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owners, and from a large number of tenants. In each town several houses were visited by the investigators, partly for the purpose of verifying the information obtained as to rents and partly that some account might be given in each case of the general character and standard of housing accommodation.

From rent quotations obtained for about 60,000 working-class tenements the following table has been constructed to show the predominant range of weekly rents for tenements of various sizes in Paris and in other French towns. The rents do not include any elements of local taxation or as a rule any charge for water:

PREDOMINANT RANGE OF WEEKLY RENTS IN PARIS AND IN OTHER FRENCH

TOWNS COMPARED.

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The above table reveals the extent to which rents in the metropolis exceed those which prevail in other French towns. Thus, while the predominant range of rents for two rooms in Paris is $0.75 to $1.50 per week, in the other towns as a whole it is only 57 to 69 cents; for three rooms the respective rents are $1.12 to $1.80 for Paris and $0.71 to $1.01 for the other towns, and for four rooms $1.50 to $1.86 for Paris and only $0.85 to $1.05 for other localities.

The following table shows the predominant range of weekly rents in towns of France, together with the number of towns for which tenements of each size are reported and in which the mean rent is within the limits of the predominant range, below those limits, and above those limits. It will be seen that the two and three room tenements are of importance in more than two-thirds of the towns.

PREDOMINANT RANGE OF WEEKLY RENTS IN TOWNS OF FRANCE.

[According to the detailed table on p. 69, Paris is apparently included in the number of towns shown in this table, but the predominant ranges of weekly rents are the same as those shown in the preceding table for "other French towns." The figures are given as shown in the original report. ]

Number of rooms per tenement.

Number of towns to which figures relate.

Number of towns in which the

mean rent is Predominant range of weekly within the Below the Above the rents.

limits of the limits of the limits of the

predomi- predomi- predominant range. nant range. nant range.

One room
Two rooms.
Three rooms.
Four rooms.

17
26
23
12

$0.32-$0.47

.57- .69
. 71- 1.01
.85- 1.05

12
14
14
7

In the table following is shown the predominant range of weekly rents for tenements of one, two, three, or four rooms in each of the 30 towns investigated :

PREDOMINANT RANGE OF WEEKLY RENTS IN 30 SPECIFIED TOWNS OF FRANCE.

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In the following table index numbers are given showing the relative rent level in each of the towns canvassed as compared with Paris. The means of the predominant rents for each class of tenements, as shown in the table on page 68, were taken as a base and the ratios of the mean predominant rents for the corresponding classes in the various towns as compared with this base were calculated. The average of the ratios for the various types of houses in each town gave an index number for the town as compared with the level for the French towns as a whole. The index number for Paris, computed in the same way, was then taken as the base (or 100) and the index number for the other towns adjusted accordingly,

RELATIVE RENT LEVEL OF SPECIFIED FRENCH TOWNS AS COMPARED WITH FRANCE AND GREAT BRITAIN COMPARED.

PARIS.

Town.

Index
num-
ber.

Town.

Index
num-
ber.

Town.

Index number.

Paris.. Lyon.. Nancy Bordeaux.

Havre..

Belfort.
Grenoble..
Rouen
Marseille.
Valenciennes.

100
77
73
71
69
69
66
65
64
63

Nantes.
Calais
Rennes..
Amiens.
Limoges.
Brest.
Troyes.
Fougères.
Douai..
St. Nazaire.

. . . . .

60
57
57
55
55
55
54
53
53
53

Lille
St. Etienne
Rheims..
Lens.
St. Quentin
Le Creuzot.
Toulouse.
Bourges.
Roubaix.
Roanne.

52 52 51 51 51 48 45 44 38 37

A comparison of the predominant range of weekly rents in England and Wales with the predominant range in France for tenements of two, three, and four rooms is presented in the table following:

PREDOMINANT RANGE OF WEEKLY RENTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES AND IN

FRANCE COMPARED.

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a Apparently excluding Paris ; see prefatory note to table on p. 68.

