stupendous columns moulder into dust, the Roman name, incorporated with the progress of civilization, by the diffusion of arts and sciences, and the propagation of the christian religion, will be found long, very long, in the history of the world.

Great success in war rouzes exertion of every kind. The most interesting publications of every kind for many years back have issued from the French


It is melancholy to observe in how many instances these already

sway of a Despot. But even this effect is worth noticing: And on the whole we have judged it proper, as our Readers will perceive, both in our last and present Volume, in what may be called the literary division of the Work, to pay proper attention, as we shall do, to our cultivated and ingenious, though now servile and crouching neighbours.

own the




For the YEAR 1809.




E U R O P E.


General Instructions to Sir John Moore, before he set out on his March

to Spain.Plan of Leading a British Army into the Heart of Spain -By whom formed. The British Ministry

deplorably ignorant both of the French Force in Spain, and the real State of that Country. The French concentrated behind the Ebro. The whole of their Force in Cantonments and Garrisons.---Exaggerated Accounts of the Enthusiasm of the Spaniards-Fond Credulity of the British Ministry on that Subject, and, in Consequence of this, the most romantic projects. The flattering Espectations of Co-operation held out to Sir John Moore utterly diseppointed. - Central Junta of Spain. - Their Character, incredible Weakness and Folly— Traitors among them...False Intelligence of the Approach of the French in great Force to Salamanca. Mensures announced by Sir John Moore under the Impression of this to the Junta of that place.- Amazing Apathy and Indifference to public Affairs and the Fate of the Country.Tardy and deficient Supplies to our Army-The Situation of Sir David Baird, who had landed in Gallicia, materially affected by the Defeat of the Spanish army of the North. - Design of Sir John Moore to take a Line of Positions on the Duero-Frustrated by the total Defeat of (teneral Castanos-By this the British General determined to retreat on Lisbon This Plan of Retreating abandoned, and why-False and treacherous Intelligence



transmitted by the Civil and Military Junta of Madrid fo the Commander of the British Army-Warmly seconded and supported by Dispatches from Mr. Frère--Strange Infatuation, as well as Arrogance and Presumption, of that Minister - Means by which the false Intelligence was happily counteracted.— The Force brought against Spain by Buonaparte after the Conference of Erfurth. The bold Meastres adopted by the British Commander for the Extrication of his Army, draw the whole of the French Forces from their March to Southern to the Northern Provinces.- The British Army commences its Retreat-Closely pursued by 70,000 French.-General Orders by Sir John Moore, reflecting on the Conduct of both Officers and Soldiers.--Difficulties overcome, and dreadful hardships, priva. tions, and Losses sustained during the retreat to CorunnaWhich is at last effected-Baitle of. Corunna.Death and Character of Sir John Moore.Embarkation of the British TFoops for England.

T will be recollected that in our 11

universal Spanish nation, without last volume* we left Sir John any previous concert or arrangeMoore at Lisbon under instruc- ment, would quickly run into some tions to march through Spain with form or other, in which it might aid, his face towards Burgos: which support, and co-operate with a Briwas to be the general rendezvous tish army. The manifestoes of of the British troops ; not only all the provinces breathed the then under the command of that most exalted patriotism and deofficer, but of those with which termined spirit to resist the French he was to be reinforced from Eng- or perish in the attempt; nor had land. It appears from the most the first efforts of the patriots been authentic documents † that this unworthy of those declarations. plan, of sending a British army A number of young officers too, into the heart of Spain, to act in sent into Spain for the double the plains of Leon and Castille, purpose of exciting the people, was formedby LordCastlereagh and and transmitting information to the Marquis of Romana, not only our government, conversing only without any communication either with such as were of congenial with Sir Hew Dalrymple, then sentiments, views and hopes with commander in chief of the British themselves, and carressed and forces in Spain, or Sir John Moore, and flattered with Spanish rank and who was destined to command the honours, made

such reports army to be sent there, but also to ministers, as they themselves, no without any concert either with doubt, believed to be true, and the Supreme and Central, or any which for certain they knew to be of the provincial Juntas. The en- such as ministers wished for and thusiastic ardour of the Spaniards expected. The event proved was supposed to be unirersal ; and how miserably ignorant Lord Casit seems to have been presumed tlereagh and the Marquis of Rothat this patriotic ardour of the mana were both of the strength of

* Hist. Eur. p. 245.
+ Papers ļaid before both Houses of Parliament.



