/•Yum a Statue at the- Abbey of Laiidcvencc.

It is meagre in historical detail, and diffuse in hortatory matter, which is conventional " padding." It was written after 848, when Nominoe asserted the independence of the Breton sees from the archiepiscopal crosier of Tours, and organized them under the metropolitanate of Dol. Dom Plaine, who has edited this Life, thinks with reason that it was composed before the Translation of the body of S. Corentine, shortly after 876. It was written for a polemical purpose, by some ecclesiastic adverse to the independence of the Breton Church, and who sought to give an historic basis for the claim to supremacy by the Church of Tours. It represents, accordingly, S. Corentine as going to Tours to receive consecration to the see of Quimper, at the hands of S. Martin, and as submitting to him a couple of abbots for confirmation.

The fraudulent composer of the Life was as stupid as he was unprincipled. He makes Corentine, who signed the decrees of the Council of Angers in 453, a contemporary of S. Martin, who died in 401. He makes him an associate with S. Padarn and S. Malo. Paternus of Vannes was, indeed, his contemporary, but the author confounds him with Padarn the cousin of S. Samson, who died about 560. And S. Malo died in or about 627. What seems to be fairly established is that Corentine was a contemporary of Grallo, King of Cornouaille, but the date of this prince cannot be fixed with any accuracy. Dom Plaine {Grallo le Grand, Vannes, 1893) makes him rule from 480 to 520. De la Borderie holds that he died in 505.

The compiler of the Life makes Winwaloe and Tudy disciples of S. Corentine, and appointed to their abbacies by him; whereas Winwaloe, born about 480, became a disciple of S. Budoc, about 492, and was established at Tibidy not before 515, and certainly did not found Landevenec much before 518.

Corentine may have known Winwaloe, but did not stand to him in the relation of master to pupil.

Relying on this most untrustworthy Life, many writers have assumed that there must have been two Corentines, Bishops of Quimper, separated from each other by the interval of a century. But the date that nails Corentine is that of the Council of Angers, 453, to the decrees of which he subscribed, and we are bound to reject all the incidents introduced by the late and interested biographer for polemical purposes.

The date of Corentine's death may have been 500, not later, probably somewhat earlier. What was his connexion with Cornwall is difficult to determine. It is probable that Cury was a foundation made by Breton settlers planted by King Athelstan after 935.

In the Exeter Martyrology his feast is marked on May 1, the day of his Translation, but in the parish of Cury it is observed on November 2.

In the dioceses of Leon, Quimper, and S. Brieuc, his day is December 12; in that of Nantes, on December 11.

Sir Harris Nicolas gives as well September 5, on which day he is commemorated at Tours, and is inserted in the French Martyrologies.

Cury parish, it will be noticed, adjoins that of Gunwaloe, dedicated to S. Winwaloe, supposed—but incorrectly—to have been his disciple.

In Brittany S. Corentine is invoked against paralysis. He has there numerous churches and chapels, especially in the diocese of Quimper. At Serignac are two chapels under his invocation.

In art he is represented with a fountain at his side, in which is a fish.

There can be little hesitation in conjecturing that to him has descended a mythological attribute; the sun is the imperishable goldfish that swims athwart the basin of the blue sky. It dies daily, and as often revives.

The same story attaches to other Saints, and therefore it is probably an early myth which adhered here and there, when the Celtic people adopted Christianity.



S. CRALLO, Confessor

S. Crallo was son of S. Sadwrn Farchog by S. Canna, daughter of Tewdwr Mawr, of Armorica. His mother subsequently married Alltu Redegog, and he was thus half-brother to S. Elian Ceimiad. This "nephew, brother's son to Illtyd, came with Garmon to this island, and became a saint in Illtyd's Cor. He founded a church and a Cor at Llangrallo, where he lies buried." 1 He is also said 2 to have been "contemporary with S. Lleirwg," i.e. Lucius; a statement which does not deserve any consideration.

The only church dedicated to him is Llangrallo,3 now better known as Coychurch (for Coed Church), in Glamorganshire. It adjoins Llangan, of which his mother is patroness. A circular stone cross in Coychurch churchyard, once bearing an inscription, now illegible, has been supposed to mark his grave.4 Edward Lhuyd says his holy well, Ffynnon Grallo, is near the south side of the church, and that his festival, which does not occur in any Calendar, was observed on August 8.

Among the " Sayings of the Wise" is the following—5

Hast thou heard the saying of Crallo,
When there was nothing stirring?
"It is easy to make the wry-mouthed weep."
(Hawdd peru i fingam wylo.)

Curiously, the expression "Yr hen Grallo," "the old Crallo," is used in Glamorganshire as a term of reproach in the sense of a crazy fellow.6

S. CREDA, or CRIDA, Widow

In the Life of S. Cainnech or Canice, of Kilkenny and Aghaboe, and in a few stray notices elsewhere, is all we learn about this Saint.

She was the daughter of Senach Ron, son of Nathi of the Hy Eircc family. He is called Ron or Ron an, King of Leinster, but he was not more than a chieftain. He retired from the world into a monastery, and became an intimate friend of S. Canice, who calls him "one of my monks," or, in another copy, "one of my friends." 7 S. Canice was a pupil of S. Cadoc of Llancarfan. One day he told his monks that he had heard the voice of Senach Ron calling him, as from a great distance, and that he knew he was dead, but that he had striven with Satan to save the soul of his disciple. Senach Ron had been killed

1 Iolo MSS., p. 132; cf. also pp. 134, 220, where he is called " brother in the faith to Illtyd." 2 Ibid., pp. 100, 220.

3 Browne Willis, Survey of Llandaff, 1719, append, p. 3, errs in giving it as dedicated to S. IUog (August 8).

4 Iolo MSS., pp. 365-6. 5 Ibid., p. 255.

6 Compare with it Llelo and Iolyn, diminutives of Llewelyn and Iorwerth. '"Qui michi corpus et animam suam et stipem suosque agros obtulit." Vita in Salam. Cod., coll. 367-8.

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