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was not introduced into the western parts of Europe, 'till about the middle of the 17th century: the Venetians were the first who imported it, and the custom of drinking it in France, (at Paris in particular) was established in the year 1669, during the stay of the Ambaffador from Sultan Mahomet the fourth in that city. The first ufe of coffee in London, was earlier than at Paris: for in 1652, the Greek fervant of a Turky merchant opened a house for the fale of it in George Yard, Lombard Street. The first mention that is made of it in the ftatute books is, in the year 1660, when a duty of four-pence was laid on every gallon of coffee made and fold, to be paid by the maker: And in 1675, King Charles issued a proclamation, to fhut up the coffee-houfes, because they were seminaries of fedition. As to the culture of coffee, we shall only obferve, that, in 1727, the French conveyed fome plants to Martinico; from whence it molt probably fpread to the neighbouring iflands: for, in the year 1732, it was cultivated in Jamaica, and an act paffed to encourage it's growth in that ifland. We fhall conclude this article with a few obfervations; extracted from a letter written by Dr. Fothergill to the Author.
"In respect to real ufe, and as a part of our food, I have no evidence to induce me to think that coffee is inferior to tea. That, in respect to the national economy, the benefit of our colonies, and the lives of the seamen, every circumftance concurs to give coffee the preference. It is raifed by our fellow, fubjects, paid for by our manufactures, and the produce ultimately brought to Great Britain. That the great obftacle to a more general ufe of coffee is, the very high duty and excife." (Not lefs than one fhilling and ten-pence per pound weight.)That leffening the duty would not leffen the revenue; fmuggling would be difcouraged, and an increafed confumption would make up the deficiency to the treafury. The planters would be induced to cultivate coffee with more care, was there a better market for it. That, as little planters might be enabled to fubfift by raifing coffee, &c. their numbers would increase, and add to the ftrength of the feveral iflands; as Europeans might endure the labour requifite for cultivation
Art. 40. The Grammarian's Vade-mecum, or Pocket companion: Difpofed in Alphabetical order. Defigned as an affiftance to the Memory of young Beginners; and alfo as a ready Method of recovering a perfect Knowledge of Grammar, when it has been loft through inattention, or want of practice. By a private Tutor. 12mo. 1s. Bound. Brown. 1774.
Thofe perfons who are unacquainted with the meaning of the terms of grammar, will find this little book to be of ufe, as it will furnish them eafily with this knowledge. By having it continually with them, they will generally be enabled to understand terms of this kind, which may occur either in reading or converfation. The Author adds a very fhort dialogue toward the end of his performance, in which he directs the fuppofed young lady his pupil, to lay in a store of fynonimous words, that the may not be obliged always to exprefs the fame idea juft in the fame manner, without attending to which, he fays, a miferable barrennefs or want of ingenuity, will manifeft itself in conversation and in writing. He offers fome inftances to illuf
trate his obfervation, which on the whole is just but it may at the fame time be proper that pupils fhould be guarded againft, a multiplicity of words, while there is a barrenness of ideas, and also against that great nicety and scrupulofity which produces a precife and formal manner of writing and converfing, much more disgusting than any little inaccuracies of expreffion.
Art. 41. Familiar Letters, on a Variety of important and interesting Subjects. From Lady Hariet Morley, and others. 8vo. 5 s. Cadell. 1774.
There is fo much good fenfe in thefe letters, and fuch a variety of entertaining stories, fketches of characters, moral obfervations, &c. &c. that we are really forry to fee the language frequently dif graced by low phrases, and Scotticifms. Would the Writer procure, for a fecond edition, the corrections of fome friend, who is a perfect mafter of the English, his book, we doubt not, might gain the approbation of the public, and contribute, with the better fort of the novel kind, to the inftruction, as well as amufement of its readers. Art. 42. A Letter to the Solicitor-General: being an Appendix to a Pamphlet lately published, entitled, An Appeal to the Public, relative to a Caufe lately determined in the Court of Chancery; &c. Folio. 6d. Wheble.
Mr. Mawhood's appeal to the public was the fubject of Art. 35, in our last month's catalogue. In this fupplementary letter he fummons the Solicitor General, (who, he fays, was his leading counfel) before the bar of the public, charging him with having occafioned the fuppreffion, or misreprefentation, of certain proofs which were neceffary to the support of his caufe: to the great injury of this com plainant.
MATHEMATICAL and PHILOSOPHICAL. Art. 43. Brief Remarks upon Mr. Jacob's Treatife on Wheel-Carriages. By Daniel Bourn. 8vo. I S. Crowder. 1773:
An illiberal attack on Mr. Jacob, and on the committee of mechanics in the Society of Arts, &c. from which we can only learn, that Mr. B. feems to be very angry, and disposed to fall out with every body who comes in his way.
