credible to pofterity; the universe never furnished a people that ever made such a gigantic attempt at the attribute of Omnipotence in creation ; absolutely they created millions of money out of nothing; by a certain alchymy, which they posle fied, they extracted millions of hard money out of the pliant purse of their neighbours, and at the same time ruined theinícives. This operation, Sis, is called Paper Circulation.

• My honourable hearers are above the want or use of such an operation ; to suppose them therefore unacquainted with it, I mean a compliment to them and an apology for myself in giving some brief explanation of it.

A knot of projeclors at one end of the island, send up immeasurable quantities of this enchanted paper to their brethren, their countrymen, projectors like themselves, settled at the other end, These, Sir, by their magical tip of the pen, called acceptance and


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indorsement, instantly converted this paper into money to any amount by what is called discount; the first produce was instantly absorbed by the projects in hand, a second must be provided equal to the first, to discharge the first set of bills when due ; else the spell would be immediately broken: a second set was sent up and converted into money the same way, and applied to discharge the first. A third the second, a fourth the third, and so on.

« Children in sport can make a circulation upon water by the caft of a stone, and by that repetition can keep it up for a while; but the child knows, he cannot make it everlasting: this was not known to the man of the North, whose infatuation adopted the chimera of the South-sea year, that credit was infinite. For example ; Sir, one fociety only in the midst of all this desolation, which remains to be defcribed, had drained a certain capital of fix hundred thousand pounds in hard money, in exchange for a nominal value in paper; it cost them about nine per cent, to raise that sum, in order to be lent out at five ; and there were among their managers, who looked upon this, Sir, as profit (nobody will dispute what I say upon this head) and that the more this paper was extended the better, a bubble, fcarce to be matched in the 1720, of one country, and in despite of all experience then, or fince, reserved to diftinguish the other in -1772. In short, Sir, such was the inexplicable coincidence of circumstances, that what with the intrepid perseverance of one kingdom, in borrowing, and what with the torpid facility of the other, in lending, a chain of circulation was established, which comprehended bo:h the capitals and most of the intermediate places ; a chain growing in size weekly and daily, induring for the two whole years 1770 and 1771, down to June 1772, when one link gave way—the charm was instantly diffolved, leaving behind it confternation' in the

place of confidence, and imaginary affluence changed to real want and distress ; a torrent of ruin from the North, forced a paffage into your capital, into the most secret depositories of treasure; a run was felt by your bankers, successive falls of houses in trade, eminent at Jeast for the wildness and immensity of their transactions, became the daily, the hourly news; an universal diffidence ensued; credit feemed withering to the root; a general stagnation prevailed in every branch of trade and manufacture; the commercial genius of your island languished in every part. For a single manufacture in that part, whence the evil took its rise, to have escaped, would have been a wonder bordering upon prodigy.'

Mr. Glover is throughout very severe on Scots projectors, Scots bankers, and Scots smugglers and has poffeffed himlelf of a variety of facts to support his representations : but these having been laid before parliament, and being long in the detail, we muit refer our Readers to the pamphlet, for more particular satisfaction. Art. 28. A Letter to the Right Honourable Frederick Lord North, Evo.' is. Bell, &c.

1774. An high ftrained panegyric on the conduct of our premier. The Author declaims with rapture on the principal events of Lord North's administration ; but no great fatisfaction, we apprehend, can accrue to the reader from such promiscuous praise of a statesman; and little



2 S.

credit, therefore, can redound to either the Author or his patron, from this publication. Art. 29. Principles of Trade. Fredom and Protection are its beff

Suport: Induftry, the only Means to render Manufactures cheap, of Coins, Exchange, and Bountys ; particularly the Bounty on Corn. By a Well-wisher * to his King and Country. With an Apendix. Containing Reflections on Gold, Silver, and Paper pafing as Mony. The second Edition core&ted and enlarged. 400,

Brotherton and Sewell. 1774. The first circumstance observable in this tract, is an affected un. couch fingularity in spelling. This, in an individual, appears to be affuming an unwarrantable authority over language, which at least required an apology, with the reasons, if the writer really had any to offer, for thus disgusting, if not embarralling, his readers.

