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of Ireland, subservient to an improvement of trade, manuface tures, and commerce.'

Under the auspices of the last-mentioned Society, the Public were favoured with those valuable publications, the Natural and Civil Histories of the Counties of WATERFORD, CORK, and KERRY; beside that of the County of Downe, which was prior to thele.' The survey of the counties of Wa:erford, Cork, and Kerry, was the work of the late ingenious Mr. Charles Smith; who acquitted himself so well in the execution of his undertaking, that we could not but greatly iament the loss which the Public sustained by the death of this very able and truly ingenious fon of Science. He lived, however, to see, with the utmoft re. gret, and mortification, the decline of the Physico- Historical Society, and with it, the loss of that patronage under which he had undertaken a task + so agreeable to his genius and inclinations. This disappointment he pathetically laments, in the introduction to his History of Kerry; of which we gave an ac-. count in the 17th volume of our Review I.

It was, we find, at the instance of the last-named Society, that Dr. Rutty undertook the prosecution of the natural History of the County of Dublin :'-a task, he adds, with the modesty ever inseparable from real knowledge and learning, to which I confefs I was unequal; and the more so, as I bád scarce any help from my predecessors in this work.'— The Doctor, however, acknowledges that he was farther prompted to engage in this undertaking, by a most cordial regard to the noble designs' of the DUBLIN Sociery ; to whom this Ejay is respectfully addresled, in a dedicatorial preface,-in which he exhibits a summary view of the materials naturally afforded for such a work.- An extract from this address, wherein the Author himself gives an account of the information and entertainment which the curious Reader will find, in the perusal of thele volumes, will not be improper, in this place.

· Nature, says Dr. Rutty, far from being more peaurious in her productions in this than in the neighbouring countries, hath abun. dantly supplied us with a great variety, whether of matters of cu*riosity, or such as may be subfervient to the speculations of philofo.

phers, or' to medicinal or ceconomical uses, v. g. Among stones which have been found in different parts of this country, the Lapis Judaicus, the Osteocolla, the Gypsum ftriatum, answering the purposes of the plaister of Paris, and in fome respects superior to it, the Lapis Asbestos, a great variety of marbles, equal, perhaps superior to the Egyptian or Italian, the granite, the porphyry, the Lapis Lydius or

+ The ultimate object of the Society was, to procure the natural and civil history of every county in the kingdom.

1 In our 5th volume the Reader will also find an account of the Histories of Waterford and Cork,

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touch-kone, a great variety of petrifications, spars, crystals, and pebbles, and even real gems, so far, that whatever may be said of the supposed amethysts in the county of Kerry, I have good authority for saying, that the Correlian has been found here, and per: haps the emerald also; and the Lapis Specularis of Pliny, isinglass or Muscovy glass; pearls are found in our Poolbeg oysters, and ambergris has been frequently found on our coasts, and particularly.of. late in large quantities in the county of Kerry; and good spermaceti hath been prepared from that species of the whale which yields it, which is sometimes cast upon our coasts. Now if such has been the result of a few recent enquiries, there is no doubt but many yet unheard and onthought of discoveries will be the consequence of further searches.

' But to proceed to articles of more immediate and general usefulness. !. We are very liberally fapplied, even in this county, with great plenty and variety of ochres and painting earths, not at all interior to those imported from England, France, and Flanders, and I am well informed that at Newbridge in the neighbourhood of Cronebaun (of which hereafter) there has been found a red ochre in large quantity, of which one ounce gave seven grains of pure silver and fome gold.

• 2. Lead ore is frequent with us and smelted, in this county, in which also there are several traces of copper; and our water at Crones baun in the county of Wicklow, may well vie with those of Herengrund and Ciment in Hungary. Of ours I received the following account in the year 1765, from a person conversant in these matters:

" It is said to transmute iron into copper, but the fact is, that it precipitates its contained copper upon iron bars immersed. It continues in its full strength, and in seven years last part yielded to its proprietors a sum no less than £. 17,259. 18 s. 91 d. and all this without the expence of fuel and men.