Four introductory Lectures in Natural Philofophy. 12mo. 2 S. Printed at Dublin, and fold in London by Nourfe.
Thefe lectures contain a compendious abstract of the fundamental principles of philofophy. The feveral Newtonian rules of philofophifing, the properties of matter, the laws of motion, and the powers that produce it, are familiarly and intelligibly explained; and the whole is comprized within a very fmall compafs. And though these sheets contain no new difcovery, they furnish a very useful introduction to the ftudent in philofophy, and not an unacceptable vade mecum to the more accomplished. They are by no means unworthy of that ingenious profeffor to whom, we fufpect, they may be ascribed, but rather add to the reputation he has already acquired. He concludes his fourth lecture with the following paragraph:
From the increase of motion in elastic bodies, a reafon may be drawn for the augmentation of found in speaking trumpets; for as
• Supposed to be the work of Dr. Hamilton of Dublin.
the fpeaking trumpet is narroweft at the mouth-piece, and thence widens and enlarges continually to the extremity, the air within it, which is an elaftic fluid, may be confidered as divided into a great number of cylindrical bodies of very small but equal altitudes, the bafis of the first being equal to the aperture of the trumpet to which the mouth is applied, and the bafis of the reft increafing one above another as they are more and more removed from the mouth; upon which account the motion that is impreffed by the force of the voice on the first cylindrical body of air, grows greater in the fecond, and greater fill in the third, and fo on, till at length, at the exit of the tube, it becomes fo great as to magnify the found very confiderably."
In page 80, lecture 3, there is a mistake, which has escaped either the tranfcriber or corrector of the prefs; for the excess of the equatoreal diameter above that of the polar is stated at 177 miles, and not, as it should bave been, at 34 miles.
Art. 45. A Treatise of Maritime Surveying. In two Parts. With a prefatory Effay on Draughts and Surveys. By Murdoch Mackenzie, Senior, late Maritime Surveyor in his Majesty's Service. 4to. 6s. Dilly. 1774.
A very complete and ufeful treatife, in which no inftructions are omitted that are either effentially or incidentally neceffary to the bufinefs of coaft furveying. And they have this confiderable advantage to recommend them, that they are the dictates of experience. The furveyor in general, and the practical aftronomer likewife, may derive many ufeful hints from this performance; though it is principally intended for the information of our nautical gentlemen.
In a country like ours, a fubject of this kind deferves particular attention; and yet it is a fubject which has been too generally ne. glected. It is no uncommon complaint, that many of our charts are notoriously defective and faulty were the teachers of navigation to enlarge their plan, and to make this branch of practical geometry the object of their ftudy and inftruction, many errors might be corrected by the navigators themselves, and many inconveniences and dangers might be avoided.
RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIAL.
Art. 46. The Book of Common Prayer reformed, upon the Plan of the late Dr. Samuel Clarke: together with the Pfalms of David; for the Ufe of the Chapel in Effex Street. 8vo. 48. Johnfan. 1774.
We cannot give a more fatisfactory account of this fpecimen of a reformed liturgy, than that which Mr. Lindfey, the Author, has himfelf given, at the end of his fermon preached at the opening of the chapel in Effex-houfe, April 17th, See Rev. for April, p. 334.
When the defign of a more fcriptural form of worship was first propofed to be put in practice, upon the plan of the late Dr. Samuel Clarke, fome friends advised to print the liturgy of the church of England, with his emendations, and to make use of it, exactly as he had left it. The fame has been fince much recommended by others, And it were to have been wished that this reformed liturgy might have come out quite fheltered under the name of that great man, and called intirely his,
But it would have been, an injury to his memory, to have propofed that for a juft model of public worship under his fanction, which he was very far from intending to be fuch.
His principal attention and care feem to have been employed in rectifying the great errors concerning the object of religious worship, which obtained in the national church, of which he was member, and one of its greatest ornaments. In doing this, he nobly ventured to follow the leading of holy fcripture, however contrary to the received doctrines; and blotted out or changed such prayers and invocations as were addressed to Christ, or the holy Spirit, and not to the One God, the Father.
In his examination of the book of Common Prayer, as he paffed along, he also noted and changed many of the fentiments and expreffions, which he judged improper or wrong.
