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Book V. the first be greater than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also greater than that of the fourth.

VI.
Magnitudes which have the same ratio are called proportionals.

N. B. · When four magnitudes are proportionals, it is usually
• expressed by saying, the first is to the second, as the third to
the fourth.'

VII.
When of the equimultiples of four magnitudes (taken as in

the fifth definition) the multiple of the first is greater than
that of the second, but the multiple of the third is not
greater than the multiple of the fourth; then the first is said
to have to the second a greater ratio than the third magni-
tude has to the fourth; and, on the contrary, the third is
said to have to the fourth a less ratio than the first has to the
second.

VIII.
“ Analogy, or proportion, is the similitude of ratios."

IX.
Proportion consists in three terms at least.

X.
When three magnitudes are proportionals, the first is said to

have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the
second.

XI. See N. When four magnitudes are continual proportionals, the first is

said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that which it
has to the second, and so on, quadruplicate, &c. increasing
the denomination still by unity, in any number of propor-
tionals.

Definition A, to wit, of compound ratio.
When there are any number of magnitudes of the same kind,

the first is said to have to the last of them the ratio com-
pounded of the ratio which the first has to the second, and
of the ratio which the second has to the third, and of the
ratio which the third has to the fourth, and so on unto the last

magnitude. For example, if A, B, C, D be four magnitudes of the same

kind, the first A is said to have to the last D the ratio compounded of the ratio of A to B, and of the ratio of B to C, and of the ratio of C to D; or, the ratio of A to D is said to be compounded of the ratios of A to B, B to C, and C to D:

And if A has to B the same ratio which E has to F; and B to C Book V.

the same ratio that G has to H; and C to D the same that K has to L; then, by this definition, A is said to have to D the ratio compounded of ralios which are the same with the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L: and the same thing is to be understood when it is more briefly expressed, by saying A has to D the ratio compounded of the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K

to L. In like manner, the same things being supposed, if M has to N

the same ratio which A has to D; then, for shortness' sake,
M is said to have to N the ratio compounded of the ratios of
E to F, G to H, and K to L.

XII.
In proportionals, the antecedent terms are called homologous to

one another, as also the consequents to one another.
« Geometers make use of the following technical words to sig-

< nify certain ways of changing either the order or magnitude
6 of proportionals, so as that they continue still to be propor.
6 tionals.'

XIII.
Permutando, or alternando, by permutation, or alternately ;

this word is used when there are four proportionals, and it is See N.
inferred, that the first has the same ratio to the third, which
the second has to the fourth; or that the first is to the third, as
the second to the fourth: as is shown in the 16th prop. of
this 5th book.

XIV.
Invertendo, by inversion ; when there are four proportionals, and

it is inferred, that the second is to the first as the fourth to the
third. Prop. B, book 5.

XV.
Componendo, by composition; when there are four proportionals,

and it is inferred, that the first, together with the second, is to
the second, as the third, together with the fourth, is to the fourth.
18th prop. book 5.

XVI.
Dividendo, by division; when there are four proportionals, and it

is inferred, that the excess of the first above the second is to
the second as the excess of the third above the fourth is to the
fourth. 17th prop. book 5.

XVII. Convertendo, by conversion; when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the first is to its excess above the

Q

Book V.

second, as the third to its excess above the fourth. Prop. E, book 5.

XVIII.
Ex æquali (sc. distantia), or ex æquo, from equality of distance;

when there is any number of magnitudes more than two, and
as many others, so that they are proportionals when taken
two and two of each rank, and it is inferred, that the first is
to the last of the first rank of magnitudes, as the first is to the
last of the others: • Of this there are the two following kinds,

which arise from the different order in which the magnitudes Sare taken two and two.'

XIX.
Ex æquali, from equality; this term is used simply by itself,

when the first magnitude is to the second of the first rank,
as the first to the second of the other rank; and as the se-
cond is to the third of the first rank, so is the second to the
third of the other; and so on in order, and the inference is
as mentioned in the preceding definition; whence this is
called ordinate proportion. It is demonstrated in 22d prop.
book 5.

