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the necessary preliminary of attempting to adjust a mere living standard of pay over a large area of female labor.

A successful organizer among women said:

The differences between the whole standard of men's work and women's work and men's and women's wages could not possibly be swept away except by generations of legislation and women tradeunionists. In Lancashire this is so near accomplishment that it has been possible to get much nearer the ideal of women's work, but everywhere else it is customary for a woman to have less pay, and it is the custom because she has acquiesced in it. She has allowed the employer to believe she has no one but herself to support, and that she can live on bread and butter and tea, while a man must eat beefsteak and is presupposed to have a family to support. Those workers of her sex who have auxiliary support and only need to work for a pocket-money wage intensify the evil, and until we get, on the part of women workers, an insistent demand for a “living wage” and decent conditions of work we shall remain as far from the ideal as ever.

Very few of the unions containing a female membership have failed, and while the total number of women unionists constitutes but a small detachment of the industrial army of British women workers there is no doubt that the women's trade union is an economic force that has come into Great Britain to stay.

APPENDIX. Statistics of women trade-unionists in Great Britain are given in the following tables. The first table shows in summary form a comparison of the total number of women trade-unionists in 1904 and 1908. This table is followed by tables showing in detail the number of women members in the various unions in 1908, classified according to numerical strength and according to trades. The details were secured in response to circular letters sent to the secretaries of the various unions. STATISTICS OF WOMEN'S AND MIXED TRADE UNIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN,

1904 AND 1908. (Figures for 1904 are compiled from the Report of the Labor Department of the Board of Trade on Trade Unions in 1905–1907; those for 1908 are from returns secured in response to circular letters sent to the secretaries of the various trade unions.]

1904.

1908.

Number of women's trade unions...
Number of mixed trade unions (men and women)..
Number of women in women s trade unions..
Number of women in mixed trade unions.
Total number of women trade-unionists.
Number of men in mixed trade unions.
Number of men in men's trade unions.

28

120 9, 223 117, 062 126, 285

204, 742 1,564, 025

30

151 a 16,949 6 191, 830 c 208, 779 0 329, 189

(a)

a Including figures for 1907 for 15 unions; no later figures available.
o Including figures for 1907 for 77 unions; no later figures available.
. Including figures for 1907 for 92 unions; no later figures available.

& Figures not available. The above statistics show that the number of women's and of mixed trade unions increased 2 and 31, respectively, in 1908 as compared

with 1904, while the female membership increased from 9,223 to 16,949, or 83.8 per cent, in women's trade unions and from 117,062 to 191,830, or 63.9 per cent, in mixed unions.

The following table gives in detail the number of women members in women's and in mixed trade unions in 1908 according to the numerical strength of the unions:

WOMEN MEMBERS IN WOMEN'S AND IN MIXED TRADE UNIONS IN GREAT

BRITAIN, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMERICAL STRENGTH, 1908. (Figures are from returns secured in response to circular letters sent to the various trade

unions. ]

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Oldham Provincial Card and Blowing Room and Ring Frame Operatives.
Blackburn and District Power Loom Weavers' Association...

12,652 Burnley and District Weavers, Winders, and Beamers' Association.

11, 900 Bolton Card, Blowing, Ring, and Throstle Room Operatives.

10, 705 Nelson and District Power Loom Weavers.. Darwen Weavers, Winders, and Warpers..

5, 939 Bolton and District Power Loom Weavers' Association..

5, 890 Ashton-under-Lyne and District Weavers and Winders.

5,800 Preston Power Loom Weavers' Association...

a 5,259 Dundee and District Mill and Factory Operatives.

5, 250

a 5,171 Hyde, Hadfield, Compstall, and Broadbottom Weavers, Winders, and Warpers. Oldham Weavers, Reelers, and Winders' Association.

5,082 Bury, Radcliffe, and District Weavers' Association..

4,944 Padiham and District Weavers..

4,500 S. E. Lancs. Provincial Card and Blowing Room Operatives.

24,022 Leek Women Workers' Union..

a 4,000 Accrington and District Power Loom Weavers' Association.

3,800 Chorley and District Weavers.

3, 750 National Amalgamated Union of Shop Assistants, Warehousemen, and Clerks.

a 3,740 Colne and District Weavers, Winders, and Beamers.

3,597 Blackburn Power Loom Weavers' Protection Society.

a3, 438 Amalgamated Felt Hat Trimmers and Wool Formers.

3, 148 Textile Operatives of Ireland.

a3,086 Rochdale Weavers, Winders, Reelers, and Beamers.

2, 900 Church and Oswaldtwistle Weavers, Winders, and Warpers.

2, 680 Heywood, Castleton, Norden, and District Weavers, Winders, and Reelers

2, 613 Great Harwood Weavers, Winders, and Beamers.

2, 600 National Federation of Women Workers..

