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Book III. CG, because AF is equal to CG; therefore the remaining square

of FE is equal to the remaining square of EG, and the straight line EF is therefore equal to EĞ: but straight lines in a circle

are said to be equally distant from the centre, when the perpenc4. def. 3. diculars drawn to them from the centre are equalc: therefore

AB, CD are equally distant from the centre.

Next, if the straight lines AB, CD be equally distant from the centre, that is, if FE be equal to EG, AB is equal to CD: for, the same construction being made, it may, as before, be demonstrated, that AB is double of AF, and CD double of CG, and that the squares of EF, FA are equal to the squares of EG, GC; of which the square of FE is equal to the square of EG, because FE is equal to EG; therefore the remaining square of AF is equal to the remaining square of CG; and the straight line AF is therefore equal to CG: and AB is double of AF, and CD double of CG; wherefore AB is equal to CD. Therefore, equal straight lines, &c. Q. E, D,

PROP. XV. THEOR.

See N

THE diameter is the greatest straight line in a circle; and, of all others, that which is nearer to the centre is always greater than one more remote; and the greater is nearer to the centre than the less.

Let ABCD be a circle, of which the

А в
diameter is AD, and the centre E; and
let BC be nearer to the centre than FG;

F
AD is greater than any straight line BC
which is not a diameter, and BC greater

H than FG.

K
From the centre draw EH, EK per-

E
pendiculars to BC, FG, and join EB,
EC, EF; and because AE is equal to G
EB, and ED to EC, AD is equal to EB,

C a 20. 1. EC: but EB, EC are greater a than BC;

D wherefore also AD is greater than BC.

And, because BC is nearer to the centre than FG, EH is

less than EK ; but, as was demonstrated in the preceding, BC Book III. is double of BH, and FG double of FK, and the squares of EH, HB are equal to the squares of EK, KF, of which the square of b5. def. 3. EH is less than the square of EK, because EH is less than EK; therefore the square of BH is greater than the square of FK, and the straight line BH greater than FK ; and therefore BC is greater than FG.

Next, Let BC be greater than FG; BC is nearer to the centre than FG, that is, the same construction being made, EH is less than EK: because BC is greater than FG, BH likewise is greater than KF : and the squares of BH, HE are equal to the squares of FK, KE, of which the square of BH is greater than the square of FK, because BH is greater than FK ; therefore the square of EH is less than the square of EK, and the straight line EH less than EK. Wherefore the diameter, &c. Q. E. D.

PROP. XVI. THEOR.

THE straight line drawn at right angles to the dia- See N. meter of a circle, from the extremity of it, falls without the circle; and no straight line can be drawn between that straight line and the circumference from the extremity, so as not to cut the circle ; or, which is the same thing, no straight line can make so great an acute angle with the diameter at its extremity, or so small an angle with the straight line which is at right angles to it, as not to cut the circle.

Let ABC be a circle, the centre of which is D, and the diameter AB; the straight line drawn at right angles to AB from its extremity A, shall fall without the circle.

For, if it does not, let it fall, if possible, within the circle, as AC, and draw DC to the point C where

C it meets the circumference: and because DA is equal to DC, the B angle DAC is equal to the angle

a 5.1

D ACD; but DAC is a right angle, therefore ACD is a right angle, and the angles DAC, ACD are therefore equal to two right angles; which is impossible b: therefore the straight line drawn b 17. 1.

Ļ

А

H

Book III. from A at right angles to BA does not fall within the circle : in

the same manner it may be demonstrated, that it does not fall upon the circumference; therefore it must fall without the cir. cle, as AE.

And between the straight line AE and the circumference no straight line can be drawn from the point A which does not

cut the circle : for, if possible, let FA be between them, and c 12. 1. from the point D drawc DG perpendicular to FA, and let it

meet the circumference in H: and because AGD is a right d 19. 1. angle, and EAG less b than a right angle: DA is greater d than DĞ: but DA is equal to DH ;

E therefore DH is greater than DG,

F the less than the greater, which is

С

G
impossible: therefore no straight
line can be drawn from the point
A between AE and the circumfe-
rence, which does not cut the cir-

H
cle, or, which amounts to the same B

А thing, however great an acute angle

D a straight line makes with the diameter at the point A, or however small an angle it makes with AE, the circumference passes between that straight line and the perpendicular AE. And this is all " that is to be understood, when, in the Greek text and translations from it, the angle of the semicircle is said to be greater than any acute rectilineal angle, and the remaining angle less than any rectilineal angle.'

Cor. From this it is manifest, that the straight line which is drawn at right angles to the diameter of a circle from the extremity of it, touches the circle ; and that it touches it only in

one point, because, if it did meet the circle in two, it would e 2. 3. fall within it e. Also it is evident that there can be but one

• straight line which touches the circle in the same point.'

PROP. XVII. PROB.

TO draw a straight line from a given point, either without or in the circumference, which shall touch a given circle.

First, Let A be a given point without the given circle BCD ;

it is required to draw a straight line from A which shall touch Book III. the circle.

Find a the centre E of the circle, and join AE; and from the a 1. 3. centre E, at the distance EA, describe the ircle AFG; from the point D drawb DF at right angles to EA, and join EBF, AB. b 11. 1. AB touches the circle BCD.

Because E is the centre of the circles BCD, AFG,

D

A
EA is equal to EF : and ED to
EB; therefore the two sides
AE, EB are equal to the two
FE, ED, and they contain the G С Е

F

B angle at E common to the two triangles AEB, FED; therefore the base DF is equal to the base AB, and the triangle FED to the triangle AEB, and the other angles to the other angles c: therefore the angle c 4. 1. · EBA is equal to the angle EDF: but EDF is a right angle, wherefore EBA is a right angle: and EB is drawn from the centre : but a straight line drawn from the extremity of a diameter, at right angles to it, touches the circled: therefore d Cor.16. AB touches the circle ; and it is drawn from the given point A. 3. Which was to be done.

But, if the given point be in the circumference of the circle, as the point D, draw DE to the centre E, and DF at right angles to DE; DF touches the circled,

PROP. XVIII. THEOR.

IF a straight line touches a circle, the straight line drawn from the centre to the point of contact shall be perpendicular to the line touching the circle.

Let the straight line DE touch the circle ABC in the point C; take the centre F, and draw the straight line FC : FC is perpendicular to DE.

For, if it be not, from the point F draw FBG perpendicular to DE ; and because FGC is a right angle, GCF is a an acute a 17. 1 angle ; and to the greater angle the greatest b side is opposite : b 19. 1

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IF a straight line touches a circle, and from the point of contact a straight line be drawn at right angles to the touching line, the centre of the circle shall be in that line,

Let the straight line DE touch the circle ABC in C, and from C let CA be drawn at right angles to DE; the centre of the cir. cle is in CA.

-For, if not, let F be the centre, if possible, and join CF: because DE touches the circle

A
ABC, and FC is drawn from the

centre to the point of contact, FC a 18. 3. is perpendicular a to DE; therefore FCE is a right angle: but ACE

F
is also a right angle; therefore

B
the angle FCE is equal to the an-
gle ACE, the less to the greater,
which is impossible : wherefore F
is not the centre of the circle ABC:
in the same manner it may be

D
Ç

E
shown that no other point which is
not in CA is the centre ; that is, the centre is in CA. There-
fore, if a straight line, &c. Q: E. D.

PROP. XX. THEOR.

See N.

THE angle at the centre of a circle is double of the angle at the circumference, upon the same base, that is, upon the same part of the circumference.

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