Sidebilder
PDF
ePub
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

A less magnitude is said to be a part of a greater magni- Book V. tude, when the less measures the greater ; that is, when the less is contained a certain number of times exactly in the greater.'

II. A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a less, when the greater is measured by the less; that is, when the greater contains the less a certain number of times exactly.'

III.

Ratio is a mutual relation of two magnitudes of the same See N. kind to one another, in respect of quantity.'

IV. Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one another, when the less can be multiplied so as to exceed the other.

v. The first of four magnitudes is said to have the same ratio to the second, which the third has to the fourth, when any equimultiples whatsoever of the first and third being taken, and any equimultiples whatsoever of the second and fourth; if the multiple of the first be less than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also less than that of the fourth; or, if the multiple of the first be equal to that of the second, the multiple of the third is also equal to that of the fourth ; or, if the multiple of the first

Book V. be greater than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also greater than that of the fourth.

VI.
Magnitudes which have the same ratio are called propor-

tionals. •N. B. When four magnitudes are proportion-
als, it is usually expressed by saying, the first is to the
second, as the third to the fourth.'

VII. When of the equimultiples of four magnitudes (taken as in | the fifth definition), the multiple of the first is greater

than that of the second, but the multiple of the third is
not greater than the multiple of the fourth ; then the
first is said to have to the second a greater ratio than the
third magnitude has to the fourth ; and, on the contrary,
the third is said to have to the fourth a less ratio than
the first has to the second.

VIII.
Analogy, or proportion, is the similitude of ratios.

IX
Proportion consists in three terms at least.

X.
When three magnitudes are proportionals, the first is said

to have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it
has to the second.

XI. See N. When four magnitudes are continual proportionals, the first

is said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that
which it has to the second, and so on, quadruplicate, &c.
increasing the denomination still by unity, in any num-
ber of proportionals.

Definition A, to wit, of compound ratio.
When there are any number of magnitudes of the same

kind, the first is said to have to the last of them the
ratio compounded of the ratio which the first has to the
secoud, and of the ratio which the second has to the
third, and of the ratio which the third has to the fourth,

and so on unto the last magnitude. For example, if A, B, C, D, be four magnitudes of the same

kind, the first A is said to have to the last D the ratio compounded of the ratio of A to B, and the ratio of B to C, and of the ratio C to D, or, the ratio of A to D is said to be compounded of the ratios of A to B, B to C, and C to D:

And if A has to B the same ratio which E has to F; and Book V.

B to C, the same ratio that G has to H; and C to D; the same that K has to L; then, by tbis definition, A is said to have to D the ratio compounded of ratios which are the same with the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L: And the same thing is to be understood when it is more briefly expressed by saying, A has to D the ratio com

pounded of the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L. In like manner, the same things being supposed, if M has

to N the same ratio which A has to D; then, for short-
ness sake, M is said to have to N, the ratio compounded
of the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L.

XII.
In proportionals, the antecedent terms are called homologous

to one another, as also the consequents to one apother.
• Geometers make use of the following technical words to

signify certain ways of changing either the order or
‘magnitude of proportionals, so as that they continue
still to be proportionals.

XIII.
Permutando, or alternando, by permutation, or alternately.

This word is used when there are four proportionals, and See N.
it is inferred, that the first has the same ratio to the
third, which the second has to the fourth ; or that the
first is to the third, as the second to the fourth : As is :
shown in the 16th prop. of this 5th book.

XIV.
Invertendo, by inversion; when there are four proportion-

als, and it is inferred, that the second is to the first, as
the fourth to the third. Prop. B. Book 5.

XV.
Componendo, by composition; when there are four propor-

tionals, and it is inferred, that the first, together with the
second, is to the second, as the third, together with the
fourth, is to the fourth. 18th Prop. Book 5.

XVI.
Dividendo, by division; when there are four proportionals;

and it is inferred, that the excess of the first above the
second, is to the second, as the excess of the third above
the fourth, is to the fourth. 17th Prop. Bock 5.

XVII.
Convertendo, by conversion; when there are four propor-

tionals, and it is inferred, that the first is to its excess

Book V.

above the second, as the third to its excess above the
fourth. Prop. E. Book 5.

XVIII.
Ex æquali (sc. distantia), or, ex æquo, from equality of di.

stance; when there is any mumber of magnitudes more
than two, and as many others, so that they are propor-
tionals when taken two and two of each rank, and it is
inferred, that the first is to the last of the first rank of
magnitudes, as the first is to the last of the others : « Of

this there are the two following kinds, which arise from
the different order in which the magnitudes are taken,
two and two.'

XIX.
Ex æquali, from equality. This term is used simply by it-

self, when the first magnitude is to the second of the first
rank, as the first to the second of the other rank; and as
the second is to the third of the first rank, so is the se-
cond to the third of the other; and so on in order, and
the inference is as mentioned in the preceding definition;
whence this is called ordinate proportion. It is demon-
strated in 22d Prop. Book 5.

XX.
Ex æquali in proportione perturbata seu inordinata, from

equality in perturbate or disorderly proportion.* This
term is used when the first magnitude is to the second of
the first rank, as the last but one is to the last of the se-
cond rank; and as the second is to the third of the first
rank, so is the last but two to the last but one of the sea
cond rank; and as the third is to the fourth of the first
rank, so is the third from the last to the last but two of
the second rank, and so on in a cross order : And the
inference is as in the 18th definition. It is demonstra-
ted in the 23d Prop. of Book 5.

AXIOMS.

I I. , EQUIMULTIPLES of the same, or of equal magnitudes, are equal to one another.

* 4 Prop. lib. 2. Archimedis de sphæra et cylindre.

Book V.

II. ' Those magnitudes of which the same, or equal magnitudes, are equimultiples, are equal to one another.

III. A multiple of a greater magnitude is greater than the same multiple of a less.

IV.

That magnitude of which a multiple is greater than the same multiple of another, is greater than that other magnitude.

PROP. I. THEOR.

If any number of magnitudes be equimultiples of as many, each of each ; what multiple soever any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes be of all the other.

Let any number of magnitudes AB, CD be equimultiples of as many others E, F, each of each; whatsoever multiple AB is of E, the same multiple shall AB and CD together be of E and F together.

Because AB is the same multiple of E that CD is of F, as many magnitudes as are in AB equal to E, so many are there in CD equal to F. Divide AB into magnitudes equal to E, viz. AG, GB; and CD into CH, HD equal each of them to F: The number therefore of the magnitudes CH, HD, shall G be equal to the number of the others AG, GB: And because AG is equal to E, and CH to F, therefore AG and CH together are equal toa E B * Ax. 2.1. and F together: For the same reason, because GB is equal to E, and HD to F; GB and HD together are equal to E and F together. Wherefore as many magnitudes as are in AB equal to E, so many are there in AB, CD together equal Hp to E and F together. Therefore, whatsoever multiple AB is of E, the same multiple is AB and CD together of E and F together.

Therefore, if any magnitudes, how many soever, be equimultiples of as many, each of each, whatsoever multiple any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes be of all the other: 'For the same

« ForrigeFortsett »