2 2,375 Dundee and District Jute and Flax Workers..

a 2,300 Rochdale Card and Blowing Room Operatives and Ring Spinners.

a 2,247

a 2,224 Rossendale Weavers, Winders, and Beamers. Postal Telegraph Clerks..

1, 873 Hyde and District Card, Blowing, and Ring Frame Room Operatives.

1, 861 National Union of Gasworkers and General Laborers.

a 1,752 Todmorden and District Weavers and Winders' Association.

1, 652 General Union of Weavers and Textile Workers. Haslingden Weavers' Association..

1,600 Stockport and District Weavers, Winders, Warpers, and Reelers.

a 1,560 National Boot and Shoe Operatives..

1,500 Clitheroe Weavers, Winders, and Warpers.

1,500 Blackburn and District Card and Blowing Room Operatives and Ring Spinners.

1,500 Stockport Association of Card and Blowing Room, Ring, and Throstle Spinners.

1, 489 Operative Bleachers, Dyers, and Finishers' Association.

a 1,474 Clayton-le-Moors Weavers.

1, 429 Wigan and District Card Room Operatives and Ring Spinners' Association..

1, 396 National Amalgamated Printers' Warehousemen and Cutters.

a 1,337 Forfar Factory Workers' Union...

1,300 Ramsbottom Weavers, Winders, and Warpers.

1, 256 Female Cigar Makers.

1,234 Radcliffe and District Weavers and Winders.

a 1,215 Rishton Weavers' Association....

a 1,193 Salford and District Power Loom Weavers.

1, 118 Heywood Card Room Operatives, Spinners, and Ring Frame Operatives' Association.

1,113 Accrington District Card and Blowing Room Operatives and Ring Spinners' Association.

1,100 Bacup and District Weavers, Winders, and Beamers.

a 1,061 Amalgamated Union of Cooperative Employees..

a 1,045 National Association of Telephone Operators.

1,020 National Amalgamated Society of Male and Female Pottery Workers.

1,000 Glossop and District Power Loom Weavers..

1,000

960 Figures for 1907 ; supplied from Report of the Labor Department of the Board of Trade on Trade Unions in 1905–1907, as there were no later figures available.

4764—No. 83–09-5

1, 630

WOMEN MEMBERS IN WOMEN'S AND IN MIXED TRADE UNIONS IN GREAT

BRITAIN, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMERICAL STRENGTH, 1908—Cont'a.

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Cigar Makers' Mutual Association...

914 Whitworth Vale Power Loom Weavers.

871 Variety Artistes' Federation....

871 Preston Card and Blowing Room and Ring Spinners.

G800 Chain Makers and Strikers' Association (Cradley Heath).

800 Leicester and Leicestershire Amalgamated Hosiery Union.

784 Brechin Mill and Factory Operatives..

774 Bury and District Card, Blowing, and Ring Room Operatives' Association.

768 Arbroath Mill and Factory Workers..

6720 Irish Drapers' Assistants.

700 Hammered Chain Makers..

a 657 Mossley Card and Blowing Room Operatives.

a 601 Flax Roughers and Yarn Spinners (Ireland).

G 600 Barnoldswick and District Weavers, Winders, and Beamers.

600 Skipton and District Weavers' Association.

589 Bamber Bridge Weavers' Association.

540 Manchester and Salford Patent Cop Winders, Bobbin and Hank Winders..

536 Amalgamated Union of Clothiers' Operatives.

509 Amalgamated Braid Workers and Kindred Trades.

6480 Women Sorters.....

478 Wigan and District Weavers, Winders, Warpers, and Reelers.

G451 Lurgan Hemmers and Veiners...

450 United Kingdom Postal Clerks..

445 Longridge Weavers, Winders, and Warpers.

413 Ilkeston and District Hosiery Union..

6410 Amalgamated Tailors and Tailoresses.

G 383 Royal Army Clothing Department Employees.

6383 Manchester and Salford Ring Spinners.

a 380 British Steel Smelters, Mill, Iron, and Tinplate Workers.

360 Women employed in bookbinding and printing (Manchester).

6342 Macclesfield Power Loom Silk Weavers.

350 Municipal Employees..

336 Hinckley Federated Hosiery Union.

320 West of Scotland Weaving Factories Female Workers.

a 300 Actors.

a 290 Amalgamated Shirt and Jacket Makers.

290 Burnley and District Textile Operatives.

276 Hawick Hosiery Union..

G251 Manchester Cigarette Makers, Cutters, and Packers.

a 250 Macclesfield Cotton Weavers, Winders, and Warpers.

250 Women in Bookbinding (London)....

220 National Society of Dyers and Finishers (Huddersfield)

212 National Paper Mill Workers...

200 Manchester and Salford Sewing Machinists.

200 Female Lace Workers (Nottingham)..

200 Saddleworth Weavers and Woolen Textile Workers.

193 Rossendale Boot, Shoe, and Slipper Operatives.

@ 163 National League of the Blind (brush makers, basket makers, etc.).

a 163 Denton Silk Hat Trimmers and Stitchers.

