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a lligas to the year of the world 3287, whereas according to Abp. Usher's account, it coincides with 3283: so that in this inttance, there is a difference of four years.

It would require more room than we can allot to an article, in which many of our readers will think themselves little intereited, co present the public, througin the medium of our journal, with the regular process of our Author's calculations, and to give them a fais opportunity of judging, how far we may rely on the principles which he adopts, and the method which he pursues. Dr. Blair, however, and some other aitronomers to whom the province of reviewing these letters primarily belongs, and who are addressed by Mr. K for this purpose, will, we apprehend, think it worth while to examine the juftness of his computations and conclusions. It is unquestionably of great importance to trace the correspondence of the Egyptian to the Julian year; and Mr. K-'s attempt will on this account be very favourably received. Art. 39. An Historical Account of Coffee. With an Engraving

and Botanical Defcription of the Tree. To wbich are added fundry Papers rela!ive to its Culture and Use, as an Article of Diet and of Commerce. Published by John Ellis. F. R. S. 410. (With the Print coloured, 4 s. 6 d.) Dilly. 1774.

We have no account of coffee earlier than the işth century: an Arabian manuscript informs us, that it was first introduced into Aden, a city of Arabia Felix, by mere accident, Gemaleddin, the mufti of this city, recollecting thật he had seen it used by his countrymen in Perfia, had recourse to it in an illness, and found great relief from it. Among other good effects he found that it prevented drowziness without doing injury to the constitution ; and on this account, he recommended it to the Dervises, to enable them to pass the night, with greater attention and zeal, in the exercises of devotion. His example gave it reputation, and it came into general use. Before this time, coffee was hardly known in Persia, and little used in Arabia, where the tree grew. From Aden it passed into several neighbouring towns, and was much used by the religious Mahometans. By degrees it was drank in great quantities at the public coffee. hooses, where the people assembled and pursued a variety of amusements, which gave offence to the rigid Mahometans : and government was obliged occasionally to interfere, and to restrain the use of it. In the year 1554, coffee became known to the inhabitants of Conftantinople, and was publickly fold in a coffee house, elegantly fitted for that purpose : and though it was condemned by the Mufti, in consequence of the clamours excited against the prevailing use of it, coffee was still drank in private houses; and the officers of the police allowed it to be fold, on paying a tax, and under certain reftri&ions. It was not long, however, before these reftri&tions were removed, and the sale of it became more general than it had ever been. It is reckoned that as much is spent by private families in the article of coffee at Constantinople, as in wine at Paris. The custom of drinking coffee is fo general, thac you are as much solicited there for money to drink coffice, as you are here for money to drink your health in wine or beer: and among the legal causes of divorce, the refusal to supply a wife with coffee is one, Coffee Rev. June, 1774.

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was not introduced into the western parts of Europe, 'till about the middle of the 17th century: the Venetians were the first who imported it, and the custom of drinking it in France, (at Paris in particular) was established in the year 1669, during the stay of the Ambaffador from Sultan Mahomet the fourth in that city. The firit use of coffee in London, was earlier than at Paris : for in 1652, the Greek servant of a Turky merchant opened a house for the sale of it in George Yard, Lombard-Street.' he first mention that is made of it in the farute-books is, in the year 1660, when a duty of four-pence was laid on every gallon of coffee made and fold, to be paid by the maker: And in 1675, King Charles ilued a proclamation, to shut up the coffee-houses, because they were seminaries of sedițion. As to the culture of coffee, we shall only observe, that, in 1727) the French conveyed some plants to Martinico ; from whence it' molt probably spread to the neighbouring itlands: for, in the year 1752, it was cultivated in Jamaica, and an act passed to encourage it's growth in' that isand. We shall conclude this article with a few obfervations; extracted from a letter written by Dr. Fothergill to the Author.

“ In respect to real ufe, and as a part of our food, I have no evidence to induce me to think that coffee is inferior to tea. That, in respect to the national economy, the benefit of our colonies, and the lives of the seamen, every circumstance concurs to give coffee the preference. It is saifed by our fellow subjects, paid for by our manufactures, and the produce ultimately brought to Great Britain. That the great obltacle to a more general use of coffee is, the very high duty and excise.” (Not less than one shilling and ten-pence per pound weight.) ." That lefening the duty would not leffen the revenue; smuggling would be discouraged, and an increased consumption would make up the deficiency to the treasury. The planters would be induced to cultivate coffee with more care, was there a better market for it. That, as little planters might be enabled to sublist by raising coffee, &c. their numbers would increase, and add to the strength of the several islands; as Europeans might endure the labour requisite for cultivation Art. 40. The Grammarian's Vade-mecum, or Pocket companion :

Disposed in Alphabetical order. Designed as an assistance to the Memory of young Beginners; and also as a ready Method of recovering a perfect Knowledge of Grammar, when it has been loft through inattention, or want of practice. By a private Totor. 1 2mo. I s. Bound. Brown. 1774.

