Earnings and hours of labor in British textile industries:


General summary


Cotton industry


Woolen and worsted industry...


Linen industry.


Jute industry


Silk industry

100, 101

Hosiery industry.

101, 102

Lace industry..

102, 103

Digest of recent reports of state bureaus of labor statistics:

California—Thirteenth Biennial Report, 1907 and 1908: Hours and wages-

Factory inspection-Farm labor-Employment agencies-Labor organi-

zations—Child labor-Chinese and Japanese...

104, 105

Colorado-Biennial Report, 1907 and 1908: Coal production-Railroad em-

ployees—Labor organizations-Free employment bureaus...


Connecticut—Twenty-third Report, 1907 and 1908: New factory construc-

tion-Effects of the industrial depression-Free public employment

bureaus—Child labor conference-Strikes and lockouts—Employer's

liability—Tenement houses



Twelfth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Statistics, 1907 and 1908:

Labor organizations-Electric railroads....

108, 109

Sixth Biennial Report of the Indiana Labor Commission, 1907 and


Iowa—Thirteenth Biennial Report, 1906 and 1907: Graded wages and

salaries—New industries—Trade unions-Wage-earners—Railroad em-

ployees—Employers' statistical report-Canning industry.


Montana—Tenth Report, 1905 and 1906: Labor-Industries.

111, 112

Digest of recent foreign statistical publications:


Reports on home workers in Belgium: Furniture industry at Malines,

the making of embroidery and women's apparel, and rope making. 113

Report as to wages and hours of labor in the metal-working in-




Report on unemployment in Berlin and 27 suburbs on November

17, 1908...


Report on unemployment in Halle on the Saale on January 10, 1909. 124–127

Report of the experience of the city of Magdeburg and of various

European governments in connection with the problem of unem-



Great Britain:

Report of the chief inspector of factories and workshops for the year



Report of the chief inspector of factories on the administration of

the Factory and Workshops Act, 1901, by local authorities in

respect of workshops, outwork, etc., in 1907....

142, 143

Italy: Report on the question of employment on Sundays and holidays .. 143

Decisions of courts affecting labor:

Decisions under statute law...


Assignments of wages-rights of assignees-priority of wage claims

over claims of mortgagees-construction of statute (Union Trust Co.

v. Southern Sawmills and Lumber Co.)

180, 181

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Decisions of courts affecting labor—Concluded.


Decisions under statute law-Concluded.

Contract of employment–intent to defraud-constitutionality of stat-

ute-imprisonment for debt (Bailey v. State).

147, 148

Employers' liability-employment of children in violation of statute

contributory negligence-course of employment (Strafford v. Repub-

lic Iron and Steel Co.)..

149, 150

Employers' liability-railroad companies-construction of statute

assumption of risk—acts in emergencies (Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi-

cago and St. Louis Railway Co. v. Bossert)....


Employers' liability-safe place to work—questions for jury-assump-

tion of risk-construction of statute—contributory negligence

course of employment (Harvey v. Texas and Pacific Railway Co.). 153–157

Labor organizations-strikes—injunctions- conspiracy-interference

with employment-secondary boycott-reciprocal rights of employ-

ers and employees (Iron Molders' Union v. Allis-Chalmers Co.). 157-163

Decisions under common law....


Employer and employee-disclosure of trade secrets-confidential re-

lations-injunction (Stevens & Co. v. Stiles)..


Employer and employee-wrongful discharge-remedy-duty to seek

new employment-burden of proof (Quick v. Swing)..... 165–167

Employers' liability-duty of employer as to employment of compe-

tent fellow-servants—evidence of incompetence-contract with trade

union as defense (Pearson v. Alaska Pacific Steamship Co.).... 167-169

Labor organizations—boycott-secondary or compound boycott-con-

spiracy-injunction-unincorporated associations The American

Federation of Labor v. The Buck Stove and Range Co.).


Labor organizations-interference with employment liability for pro-

caring discharge-rights of members (Blanchard v. Newark Joint

District Council of United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of

America et al.)



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In 1827, after the repeal of the Combination Laws, when the Grand General Union of the United Kingdom was being started by the cotton spinners, the women and girls were urged to form separate organizations; and though these organizations did not last, it seems appropriate that one of the earliest indications of women's trade unions should be found in the cotton textiles trade, which on the lines of united enrollment now includes in its membership three-fourths of the organized women of Great Britain. Anyone who has seen a Lancashire demonstration with its audience of thousands of trade unionists and file after file of women and girls among the men's ranks, each wearing the badge of her union—the cotton bud-has had an object lesson in the possibilities of organization among female workers.

In spite of this early effort among the cotton textile operatives and several sporadic attempts in Scotland, it was not until 1874 that a successful attempt was made to organize the women in industries in Great Britain. On September 12 of that year “the first society formed for women," what is now known as the “ Women's Trade Union League,” was started.

The organizer of this society had worked in the bookbinding trade in London, and out of her experience had come the desire to formulate some scheme to help the working women of England to help themselves. Yet in those days even in England none dared speak openly of trade unionism among women.

To have attempted a militant organization of women wage-earners would have meant disaster, since it would have awakened the fear



of competition in the men's unions, thus incurring their opposition, and would also have aroused public opinion which was averse to women's self-assertion in any form. Furthermore, at that time trade unionism in itself meant to the average person the use of illegal methods, and to the more educated it was an irremissible sin against the inspired ordinances of political economy.

Strangely enough the model for the first women's trade union in Great Britain was found in America. A casual attendance upon a meeting of the Female Umbrella Makers' Union in New York in 1873 revealed to the founder of the British movement the success and force of a body of women workers banded together to accumulate a sick benefit fund, and on her return to England she started an organization under the title of the “ Women's Protective and Provident League.”

The title, “ Women's Protective and Provident League," was considered safe in that it did not suggest to the casual hearer any offensive and defensive character of union, but the decisive tenor of the organization may be gathered from the following resolution adopted at the first meeting:(a)

That one of the objects of the association shall be to enable women earning their own livelihood to combine to protect their interests."

And the last resolution offered at this meeting was:

“ That it shall be one of the objects of the association to provide a benefit fund for assistance in sickness and other contingencies.”

The abstract of rules by which these early societies were governed furnished a more specific disclaimer of any intention to establish a hostile alignment of employers and women workers:

1. Women 16 years of age and upward working at any branch of the trade shall be eligible to become members.

2. After the society shall have been formed 6 months a candidate for membership shall be recommended by two members, who shall vouch that she is a competent workwoman.

3. Entrance fee from 2s. to 1s. [49 to 24 cents], varying in different societies, payable by installments of 4d. [8 cents) per week; and subscription 2d. [4 cents) per week.

4. A member when out of work or in sickness (excepting confinements) shall receive 5s. [$1.22] per week for not more than 8 weeks in 1 year and for not less than 1 week.

5. If any member be found to have been in any way imposing on the funds of the society, or defrauding an employer, she shall be suspended from all benefits until the next quarterly meeting.

This sick-benefit fund was the salient feature in the propaganda in the different trades, and it was not until 1889 that sufficient courage was gathered to substitute the words “Trade Union” for “Protective," and several years elapsed until “ Provident” was abandoned

. First Annual Report of the Women's Protective and Provident League, 1875.

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