142 Yorkshire Provincial Card, Blowing, and Ring Room Operatives.

141 Shorthand Writers and Typists...

137 Hadfield and District Card and Blowing Room Operatives' Association.

e 131 Aberdeen Mill and Factory Workers..

130 Ulster Weavers and Winders.

125 National Midwives...

a 121 Manchester Machine, Electric, and Other Women Workers.

120 Macclesfield District Card and Blowing Room and Ring Spinners' Association.

115 Sabden Weavers' Association..

106 Yeadon, Guiseley, and District Factory Workers.

105 Liverpool Upholsteresses' Union.

104 British Labor Amalgamation..

103 Irish Post-Office Clerks...

103 Bradford and District Machine Woolcombers' Association.

100 Alva Textile Workers..

100 Women Fancy Leather Workers..

0100 Clay Pipe Finishers of Manchester and Newcastle.

a 86 Glossop District Card and Blowing Room Operatives.

86 London Tailors and Tailoresses.

676 Female Hosiery Workers (Nottingham).

68 Ashton-under-Lyne Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.

064 Protective Society of Women (Oxford).

a 61 Bolton Cotton Doublers, Reelers, and 'Winders.

60 Hyde and District Twisters and Drawers.

a 58 Waterproof Garment Makers and Machinists (Manchester).

a 56 Women India Rubber Workers (Manchester)

50 a Figures for 1907; supplied from Report of the Labor Department of the Board of Trade on Trade Unions in 1905–1907, as there were no later figures available.

:::::

..:: ::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::

WOMEN MEMBERS IN WOMEN'S AND IN MIXED TRADE UNIONS IN GREAT

BRITAIN, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMERICAL STRENGTH, 1908—Conc'd.

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Number of women members.

Firewood Cutters.
Scottish Bleachfield Workers.
Congleton Weavers and Winders.
Cigar Box Makers and Paperers (London).
United Cap Makers (London)...
National Association of Grocers' Assistants.
Stockport Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Wigan and District Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Tin and Sheet Mill Men.....
Preston Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers..
United Ovenmen, Kilnmen, and Saggarmakers
Royal Liver Agents and Employees
Hadfield and Glossop Twisters and Drawers.
Postmen's Federation...
National Union of Clerks..
Manchester Upholsteresses
Tobacco Pipe Finishers (Glasgow)..
Macclesfield Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Bolton Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Hand File Cutters (Sheffield).
National Operative Printers' Assistants.
Bacup and District Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
General Amalgamation of Clothlookers and Warehousemen.
Artistes...
Bacup Card, Blowing, and Ring Spinners.
Women Confectioners (Manchester)
Scottish Operative Tailors and Tailoresses.
National Life Assurance Agents...
Rawtenstall and District Twisters and Drawers.
Birmingham International Tailors, Machinists, and Pressers.
United Cigarette Makers, Cutters, Packers, and Strippers' Union.
Heywood Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers..
Chorley and District Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Skipton Twisters and Drawers..
Eastern Counties Agricultural Laborers and Small Holders
Leigh and Bedford Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers
Nelson and District Twisters and Drawers...
City of Glasgow Friendly Society Agents..
Rushton Twisters and Drawers' Association
Great Harwood Twisters and Drawers..
Oldham Beamers, Twisters, Drawers, Dressers, and Slashers.
Burnley and District Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Clitheroe and District Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
Darwen Twisters and Drawers.
Bamber Bridge Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.
London Tailors and Mantle Makers.
National Journalists....

Total.....

a 50 a 50 647 45 42 39 a 39 a 38 a 38

36 a 30 a 30 a 28 a 25 a 25

25 a 24 a 22 21 20 a 20 a 13 a 12 a 12 a 12 a 10

10 29 a 8 06 06 5 3 03 a3 22 a2 a 2 02 a 2 a 2

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0 208,779

· Figures for 1907; supplied from Report of the Labor Department of the Board of Trade on Trade Unions in 1905–1907, as there were no later figures available.

Including figures for 1907 for 92 unions; no later igures avallable.

The following table gives in detail the number of women members in women's and in mixed unions in 1908 and the number of men in the mixed unions according to trades: MEMBERSHIP OF WOMEN'S AND OF MIXED TRADE UNIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN,

CLASSIFIED BY TRADES, 1908. [Figures are from returns secured in response to circular letters sent to the secretaries

of the various trade unions. ]

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58 Skipton Twisters and Drawers....

a 41

a3 Stockport Beamers, Twisters, and Drawers.

a 22

a 39 Weavers: Padiham and District Weavers...

a 1,988

a 4,022 Radcliffe and District Weavers and Winders.

a 133 a 1,193 a Figures for 1907; supplied from Report of the Labor Department of the Board of Trade on Trade Unions in 1905-1907, as there were no later figures available.

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