If this gentleman had any system of orthography, fome degree of confiftency would be preserved in it; and at Airft fight we thought be aimed at accommodating his words to pronunciation, which, however it might debase our language, would be pursuing fome end: but his antipathy to double letters, which is his most diftinguishing prejadice, is gratified equally in defiance both of orthography and orthoëpy. Thus there being no offensive letters in the word principles, he condescends to write it like other people; but finding the word endless terminated by two consonants, he clips off one and reduces the word to endles : now by analogy, endles would be pronounced conformable to candles, or to his own acceptation of principles, the firit word in his title ; whereas the double s, indicates that the last {yllable is to have its full sound terminating with a tharp or close s. From hence it appears that our Author has an indisputable claim to origioality, and is not, as we at firit imagined, a serious dupe to some of Dean Swise's sportful pranks with the English language.

Palling from the manner to the matter, it will be sufficient to observe in general, that the principles here epitomised are such as are already well known and adopted. The Author indeed subscribes to an in human fophiftical maxim that has become fashionable of late, which is, that cheapness of provisions causes the poor to be idle; therefore provisions 'must be dear to make them industrious. It is a much clearer maxim in politics, that as the natural consequence of oppression is to discourage popuļation, plenty and cheapness of the neceffaries of life will favour an increase of the people. If the means of living are easily acquired, the poor will not be frightened from matrimonial connexions; and their industry mụft keep pace with the increafe of their families. On the other hand, if the na. tural propenfities of mankind are checked by hardships they see ng prospect of surmounting, their inclinations take a depraved targ, and they are rendered profligate by despair. But we have already inGifted on this point, on former occasions.

It is a leading, and a good principle with our Author, that the success of trade depends on protection and freedom': that commerce

* This error of the Press certainly escaped the Attention of che Writer, who throughout the Tract, conftantly writes wel. 5

ought ought to be protected, but left free from restraint to regulate itself. In his own proper dialect it would land to this effect. Al I purpos to sugest in this litle esay is, that les il wil folow from sufering comirce to purju its fre cours, than from abriging its fredom, and puting varios and endles restraints to diftres and criple ibe endevors of the induftrias. I ofer the discusion of these maters to lefen the comon prejudices, and pafons of mankind, and poses them with a truth I am solicitous they shou'd atend to, which is, that it is uterly imposible for rrafic to floriss bapily upon narow principles.

The ftyle of the above imitation is indeed subservient to the purpose of introducing as large a specimen of the Author's mode of spelling, as could be exhibited in a small compass; and he will not tax us with injustice. After all, it is mortifying to observe the inconsistency and frailty of buman nature ! Here is for instance an ho. nelt well disposed gentleman, (as we really thought) who argues very properly for preserving a pure itandard in our coin; but who never. theless feels no compunction in filing and clipping our current words in broad day light; and who is openly convicted of adulterating the Nandard of the English tongue. So hard is it to acquire a thorough knowledge of the human heart, and so little are mankind to 'be trusted!

The title page of this whimsical tract, declares it to be a second edition ; but we do not remember to have seen it before, and we should certainly have recollected it. From the peculiarities in which the Author indulges himself, we apprehend he is no common writer in any sense of the word: the frit edition may therefore have consisted only of a few copies, and circulated among his private friends, without being advertised; or might have been soon called in to receive its present improvements, It is not easy to account for a second impreflion on the commox principles of trade. Art. 30. The Chains of Slavery. 'A Work wherein the Clan

deftine and Villainous Attempts of PRINCES to ruin Liberty, are pointed out, and the dreadful Scenes of DESPOTIS M. disclosed. To wbich is prefixed an Address to the Electors of Great Britain, in order to draw their Timely Attention to the Choice of Proper REPRESENTATIVES in the next PARLIAMENT. 410. 12 s, sewed. Payne. 1774.

There are many important observations in this work, respelling the principles and practices of Despotism, by which nations are brought to slavery and ruin.

This performance is intended as an alarm-bell, to roafe and terrify Ps.

The person who pulls the rope, tugs it with all his might, and puts himself into a violent heat; like a fiery, ill-broken fteed, who prances, chafęs, and frets, without making much progrels on the toad.

In plain language, the Author, though he posesses a considerable fund of knowlege relative to his subject, writes with too much intemperance, and too little regard to decency, to effect any great good by a publication, the very title-page of which is enough to prejudice all bat the loweft of the volgar again't him: and we may, indeed, refer to it, as a sufficient specimen of the writer's manner of freating the lord's anointed, and ihe rulers of the people,


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