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Book IV.

PROP. XV. PROB.

See N.

TO inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle.

Let ABCDEF be the given circle ; it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in it.

Find the centre G of the circle ABCDEF, and draw the diameter AGD; and from D as a centre, at the distance DG, describe the circle EGCH, join EG, CG, and produce them to the points B, F; and join AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FA: the hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral and equiangular.

Because G is the centre of the circle ABCDEF, GE is equal to CD: and because D is the centre of the circle EGCH, DE is equal to DG; wherefore GE is equal to ED, and the triangle EGD is equilateral; and therefore its three angles EGD,

GDE, DEG are equal to one another, because the angles at a 5. 1. the base of an isosceles triangle are equal a ; and the three angles b 32. 1. of a triangle are equal b to two right angles ; therefore the

angle EGD is the third part of two right angles: in the same
manner it may be demonstrated, that

А
the angle DGC is also the third part
of two right angles: and because the F
straight line GC makes with EB the

B

c c 13. 1. adjacent angles EGC, CGB equal

to two right angles ; the remaining
angle CGB is the third part of two
right angles; therefore the angles E)

EGD, DGC, CGB are equal to one d 15. 1. another: and to these are equal d the vertical opposite angles BGA, AGF,

D
FGE: therefore the six angles EGD,
DGC, CGB, BGA, AGF, FGE are

equal to another : but equal e 26. 3. angles stand upon equal e circumfe

H rences; therefore the six circumfe

rences AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FA are equal to one another: 29. 3. and equal circumferences are subtended by equal f straight

lines ; therefore the six straight lines are equal to one another, and the hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral. It is also equiangular; for, since the circumference AF is equal to ED, to each of these add the circumference ABCD: therefore the whole circumference FABCD shall be equal to the whole EDCBA;

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and the angle FED stands upon the circumference FABCD, and Book IV; the angle AFE upon EDCBA; therefore the angle AFE is equal to FED: in the same manner it may be demonstrated that the other angles of the hexagon ABCDEF are each of them equal to the angle AFE or FED; therefore the hexagon is equiangular; and it is equilateral, as was shown; and it is inscribed in the given circle ABCDEF. Which was to be done.

Cor. From this it is manifest, that the side of the hexagon is equal to the straight line from the centre, that is, to the semidiameter of the circle.

And if through the points A, B, C, D, E, F there be drawn straight lines touching the circle, an equilateral and equiangular hexagon shall be described about it, which may be demonstrated from what has been said of the pentagon; and likewise a circle may be inscribed in a given equilateral and equiangular hexagon, and circumscribed about it, by a method like to that used for the pentagon.

PROP. XVI. PROB.

TO inscribe an equilateral and equiangular quin. See N. decagon in a given circle.

Let ABCD be the given circle ; it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular quindecagon in the circle ABCD.

Let AC be the side of an equilateral triangle inscribed a in a 2. 4. the circle, and AB the side of an equilateral and equiangular pentagon inscribed b in the same; therefore, of such equal parts b 11.4. as the whole circumference ABCDF contains fifteen, the circumference ABC, being the third

А part of the whole, contains five; and the circumference AB, which is the fifth part of the whole, contains three; therefore BC their difference B

F contains two of the same parts: bi

EI sect BC in E; therefore BE, EC

c 30. 3. are, each of them, the fifteenth part

C of the whole circumference ABCD: therefore, if the straight lines BE, EC be drawn, and straight lines equal to them be placed d around in the whole circle, an equila-d 1.4. teral and equiangular quindecagon shall be inscribed in it. Which was to be done.

Book IV. And in the same manner as was done in the pentagon, if

through the points of division made by inscribing the quindecagon, straight lines be drawn touching the circle, an equilateral and equiangular quindecagon shall be described about it: and likewise, as in the pentagon, a circle may be inscribed in a given equilateral and equiangular quindecagon, and circumscribed about it.

THE

ELEMENTS OF EUCLID.

BOOK V.

DEFINITIONS.

I. A LESS magnitude is said to be a part of a greater magnitude, Book V. when the less measures the greater, that is, when the less is • contained a certain number of times exactly in the greater.'

II. A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a less, when the greater is measured by the less, that is, ' when the greater contains the less a certain number of times exactly.'

III. · Ratio is a mutual relation of two magnitudes of the same kind Sec N. to one another, in respect of quantity.'

IV.
Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one another, when the
less can be multiplied so as to exceed the other.

V.
The first of four magnitudes is said to have the same ratio to the

second, which the third has to the fourth, when any equimul-
tiples whatsoever of the first and third being taken, and any
equimultiples whatsoever of the second and fourth; if the mul-
tiple of the first be less than that of the second, the multiple of
the third is also less than that of the fourth; or, if the multiple
of the first be equal to that of the second, the multiple of the
third is also equal to that of the fourth; or, if the multiple of

Book V. the first be greater than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also greater than that of the fourth.

VI.
Magnitudes which have the same ratio are called proportionals.

N. B. When four magnitudes are proportionals, it is usually
expressed by saying, the first is to the second, as the third to
the fourth.'

VII.
When of the equimultiples of four magnitudes (taken as in

the fifth definition) the multiple of the first is greater than
that of the second, but the multiple of the third is not
greater than the multiple of the fourth; then the first is said
to have to the second a greater ratio than the third magni-
tude has to the fourth; and, on the contrary, the third is
said to have to the fourth a less ratio than the first has to the
second.

VIII.
“ Analogy, or proportion, is the similitude of ratios."

IX.
Proportion consists in three terms at least.

X.
When three magnitudes are proportionals, the first is said to

have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the
second.

XI. See N. When four magnitudes are continual proportionals, the first is

said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that which it
has to the second, and so on, quadruplicate, &c. increasing
the denomination still by unity, in any number of propor-
tionals.

Definition A, to wit, of compound ratio.
When there are any number of magnitudes of the same kind,

the first is said to have to the last of them the ratio com-
pounded of the ratio which the first has to the second, and
of the ratio which the second has to the third, and of the
ratio which the third has to the fourth, and so on unto the last

magnitude. For example, if A, B, C, D be four magnitudes of the same

kind, the first A is said to have to the last D the ratio compounded of the ratio of A to B, and of the ratio of B to C, and of the ratio of C to D; or, the ratio of A to D is said to be compounded of the ratios of A to B, B to C, and C to D:

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