XX.
Ex æquali, in proportione perturbata, seu inordinata ; from equa-

lity, in perturbate or disorderly proportion* ; this term is used
when the first magnitude is to the second of the first rank, as
the last but one is to the last of the second rank; and as the
second is to the third of the first rank, so is the last but two to
the last but one of the second rank; and as the third is to the
fourth of the first rank, so is the third from the last to the last
but two of the second rank; and so on in a cross order: and the
inference is as in the 18th definition. It is demonstrated in
the 23d prop. of book 5.

AXIOMS.

1.

EQUIMULTIPLES of the same, or of equal magnitudes, are

equal to one another.

4 Prop. lib. 2. Archimedis de sphæra et cylindro,

II.

Book V. Those magnitudes of which the same, or equal magnitudes, are

equimultiples, are equal to one another.

III.
A multiple of a greater magnitude is greater than the same
· multiple of a less.

IV.
That magnitude of which a multiple is greater than the same

multiple of another, is greater than that other magnitude.

PROP. I. THEOR.

IF any number of magnitudes be equimultiples of as many, each of each; what multiple soever any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes be of all the other.

Let any number of magnitudes, AB, CD be equimultiples of as may others E, F, each of each ; whatsoever multiple AB is of E, the same multiple shall AB and CD together be of E and F together.

Because AB is the same multiple of E that CD is of F, as many magnitudes as are in AB, equal to E, so many are there in CD, equal to F. Divide AB into magnitudes equal to E, viz. AG, GB; and CD into A CH, HD, equal each of them to F: the number therefore of the 'magnitudes CH, HD shall

G. be equal to the number of the others AG, GB: and because AG is equal to E, and CH to

E F, therefore AG and CH together are equal B to a E and F together: for the same reason,

a Ax.2. because GB is equal to E, and HD to F; GB

5.

C and HD together are equal to E and F together. Wherefore, as many magnitudes as are in AB equal to E, so many are there in AB, CD to. H! gether equal to E and F together. Therefore, whatsoever multiple AB is of E, the same multiple is AB and CD together of E and F

D together.

Therefore, if any magnitudes, how many soever, be equimultiples of as many, each of each, whatsoever multiple any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes be of all the other: • For the same demonstration

Book v. holds in any number of magnitudes, which was here applied

to two.' Q. E. D:

PROP. II. THEOR.

IF the first magnitude be the same multiple of the second that the third is of the fourth, and the fifth the same multiple of the second that the sixth is of the fourth; then shall the first together with the fifth be the same multiple of the second, that the third together with the sixth is of the fourth.

Let AB the first, be the same multiple of C the second, that DE the third is of F the fourth; and BG the fifth, the same multiple of C the second, that EH

D
the sixth is of F the fourth : then

A
is AG the first, together with the
fifth, the same multiple of C the
second, that DH the third, together

E.
with the sixth, is of F the fourth.

B Because AB is the same multiple of C, that DE is of F; there are as many magnitudes in AB equal to C, as there are in DE equal to F: in like

с н F
manner, as many as there are in BG equal to C, so many are
there in EH equal to F: as many, then, as are in the whole
AG equal to C, so many are there in the whole DH equal to
F: therefore AG is the same multiple of C, that DH is of F;
that is, AG the first and fifth together, is
the same multiple of the second C, that

D
DH the third and sixth together is of the А
fourth F. If, therefore, the first be the
same multiple, &c. Q. E. D.
COR. · From this it is plain, that, if any

E
number of magnitudes AB, BG, CH
• be multiples of another C, and as many
• DE, EK, KL be the same multiples of G

K
• F, each of each, the whole of the first,
. viz. AH, is the same multiple of C,
" that the whole of the last, viz. DL, is
of F.

н с L F

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