From the above table it will be seen that the rents paid by the French tenant are only from 78 to 86 per cent of the corresponding rents in England and Wales. If the mean of the index numbers in the last column might be taken as representing roughly the rent level in France as compared with that in England, we should find the French rent level to be in the ratio of 81 to 100. A comparison on these lines is, however, liable to be somewhat misleading, for the reason that rents of two, three, and four room tenements were not obtained from all the towns investigated in each case. It is necessary, therefore, to adopt some more exact method of comparison less open to possible bias. This has been done by reworking all the rent index numbers for the French towns to the basis used for Great Britain, viz, comparing the mean predominant rents of the types of tenements shown for each town in France with the mean predominant rents shown for tenements of the same size in the middle zone of London, and using as the index number in each case the average of the percentages so obtained. The resulting index numbers for the towns investigated, shown in the table below, are accordingly directly comparable with the index numbers for the English towns shown in the report for the United Kingdom and with those shown for the German towns in the report for the German Empire.

RELATIVE RENT LEVEL OF SPECIFIED FRENCH TOWNS AS COMPARED WITH

THE MIDDLE ZONE OF LONDON AS THE BASE.
[Index number for middle zone of London 100.]

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The lowness of the French rents is indicated by the fact that, while the rents in half the English towns investigated lie within a central range of 50 to 59 per cent of London rents, only 2 of the French towns investigated show index numbers higher than 59, and 21 show numbers lower than 50.

The ratio of the arithmetic mean of the index numbers for France to that for England is 80 to 100; and this ratio, or the index number 80, is taken as representing approximately the rent level in France as compared with the rent level in England. The corresponding index number for the German Empire was 101, so that the French rents are lower than the German, as well as the English.

It is estimated that approximately 18 per cent of the rent paid by the British workman goes for local taxation. This makes the French rents bear to English rents the ratio of 80 to 82, which is equivalent to 98 to 100.

RETAIL PRICES.

FRANCE.

Information as to the prices commonly paid by the French working classes for food commodities, for fuel, and for paraffin oil, was obtained from a large number of shopkeepers in each of the towns investigated and also from the cooperative societies where these existed. It must be remembered that the prices shown are not necessarily the minimum prices at which the commodities could be obtained, but simply the prices which the working classes did in fact usually pay in the month of October, 1905; and where a range

of prices is given it is because they appear to be of equal popularity. The differences between one town and another, accordingly, represent often not so much difference in the cost of identical commodities as variations in local tastes, and sometimes in local standards of comfort.

The following table presents the predominant range of retail prices commonly paid by the working classes for certain commodities, for France as a whole (including Paris) : PREDOMINANT RANGE OF RETAIL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN TOWNS OF

FRANCE (INCLUDING PARIS), OCTOBER, 1905.

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In the following table is shown the predominant range of retail prices of the principal commodities in 12 towns of France, selected as to certain geographical districts: PREDOMINANT RANGE OF RETAIL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 12 SELECTED

TOWNS OF FRANCE, OCTOBER, 1905.

[graphic]

1 pound.. $0.354 $0.32 -$0.42 $0.39 -80.422 $0.353-80.42

$0.05 -
.051 .05 -

051- .06
1 dozen .22} 24] .24) 361 .241, 29 .22- .243
1 pound.. . 25 - 262

. 32
.224

32 7 pounds.

.06 -
.07

06 .06 - . 10 25

. 19 - 25 . 25 - . 31 4 pounds. . 12

. 14 105- . 12 08- .11 12 - 14 1 quart... 041 .05)- .063

.033 054 .067 1 cwt.. .355 39)

31] 36 - 37
1 gallon..

.22
31 26- 31 261- .357

26)

. 31 1 pound.. 151 . 151

161 . 171- .213 ...do.

.087- 097 . 10 .14 . 151 . 163- .21 . 13

.17} .213 ...do. . 12

101 10- .12 .do.

. 25
211 214 .221

.25 ..do.

. 25
21
23

25
..do.....
.152 .173 .203

.173 ..do...

23

. 191- .213 21 23 25 261 .do.

. 105 .14 .17

. 19%

211 23
.do
15) . 12 - 14

193
.17

197
..do
23 191- 23 23 24

25 .do.. . 19 - 221 22 23

.264 ..do... . 23 . 161– 193 161- .19

23 ..do... . 1931 . 14 - 151 .14 - . 19

21 ..do...

191- 21) . 173- 192 23 - 26] ..do

211 . 14 - .173 15 - .19 .19- 23 ..do 23 .211 23 15

. 23 .do..

23 .19- .211 .14 -
..do.
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.161- .173
.17}- .193

194 .213 ..do... . 17} .191

. 15) . 19 - . 2031 .17 213 ..do. . 14 - . 15)

.14

17

193 ..do. .17}- . 203

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