The precipitate thus formed being Auxed, yields above half of pore copper: for an ounce gave 12 pennyweights and 18 grains in one experiment, and 13 pennyweights and 12 grains in another. Now this is thipt off to England to be fluxed there, and then by plating and rolling mills reduced to the shape in which it is fold, and lent over to us, loaded with the expences of freight outwards and inwards, insurance for carrying to the part where it is thipt off, amounting in all to 1. 2. 3.. per ton, all which might be saved, and tbe firit preparation being made from the water without expence, gives abundant encouragement for erecting houses for Auxing, and the proper machines for plating and rolling; to which I have heard of no objection, except the dearness of coals with us.

3. Of the Tripelas or rotten stones, we have also a great variety, as appears from the enumeration here given of them in this county, and probably of equal use to any imported for polishing brass, filVer, &c.

4. I have also specified a variety of marls in this county, feveral of them not mentioned in the histories of the counties above named.

s. Fuller's earth is indeed a defideratum, but encouragement is given to search for it from the following observation among the reGE

cords

cords of your Society, viz. “ that large lamps of it are often found in the Clonmell tobacco-pipe clay.”

• 6. At Bally-castle, and likewise in the county of Waterford, a ftratam of clay over the coals, is said to have been lately discovered, which is found in glass-house pots to be equally strong, and to endure the fire as well as Stourbridge clay.'

7. A white bluish clay was formerly exported from Carrickfergus to England, for making that called the Delft-ware, which was supplied to us from thence until of late we learnt to erect a manufaccure of it near Dublin, which was prosecuted with great success for 20 years, the ware being superior to the Dutch, though now declining, for want of the continuance of due encouragement.

8. The Manganese, a substance of a dark grey colour, and of a metallic appearance when broke, of great ase in making the black glazing in potters ware, by being fused with lead ore, with which we used to be supplied entirely from England, is found in several places in this country, and ours is said to be fo much richer in the mineral than that imported from England, as to render a less proportion of lead necessary for the purpose aforesaid ; an article moreover of great moment, as being with arsenic of great use in taking away the greenness to which all glass made of fand is subject.

9. In the county of Wicklow, not far from Dublin, are large and deep pits of Pyrite, from which copperas might be made; and I have in the sequel traced plain vestiges of alum and copperas in a kind of Irish flate found in this county ; and moreover, from some hints given in relation to falt-petre, it seems to be a matter not to be despaired of, that both copperas, alum, and falt-petre works may be erected here.

• In the appellations afixed to the fossils, I have followed Woodward, Hill, Walerius, Mendez da Costa, and in fome matters of fad relative to this branch as well as the vegetables, the celebrated Linnæus, to the united labours of which authors a more clear and distinct account of these subjects than for ages paft is owing.

To my account of the minerals, it seemed proper to subjoin that of the waters impregnated with some of them, concerning which this general remark may not be impertinent, viz. that we have every fpecies of mineral medicinal waters here that they have in England, excepting perhaps that of Bath, several of which might be conveyed to diftant places as an advantageous article of commerce, as they are in England, being equally efficacious in the cure of diseases : however, as I had already published a History * of the several Mine. ral Waters of Ireland in a separate treatise, I thought it fufficient in the present work, to give an account of several remarkable ones which have occurred to my observation fince that publication, the real good effects of which having observed for several years past, I have embraced this opportunity of presenting them to the Public.

• Next, as to the vegetables, a branch of natural history very little attended to in this country, though I trust its usefulness will be

* We are uncertain whether or not the Author here alludes to his “ Methodical Synopfis of Mineral Waters--of Great Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, Italy, &c." 4to. See Rev. vol. xvii. p.97.

abundantly abundantly manifest in the following work, in the large catalogue of Efculent Vegetables here given, i, e. of such as may supply ford whether to men or cattle, divers of which may posibly be of fingular service co the poor as substitutes for bread in times of scarcity and impending famine.