Those persons who are unacquainted with the meaning of the terms of grammar, will find this little book to be of use, as it will furnith them easily with this knowledge. By having it continually with them, they will generally be enabled to understand terms of this kind, which may occur either in reading or conversation. The Author adds a very fort dialogue toward the end of his performance, ia which he directs the supposed young lady his pupil, to lay in a fore of synonimous words, that she may not be obliged always to express the same idea just in the same manner, without attending to which, he says, a miserable barrenness or want of ingenuity, will manifeft itself in conversation and in writing. He offers some instances to illos

trate

Art. 42.

trate his observation, which on the whole is jut : but it may at the same time be proper that pupils Nould be guarded against, a multi. plicity of words, while there is a barrenness of ideas, and also against that great nicety and scrupulofity which produces a precise and for. mal manner of writing and conversing, much more disgusting than any little inaccuracies of expreflion. Art. 41.

Familiar Letters, on a variety of important and interesting Subjects. From Lady Hariet Morley, and others. 8vo. 55. Cadell. 774. There is so much good sense in these letters, and such a variety of entertaining stories, sketches of characters, moral observations, &c. &c. that we are really sorry to see the language frequently dis. graced by low phrases, and Scotticisms. Would the Writer procare, for a second edition, the corrections of some friend, who is a perfect master of the English, his book, we doubt not, might gain che approbation of the public, and contribute, with the better fort of the novel kind, to the instruction, as well as amusement of its readers.

A Letter to the Solicitor-General: being an Appendix to a Pamphlet lately published, entitled, An Appeal to the Public, relative to a Caufe lately determined in the Court of Chancery ; &c. Folio 6d. Wheble.

Mr. Mawhood's appeal to the public was the subje&t of Art. 35, in our last month's catalogue. In this fupplementary letter he suinmons the Solicitor General, (who, he says, was his leading counsel) before the bar of the public, charging him with having occafioned the suppression, or misrepresentation, of certain proofs which were necessary to the support of his cause: to the great injury of this com. plainant.

MATHEMATICAL and PHILOSOPHICAL. Art. 43. Brief Remarks upon Mr. Jacob's Treatise on Wheel-Car

Tiages. By Daniel Bourn. 8vo. Crowder. 1773:

An illiberal attack on Mr. Jacob, and on the committee of mecha. pics in the Society of Arts, &c. from which we can only learn, that Mr. B. seems to be very angry, and disposed to fall out with every body who comes in his way. Art. 44. Four introductory Ee&lures in Natural Philosophy *.

Printed at Dublin, and fold in London by Nourse. 1774. These lectures contain a compendious abstract of the fundamental principles of philosophy. The several Newtonian rules of philofo. Phising, the properties of matter, the laws of motion, and the powers that produce it, are familiarly and intelligibly explained ; and the whole is comprized within a very small compass. And though these sheets contain no new discovery, they furnish a very useful introduction to the student in philosophy, and not an unacceptable vade mécum to the more accomplished. They are by no means un. worthy of that ingenious professor to whom, we suspect, they may be ascribed, but rather add to the reputation he has already acquired. He concludes his fourth lecture with the following paragraph : · From the increase of motion in elastic bodies, a reason may be drawn for the augmentation of found in speaking trumpets; for as Supposed to be the work of Dr. Hamilton of Dublin. K k 3

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the speaking trumpet is narrowest at the mouth-piece, and thence widens and enlarges continually to the extremity, the air within it, which is an elastic fluid, may be considered as divided into a great number of cylindrical bodies of very small but equal altitudes, the basis of the first being equal to the aperture of the trumpet to which the mouth is applied, and the basis of the rest increafing one above another as they are more and more removed from the mouth; upon which account the motion that is impressed by the force of the voice on the first cylindrical body of air, grows greater in the second, and greater fill in the third, and so on, till at length, at the exit of the tube, it becomes so great as to magnify the found very confiderably.'

In page 80, lecture 3, there is a mistake, which has escaped either the transcriber or corrector of the press; for the excess of the equatoreal diameter above that of the polar is stated at 1770 miles, and not, as it should bave been, at 34 miles.

