Free-hand Perspective: For Use in Manual-training Schools and Colleges

Voorkant
J. Wiley & sons, 1900 - 257 pagina's
 

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Inhoudsopgave

Proof of the Two Fundamental Laws of Perspective that Parallel Lines have a Common Vanishingpoint and the further an Ob ject recedes from the Pi...
15
CHAPTER II
16
The C V lies on the Vanishingtrace of Planes Perpendicular to the Picture Plane
19
Some Familiar Planes
20
Illustrative Problem
21
Illustrative Problems
24
Generated Lines and Planes
26
Examples of Generated Surfaces
27
A Line has Generally One Vanishingpoint and a Plane One Vanishingtrace
28
CHAPTER III
29
Illustrative Examples
31
The Distancepoint
32
Problem of sketching a Square
33
a Horizontal Square
34
Another Method
35
a Vertical Square
37
a Vertical Square at a Definite Angle to the P P
39
a Square Plane Perpendicular to the P P but In clined to the Horizontal Plane
41
a Square Plane Oblique to both the P P and the Horizontal Plane
43
Summing up
45
Miscellaneous Problems
47
CHAPTER IV
48
Application to Perspective
49
Measurements by Means of Parallels
50
Measurements by Means of Diagonals of Squares
52
Measurements by Means of Diagonals of Rectangles
55
Measurements by Means of Isosceles Triangles
56
Rule for finding the Base of the Isosceles Triangle
58
Observations upon some Minor Details
60
Problems in Measurements
61
CHAPTER V
63
The Circle in Perspective
64
The Circle and Conic Sections
65
Possible Forms of the Circle in Perspective
67
Compromises made by Errors introduced into Pictures
69
Compromises made in the Case of Circles
70
Rule for the Sketching of the Circle under All Conditions
73
The Perspective of Concentric Circles
74
Problems in Circles and Circular Curves
75
CHAPTER VI
78
The Directed Plane formed by a Moving Line
80
A Test for the Estimation of Angles
82
Limiting Values of any Angle
83
Comparing Unknown with Known Angles and the Sketch Proc ess in General
84
Estimation of the Foreshortening of a Plane Surface
89
Additional Problems for Practice
94
vii
96
Application of Perspective to sketching Groups of Geometrical Solids
97
Another Instructive Method of Application
99
Illustrative Example
100
Application of Perspective to sketching without Models
102
Illustrative Example 3
103
The Perspective Plan referred to the P P or to a Simple Figure
108
CHAPTER VIII
112
Summing up
131
CHAPTER IX
136
How a Plane may be located
138
The Locus of Planes making a Given Angle with the H P
139
Application to Problems
140
Given the Initial and Vanishing Traces of Two Planes to find their Line of Intersection
141
Given the Angle with the P P and the Initial Trace of a Plane to find its Horizontal Trace
142
Given the Horizontal Trace and the Angle with the P P to find the Initial and the Vanishing Traces 143
143
Given the Initial Trace and the Angle with the Horizontal Plane to find the Horizontal and the Vanishing Traces
145
Given the Angle with the Horizontal Plane and the Horizontal Trace to find the Initial and Vanishing Traces
146
Given the Horizontal Trace and the Initial Trace to find the Angles with the Horizontal and the Picture Planes
150
Given the Angle which a Plane makes with both the Horizontal Plane and the P P to find its Possible Van ishingtraces
154
An Inverse Process illustrated
156
Miscellaneous Theorems and Problems in Lines and Planes
158
General Conditions for Tangency
161
A Plane Tangent to a Solid of Plane Faces
162
A Plane Tangent to a Cone of Revolution
163
To pass a Plane Tangent to a Horizontal Cylinder
165
To pass a Plane Tangent to a Sphere
166
A Plane cutting a Hexagonal Prism obliquely
167
A Plane cutting a Cylinder obliquely
170
Given a Cone standing on its Base to draw a Horizontal Plane cutting the Cone and to show the Section
172
CHAPTER X
175
Modifications in Effect due to the Character of Surface
176
Modifications in Effect due to the Direction of the Light
177
Modifications in Effect due to the Point of View
179
Sources of Light
180
Classification of Shadows and Effects Discussed
181
Possible Shadows Cast by a Point Line Plane etc
184
To find the Shadow of a Plane upon a Surface
186
To find the Shadow of a Solid upon a Plane Surface
188
Linear Perspective Construction of Shadow Effects
189
Miscellaneous Problems
192
Possible Shadows of a Vertical Line on a Horizontal Surface
193
Possible Length and Direction of the Shadow of a Line on any Plane Surface
195
The Least Shadow of a Line Plane or Solid
198
Miscellaneous Problems in Surface and Cast Shadows
199
General Treatment of the Shadows of Curves and Curved Sur faces
203
The Circular Curve and its Cast Shadow
204
The Surface and Cast Shadow of the Right Circular Cylinder
206
The Cast Shadow of a Cylinder on the Plane of its Base
213
Linear Perspective Construction of the Line of Shade on a Cyl inder
215
Cast Shadows upon a Cylindrical Surface
217
Surface and Cast Shadows of Cones
220
Surface and Cast Shadow of a Sphere 121
221
CHAPTER XI
224
Construction by Circumscribing or Inscribed Figures
225
Illustrative Examples
227
Construction by Axes of Symmetry
233
Illustrative Examples
235
Combination of Circumscribing and Axial Construction
238
Illustrative Examples
239
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