• I have also given a Botanic Kalendar of the most useful indigenous plants, exhibiting from observation, the times of their flowering in this county throughout the year. I have also given the uses of several of them in Dying, from the practices of the ancient Irish, · as well as more modern observations from faithful correspondents; and morcover I have also subjoined a list of our Vegetable Poisons, deeming it to be a matter of no small importance among a people little acquainted with the dangers they are frequently exposed to on this account; and here it seems to be but doing justice to the merit of a certain affociate in these itudies to take this opportunity of congratulating the Public on his behalf, who during a long series of years has been preparing and is now compleating a catalogue of the native Irish plants, adjusting their names to the Linnæan fyftem*.

I have distributed the Birds and Fishes into classes according to Willughby's method, and of the first have added above thirty, and of the second twenty; that are not mentioned in the Histories of the counties above-named, in treating of which, as well as the beforementioned articles of natural history, I have always had one thing in view, that is to point out whatever might be useful in food, or serve as materials for improving our manufactures, trade, or commerce.

· Lastly, as the nature of the climate is undoubtedly no inconfi. derable nor uselefs branch of the natural history of any country, which there is no way poslible of ascertaining but from hiftories of the state of the air and weather for a series of time in various seasons, and I was furnished with a history of the weather in Dublin for 50 years t, I embraced this opportunity of publishing it from diligent and faithful observations, wherein are frequently interspersed comparisons of the face of the weather in Dublin, and that of other remote parts of Ireland, England, and sometimes of the neighbouring nations, with meteorological and economical observations, not neglecting some account of the state of the plenty or scarcity of provifions in different seasons,

and a particular history is given of the memorable froft in 1740, with • its dreadful effects on men and animals of all kinds, having been more pernicious than those of many pestilences, and I trust that from a series of observations during the period aforesaid, I have refuted the long entertained vulgar error of the influence of the moon on the fate of the weather.'

From the foregoing view of the materials of which this work is composed, as well as from the particulars enumerated in the transcript of the title-page, our Readers may' perceive what kind of entertainment they will here meet with. They will

• * Dr. Abraham Lionel Jenkins."

+ Dr. Rutty hath also published, in one volume, 8vo. “A Chronological History of the Weather and Seasons, and of the prevailing Diseases in Dublin :" see Review, vol. xlii. p. 346.

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infer, too, that they are not to expect, from this performance, that sort of gratification which is peculiarly afforded by land schape-writing ; such as, in the most pleasing manner, served to enliven many parts of Mr. Smith's accounts of the three counties [. Dr. Rutty's talk being confined to what ftrialy constitutes the science of natural biory, his details will seem drier to the generality of readers ; but they will be equally acceptable to the philosophical inquirer, the medical investigator, the cultivator of husbandry, and, in brief, to all who wish to become acquainted with the natural productions, and the present state, of every part of the British empire.

Particularly in his delightful description of the Lake of Killarney : see Rev, vol. xvii, p. 508, &c.

W

ART. II. The Apology of Benjamin Ben Mordecai to his Friends for em

bracing Chrijlianity; in several Letters to Elisha Levi, Merchant, of Amsterdam. Letters Il. III. and IV. 4to, 6s. Wilkie. 1773.

E have formerly * had an opportunity of paying our respects to this acute and sensible

: it is pleasure we renew our acquaintance with him, on this occasion, and, without any farther ceremony, we shall endeavour to lay before our Readers a summary account of the three letters contained in this volume.

The design of the first letter (which is the second in the order of publication) is to examine into the person and charalier of Christ, and to thew, whether he answers to the description of the Meffiah in the scripture prophecies. In order to pave the · way for this enquiry, our Author takes notice of the various appearances of Jehovah under the ancient dispensations of religion, and endeavours to ascertain the rank and character of that Being, to whom this title and office belonged. These appearances, he observes, are recorded as historical facts; and, as the SUPREME God himself never appeared to men, either in person or by any visible symbol, it is a matter of great importance to determine, who the other Being is that is so frequently honoured with the appellation Jehovah: this Being, he apprehends, is the same that in other places, and on other occafions, is called the Angel of Jihovah : “ And the reason he is called by the same name is thus well explained by R. Josue F. Sebib, according to the common maxim not only in use among the Hebrews, but allowed of by the general custom of the world: Loquitur Legatus fermone mittentis cum."

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• See Review for October 1772,

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