the enemy, and the real state of appears. Whatever goodwill there the country that was about to be- is, (and I believe among the lower come the theatre of hostilities. orders there is a great deal) is We find Sir John Moore writing taken no advantage of." These to Lord Castlereagh, from Sala- opinions, expressed not long after manca, 24th of November 1808, Sir John had entered Spain, he as follows: “ The information, of did not find any reason to retract which your lordship must already afterwards : as will fully appear be in possession, renders it, per- from the following narrative, laps, less necessary for me to After the most important events drell upon the state of affairs in in the peninsula, of the summer Spain, so different from that which of 1808, namely, the surrender of was to be expected from the re- Dupont, the flight of Joseph Buoports of the officers employed at naparte from Madrid, and the conthe head-quarters of the different vention of Cintra, the French Spanish armies. They seem all army retired from Madrid, and of them to have been most miser- repassed the Ebro. Their force ably deceived; for until lately, in this direction consisted of and since the arrival of Mr. about 50,000 men, concentratStuart and Lord William Bentinck ed in Navarre and Biscay. They at Madrid, and of Colonel Gra- had besides, garrisons in Barceloham at the central army, no justna, Figueras, and other fortresses, representation seems ever to have amounting to above 15,000 more. been transmitted. Had the real In these positions they quietly waitstrength and composition of the ed for reinforcements which were Spanish armies been known, the on their march, as was announced defenceless state of the country, from time to time by every foreign and the character of the central journal. By the 1st of November, government, I conceive that Ca- the French Army on the Ebro diz, not Corunna, would have been was reinforced to the amount of chosen for the disembarkation of 113,000. men. The Spaniards the troops from England; and that never had, at one time, more than Seville, or Cordova, not Salaman- 60, or 70,000 in arms.

It was ca, would have been selected as evident that the Spaniards must the proper place for the assem- be defeated. Yet the probability, bling of this army. The Spanish or even the possibility of this did government do not seem ever to not seem to enter at all into the have contemplated the possibility contemplation of the British miof a second attack, and are certainly nister for the war department, quite unprepared to meet that when he gave orders that the difwhich is now made upon them. ferent corps of British troops should Their armies are inferior to the form a junction at Burgos. French even in numbers. In the While the French rested in their prorinces no armed force what- cantonments behind the Ebro, exever exists, either for immediate pecting reinforcements and survey, protection, or to reinforce the ing at their ease the unconnected armies.—The enthusiasm of which movements of the Spaniards, the we have heard so much no where Spanish and English newspapers

B 2


were full of the enthusiastic pa- Lisbon, and to receive requisitions triotism of the Spaniards. All or representations, either from ranks, they reported, and ages the Spanish government or the had taken up arms, were eager to British minister, upon all occarush upon their enemies, and de- sions, with the utmost deference termined to die rather than sub- and attention. The British mimit to a treacherous, cruel, and nister prenipotentiary to the cenimpious invader. Such also was tral government of Spain, was Mr. the spirit of the proclamations John Hookham Frère,who had been published by the Provincial Juntas. lately appointed to that office in So prevalent at this time was the the place of Lord William Benconviction of the universal enthu. tinck. siasm of the Spaniards, in the British By the resignations of the three cabinet, that in a memorial trans- generals, Dalrymple, Burrard, and mitted for the information of Sir Wellesley, which took place al. John Moore, by the British se- most immediately on these arcretary of state, it was stated, rangements, Sir John was liberathat the French armies could not ted from a part of those embarenter the defiles of Asturias with- rassments, in which so compliout exposing themselves to be cated a plan must have involved destroyed even by the armed pea- him, and, having become comsants. In the month of Septem- mander-in-chief as it were by acber it was considered as most pro- cident, he was left unfettered by bable, that the Spaniards alone superiors to adopt such measures would soon drive the French out as appeared to be most proper and of the Peninsula..-Lord William efficacious for giving speedy effect Bentinck was directed to make to the expedition. enquiries respecting the intentions These measures, however, neof the Spanish government on the cessarily produced delay. The expulsion of the French. And secretary of state for the war dedirections were given, under par- partment seems to have been ticular circumstances, to urge the wretchedly deficient in his calcuinvasion, with a combined Bri- lations, or perhaps he had but a tish army, of the South of France. very vague and confused idea of Such was the flattering picture the equipments necessary to a presented to the view of Sir John marching army. Sir John's was Moore, before he commenced his unprovided with carriages for the march, and was enabled to judge artillery or commissariat stores, for himself.

or for the light baggage of the In aid of Sir John Moore a con- regiments. No inagazines were siderable detachment from Eng: formed on the line of march. Nor land was to land at Corunna under was the commissariat department Sir David Baird, with whom he in such a state as to give any great was to form a junction on the bor- hope that these defects would be ders of Leon and Gallicia. Sir speedily or effectually remedied. John was charged at the same It was not till the 27th of Octotime to act in concert with the ber, that Sir John Moore, above a British commander-in-chief at month after he had received his



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