CHAP. IX. ARISTOTLE'S ETHICS. 53 and the other less, erroneous: and, therefore, since to hit exactly on the mean is difficult, one must take the least of the evils as the safest plan; and this a man will be doing if he follows this method. We ought also to take into consideration our own natural bias; which varies in each man's case and will be ascertained from the pleasure and pain arising in us. Furthermore, we should force ourselves off in the contrary direction, because we shall find ourselves in the mean after we have removed ourselves far from the wrong side, exactly as men do in straightening bent timber.2 But in all cases we must guard most carefully against what is pleasant, and pleasure itself because we are not impartial judges of it. We ought to feel in fact towards pleasure as did the old counsellors towards Helen, and in all cases pronounce a similar sentence: for so by sending it away from us we shall err the less.3 Well, to speak very briefly, these are the precautions by adopting which we shall be best able to attain the mean. 'AεÚTEрOS πλoûs is a proverb,' says the Scholiast on the Phædo, 'used of those who do any thing safely and cautiously, inasmuch as they who have miscarried in their first voyage, set about their preparations for the second cautiously; and he then alludes to this passage. 2 That is, you must allow for the recoil. Naturam expellas furca tamen usque recurret.' This illustration sets in so clear a light the doctrines entertained respectively by Aristotle, Eudoxus, and the Stoics, regarding pleasure, that it is worth while to go into it fully. The reference is to Iliad iii. 154-160. The old counsellors, as Helen comes upon the city wall, acknowledge her surpassing beauty, and have no difficulty in understanding how both nations should have incurred such suffering for her sake: still, fair as she is, home she must go that she bring not ruin on themselves and their posterity. This exactly represents Aristotle's relation to Pleasure: he does not, with Eudoxus and his followers, exalt it into the Summum Bonum (as Paris would risk all for Helen), nor does he with the Stoics call it wholly evil (as Hector might have said that the woes Helen had caused had banished all the beauty from her cheek'), but, with the aged counsellors, admits its charms, but aware of their dangerousness resolves to deny himself; he 'Feels her sweetness, yet defies her thrall.' Natural taken into account. bias to be And espeuniversal cially the bias towards pleasure. 5. Give instances in both Greek and Latin of Demonstrative, Interrogative, Possessive, and Reflexive Pronouns; and give the meaning of quidam, quisquam, quisquis, quisque, quis ; and of πόσος, ποῖος, πότερος, τόσος, οἷος, ὅσος, ὅστις. 6. Illustrate by examples the cases governed by dono, gaudeo, credo, docco, obliviscor,—τυγχάνω, ἕπομαι, ποιεῖν, ἀκούω, ἔχω. 7. What is meant by ablative absolute, apposition, at traction, contraction, cognate accusative? 8. Illustrate by examples the meaning of, and cases governed by, ante, circa, ab, super, prac,—¿πí, àvτí, μetá, ἀπό, πρός. 9. Distinguish si velit, si vellet. cjus caput, suum caput. 10. Translate into Latin:— (a) He said he would come whenever he was wanted (e) The first Consuls were elected at Rome in the two F 4. The principal cause of phonetic degeneracy in language is when people shrink from the effort of articulating each consonant and vowel.' Are there any phenomena of phonetic change which cannot be fully explained in this way? 5. Apply the principles of comparative philology to an examination of the following words:-аpктоя, Вáрβαρος, γίγνομαι, δαήρ, δέσποινα, εἰμί, ἥλιος, παρ, ἵππος, μοῖρα, ὀστέον, πίπτω, ποῖος, ὕβρις, ὕπνος. 6. Trace the decay of the Latin diphthongs. 7. Explain the various ways in which the perfect tense is formed in Latin. Illustrate from Greek. 8. By what arguments has the existence of the digamma been established? In what authors are traces of its use to be found? No. XIII. I. What is the locative case? 2. Analyse the forms amaverimus, lapidum, alicubi. 3. Explain the formation of calumnia, convicium, drachuma, facilumed, sepulcrum, stolidus, Vertumnus, auctumnus. 4. Give some account of the formation of adverbs. 5. Explain, with instances, Anacoluthon, Zeugma, Pleonasm, Irony. 6. Translate the following sentences, so as to show the meanings of the middle voice :— (1) πᾶν σοι φράσω τἀληθὲς οὐδὲ κρύψομαι. (2) καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐδίκαζε, ἡμεῖς δ ̓ ἐδικαζόμεθα· καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐπεψήφιζε, ἡμεῖς δ' ἐψηφιζόμεθα· καὶ ὁ μὲν ἔλεξε ἡμεῖς δὲ διελεγόμεθα. 4. A bankrupt pays 5s. 9d. in the pound; if his assets were 500l. more, he would pay 6s. 5d.: what are his assets and his debts? 5. Find the present worth of 1227. 16s. due 7 months hence at 4 per cent. 6. Potatoes are bought at 10d. the stone, and have to pay a duty of 17. the ton; if they are sold at Id. the lb., what is the profit per cent.? 7. Find the compound interest on 5000l. for 4 years at 5 per cent. 8. Find the value of 3840 articles at 19s. 113d. each. Three purchasers divide them in the proportion of 3, 4, 5: what will each pay? 9. Extract the square root of 196, 33-13. 10. I sell out 12500l. from the Three per Cents. at 96; I invest one-third of the proceeds in Egyptian Six per Cent. Bonds at 125, and the remainder in land which yields 21 per cent. net. What is my difference in income? 11. What quantity of Turkey carpet is required for a room 20 feet 4 inches long, and 18 feet 8 inches broad, allowing a margin of 2 feet 8 inches all round? Find also the number of tiles each 8 inches by 4 which will be needed to fill this margin. XXVII. 1. Find by Practice the cost of 4 cwt. 2 qrs. 12 lbs. at 41. 13s. 4d. per quarter. 2. Reduce of Id. to the fraction of 17s. 6d.; and find what fraction 6 oz. 15 dwt, is of a lb. Troy. 8. Two persons start at noon from towns 60 miles apart. One walks at the rate of 4 miles an hour, but stops 21 hours on the way. The other walks at the rate of 3 miles an hour without stopping. When and where will they meet? 9. Divide 225 into 2 parts, so that three times the greater may exceed 7 times the less by 45. 12. A is twice as old as B. 2x ЗУ 3 2 3 x − y = 1 x2-y2= 5 36 Nine years ago he was three and a half times as old as B. Find their present ages. XXVI. 1. If a=2, b=3, x=6, y=5, what is the value of a+2x−{b+y−[a-x-(b−2y)]} ? |