But it fell not within his purpofe, to remark or cenfure fuch obvious imperfections of that book, which had been pointed out before by others, and could hardly escape the obfervation of any one, whenever it should come under a general review: I mean, the frequent return of the Lord's Prayer, and of the like requests in other prayers; the repetition of two Creeds, within a short space one after another; the confufion occafioned by what were at first three diftinct services, and repeated at different hours, being thrown all together, and blended into one +: from which it happens, that at the end of one part, we are difmiffed with a concluding prayer, and folemn bleffing, and immediately after begin the circle of our devotions again: faults thefe not of our ever honoured reformers, but of us, their lefs care. ful and more indolent fucceffors. These blemishes therefore, were of neceffity to be removed.
Some paffages retained by Dr. Clarke, have been omitted † ; and fome farther alterations and additions have been made: all which are fubmitted to the judgment of the ferious and diligent reader of holy fcripture. In the devotional part, wherever any change has been made, care has been taken not to lose that fimplicity of fentiment, and eafy flow of pious and natural eloquence, for which many parts of our antient liturgy are justly admired.
The occasional prayers and thanksgivings have been for the prefent omitted. Perhaps it may not be amifs always to reserve to the officiating minister, the liberty of introducing fuitable prayers of his own compofing, on fuch emergencies as can with difficulty be provided for before hand.
The obfervation of Chrifimas day, Good Friday, Eafter day, the Afcenfion, and Whitfunday; ftill kept up, as being memorials of the principal facts concerning our Saviour Chrift, and the establishment of his religion in the world. The faints days, as they are called, are fallen into almoft univerfal neglect, and ferve chiefly for civil purposes; fave that now and then they help to bring back a Proteftant
• The Morning Prayer was at first read at fix in the morning: the Communion Service at nine, or foon after; and a little before that, the Litany.
Thos, for example, the Obfecrations, as they are called, in the Litany, are left out: By the holy incarnation, &c. although Dr. Clarke changes them to be an addrefs to God, and not to
to the bofom of Popery, by their too near affinity to that mother of fuperftition and idolatries. They are therefore intirely left out.
The appointment of the Litany to be read only on fuch days as the Lord's Supper is adminiftred, correfponds with the order of the original compilers of the liturgy. For our ecclefiaftical hiftory informs us, that the Litany was defigned to be a kind of preparation to the Communion, and to be read a little before that office began.
The morning fervice, on the days that the Lord's fupper is administered, is fomewhat fhorter than at other times; and the introductory part of the Communion Service is laid afide as unneceffary; by which the whole is much abridged. And it is hoped, that all that join in the former, will attend the latter. For it is in itself moft unreasonable, and wholly unprecedented in the Apostles times, that any fhould join in the devotions of the church, and not join in receiving the Lord's Supper a part of those devotions; but not more facred than the reft, nor requiring any different religious difpofition of mind or preparation for it.
Dr. Clarke made many alterations in the Baptifmal office, which was much incumbered with a continual reference to the abftrufe metaphyfical doctrines of election and original fin. But he does not appear to have fufficiently difentangled it. A strict adherence to holy fcripture, and the fimplicity of the inftitution, has been aimed at in the additional parts of this fervice.
The promiscuous reading of the Pfalms having been long matter of complaint; the appointment of thefe, and of the Leffons, feems properly left to the difcretion of the minifter.'
We cannot take leave of this article in fitter terms than those which Mr. Lindsey has chofen for the motto to his fermon above quoted, viz.
"The true unity of Chriftians confifts not in unity of opinion in the bond of ignorance, or unity of practice in the bond of bypocrify, but in the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace."
Dr. Clarke's Sermons, vol. iii. p. 316. Art. 47. Religious Intolerance no part of the general Plan either of the Mofaic or Chriftian Difpenfation. Proved by fcriptural Inferences and Deductions, after a Method entirely new. 8vo. s. Gloucefter, printed by Raikes, and fold by Rivington in London. 1774It would have been of great advantage and honour to religion, if its advocates had generally poffeffed the fpirit and temper of Doctor Tucker. Our religious tenets are probably much influenced by our natural difpofitions; and every man whofe temper is not fo good as the Doctor's, will be inclined to difpute his principle. We, however, think it a candid and noble one; and hating perfecution of every fpecies, and under every pretence, we readily aflent to inferences and deductions. We fear there are not many of his brethren who will be pleafed with his charity, or be properly affected and improved by fuch fentiments as the following:
The upfhot of the whole is this: Reafon and perfuade, intreat and importune as much as you can: preach the word; be inftant in feafon, out of feafon, reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-fuffering and doctrine: but use no violence; and be content with those methods of propagating and preferving the gospel of Chrift which he himfelf both prefcribed and practifed. The wrath of man worketh not the righteoufnefs of God.'