NAVIGATION. Art. 45. A Treatise of Maritime Surveying. In two Parts.

With a prefatory Ellay on Draughts and Surveys. By Murdoch Mackenzie, Senior, late Maritime Surveyor in his Majesty's Ser. vice. 4to. 6s. Dilly.. 1774.

A very complete and useful treatise, in which no instructions are omitted that are either effentially or incidentally necessary to the businefs of coafl furveying. And they have this considerable advantage to recommend them, that they are the dictates of experience. The surveyor in general, and the practical astronomer likewise, may derive many useful hints from this performance; though it is principally intended for the information of our nautical gentlemen.

In a country like ours, a subject of this kind deserves particular attention ; and yet it is a subject which has been too generally ne, glected. It is no uncommon complaint, that many of our charts are notoriously defective and faulty : were the teachers of navigation to enlarge their plan, and to make this branch of practical geometry the object of their study and instruction, many errors might be corrected by the navigators themselves, and many inconveniences and dangers might be avoided.

RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIA L. Art. 46. The Book of Common Prayer reformed, upon the Plan

of the late Dr, Samuel Clarke: together with the Psalms of David; for the Use of the Chapel in Edex Street. 8vo. 45. Johason. 1774.

We cannot give a more satisfactory account of this specimen of a reformed liturgy, than that which Mr. Lindsey, the Author, has himself given, at the end of his fermon preached at the opening of the chapel in Essex-house, April 17th, See Rev. for April, p. 334.

.''When the design of a more fcriptural form of worship was frft proposed to be put in practice, upon the plan of the late Dr. Samuel Clarke, some friends advised to print the liturgy of the church of England, with his emendations, and to make use of it, exactly as he had left it. The same has been since much recommended by others, And it were to have been wished that this reformed liturgy might have come out quite sheltered under the name of that great man, and called intirely his,

! But

! But it would have been, an injury to his memory, to have proposed that for a juft model of public worship under his fanction, which he was very far from intending to be such.

• His principal attention and care seem to have been employed in re&tifying the great errors concerning the object of religious worship, which obtained in the national church, of which he was member, and one of its greateft ornaments. In doing this, he nobly ventured to follow the leading of holy scripture, however contrary to the received doctrines ; and blotted cut or changed such prayers and invocations as were addressed to Christ, or the holy spirit, and not to the One God, the Father.

• In his examination of the book of Common Prayer, as he passed along, he also noted and changed many of the sentiments and expreffions, which he judged improper or wrong.

• But it fell not within his purpose, to remark or censure such ob. vious imperfections of that book, which had been pointed out before by others, and could hardly escape the observation of any one, whenever it should come under a general review : I mean, the frequent return of the Lord's Prayer, and of the like requests in other prayers; the repetition of two Creeds, within a short space one after another; the confusion * occafioned by what were at first three distinct services, and repeated at different hours, being thrown all together, and blended into one + : from which it happens, that at the end of one part, we are dismissed with a concluding prayer, and folemn blessing, and immediately after begin the circle of our devotions again: faults thefe not of our ever honoured reformers, but of us, their less care. ful and more indolent fucceffors. These blemishes therefore, were of neceffity to be removed.

• Some passages retained by Dr. Clarke, have been omitted ti and some farther alterations and additions have been made : all which are submitted to the judgment of the ferious and diligent reader of holy fcripture. In the devotional part, wherever any change has been made, care has been taken not to lose that fimplicity of sentiment, and easy flow of pious and natural eloquence, for which many parts of our antient liturgy are justly admired.

• The occalional prayers and thankigivings have been for the prefent omitted. Perhaps it may not be amiss always to reserve to the officiating mjoitter, the liberty of introducing suitable prayers of his own composing, on such emergencies as can with difficulty be provided for before hand.

• The observation of Christmas day, Good Friday, Eafter day, the Ajcenfion, and Whitfunday ; 'till kept up, as being memorials of the principal facts concerning our Saviour Christ, and the establishment of his religion in the world. The saints days, as they are called, are fallen into almost universal neglect, and serve chiefly for civil purposes; save that now and then they help to bring back a Proteitant

The Morning Prayer was at first read at fix in the morning : the Communion Service at nine, or soon after ; and a little before that, she Litany.

+ Thos, for example, the Obfecrations, as they are called, in the Litany, are left out : By the holy incarnation, &c. although Dr. Clarke changes them to be an address to God, and nct 10

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