« ForrigeFortsett »
Church of Llangwyfan. From Sketch by Mr. Harold Hughes in the
"Areliceologia Cambreusis" . ...... 201
S. Cybi. From Painting 011 Rood-loft, Lew Trenchard, Vreou . . . 204
Doorway of Holy Well, Llantrylii, Carnarvonshire . . . . .213
S. David. From Statue at S. IV/, near Ouimper ..... .504
S. Dciuiol. From Fijtcenlli-Ci ntui y Glass in Chancel Window, IJandynwg
Church, Denbighshire ......... 327
SS. Dredenau. Statues in tluit Chapel at S. Geran ..... 358
Map of the Settlements of S. Dulniciiis and his Disciples . . . 303
Map of the Foundation-, of «■'. Dubricius and his Disciples . . . 378
Dardsey Island .......... 379
S. Du'oriciu*. From A vxicnl /,'..«, f.pkd in ore of the Dv.gdate MSS.
in '.he Bodleian L::.a:y ........ 381
S. Edeym. From Fi^ccalli-Cenlury (lUfS at Plo*omuc, Fieistere . . 409
Slnine of S. Elian at Llaneilia,n ... ..... 438
Shrine of S. Endelient, Eudelion, Cornwall^ ...... 454
S. Emiu. F;om a Sieoae at S. Xiciiolas, 1'risiac ..... 464
S. Eugrad (Ergat). From a Statue at Treouergat ..... 468 LIVES OF THE BRITISH SAINTS
S. CADELL, Confessor
The early gedigrees in Peniarth MSS. 16 and 45 and Hafod MS. 16 enter this Saint simply as Cadell ab Urien; but the Iolo MSS.,1 through the mistake of making the next entry (S. Buan) part of his pedigree, give him as son of Urien Rion ab Llywarch Hen, Urien Foeddog ab Rhun Rhion ab Llywarch Hen, and Urien ab Rhun. He was a member, we are told, of S. Catwg's Cor at Llancarfan, and the founder of Llangadell, now extinct, but a capella at one time under Llancarfan.2 He is also stated to have founded Sili, in Glamorgan,3 that is, Sully, now dedicated to S. John Baptist. "Grang' de Eglescadel" is mentioned among the bona of the Abbot of Bardsey in the Taxatio of 1291. His festival is not given in any of the calendars.
One document gives us another S. Cadell,4 the son of Cawrdaf ab Caradog Freichfras. He had as brothers Cathan and Medrod. But the name appears to be a misreading. There was a Cadell bishop of S. David's in the 9th century.
S. CADFAN, Abbot, Confessor
Just after the middle or towards the close of the fifth century, a large company of British who had settled in Armorica, crossed over into Wales. They were led by Cadfan, son of Eneas Lydewig and his wife Gwen Teirbron, the daughter of Emyr Llydaw. According to Welsh traditions, the party accompanying Cadfan, "saints and learned men," were Padarn, Tydecho, Trunio, Maelrys, Cynon, Mael,
1 Iolo MSS., pp. 103, 128, 145 ; also Cambro-British Saints, p. 266, and Myv. Arch., p. 419. Geoffrey of Monmouth mentions Cadell ab Urien (Bruts, ed. Rhys and Evans, p. 200).
2 Rees, Welsh Saints, p. 336. 3 Iolo MSS., p. 221. 4 Ibid., p. 123.
VOL. II. 1 B
Sulien, Ethrias (or Eithras), Henwyn, Tanwg, Llywen, Llyfab, Tegai, Trillo, Llechid, Dochchvy, Tegwyn, Baglan, Meilir, Fflewin, Gredifael, Lleuddad, Sadwrn, Gwyndaf, liar, Cristiolus, Rhystyd, and many more.1 The total number has been given as 847,2 but they represent three distinct migrations.3 They were called the Gwelygordd or Saintly Clan of Emyr Llydaw, and they take up a good deal of place in the Welsh genealogies. The names of some of these occur in the Life of S. Padarn, under earlier forms, as Hetinlau, Catman, Titechon.4 In the Breviary of S. Malo, 1537, they occur as Tinlatu, Cathinam and Techo; in the Treguier Legendarium, in the Bibliotheque Kationale, at Paris, MS. Lat. 1148, as Quilan, Cathinam, Techucho. Cathinam or Cathinan is probably Cadfan; Techo or Techucho is Tydecho. Cadfan, we are told by one authority, came to this island " in the time of Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu (Vortigern) with Gannon, the son of Rhidigys, from Gaul, his native country, to renew Faith and Baptism in this Island." 5
Garmon, as we hope to show under Germanus the Armorican, did 'leave Brittany, about 462. This was not Germanus of Auxerre, but the Germanus who later became Bishop of the Isle of Man, and died in 474.
The name Cadfan appears earliest in the form Catamanus, which occurs on the Llangadwaladr (Anglesey) early seventh century inscribed stone, put up to the memory of "King Cadfan, the wisest, the most renowned of all Kings." The intermediate form Catman occurs in the Vita S. Paterni.6 An Anglian version of it is Credmon, the name of the seventh century poet-monk of Whiuby.
The reason of the migration can only be conjectured. Some, such as came with Germanus, doubtless did so to assist in the work that Saint had in hand along with Patrick, the supply of evangelists for Ireland. But this does not explain the advent in Wales of the great party of Cadfan, composed almost wholly of his kinsmen. It has been supposed by Rees that these Britons fled Armorica because of the encroachments of the Franks. But this supposition will not avail.
There had been colonists from Britain settled in Armorica for some
1 lolo MSS., pp. 103, in; Myv. Arch., pp. 415, 419-20; Cambro-British Saints, p. 266. lolo MSS., p. 130, is wrong in making Cadfan's mother a granddaughter of Emyr.
2 Cambro-British Saints, p. 189.
3 One band is said to have accompanied Garmon and settled at Llantwit; another accompanied Cadfan and settled eventually in Bardsey. lolo MSS., p. 131.
4 Cambro-British Saints, p. 189. 5 lolo MSS., p. 103. 6 Cambro-British Saints, p. 189.
time previous to the Saxon invasion of Britain, and about the mouth of the Loire these had been so numerous, that they had sent in 469 their King Riothimus with twelve thousand men to assist the Emperor Anthemius against the Visigoths.1 This is certain, that if there were Britons in large numbers in Armorica in 469, they must then have been settled there for some time previous.
It was not till the battle of Vouille, fought in 507, that the Franks rendered themselves masters of Xantes. Gregory of Tours hints that the Britons of Armorica were independent under their kings, till after the death of Clovis, A.d. 511; after that they submitted to the overlordship of the Franks, and their chiefs no longer called themselves kings.2
The Greek historian Procopius says that "the Franks, after their victory over the last representatives of the Roman authority in Gaul, were incapable of struggling alone against the Visigoths and Alaric, and they sought the friendship of the Armoricans, and made alliance with them." 3
The Lives of the early Breton Saints show that the British colonists were on excellent terms with the Frank kings, and that both chiefs and bishops and abbots sought from them confirmation of their titles to land.
In fact, the new settlers who spread through the country could not get on. pleasantly with the Gallo-Roman citizens of Rennes, Nantes and Vannes. Magistrates and Bishops alike viewed them with disfavour, as having their own laws, their own customs and their own independent ecclesiastical organization. The British colonists would neither recognize the civil jurisdiction of the magistrates, nor the ecclesiastical authority of the bishops. The new-comers could expect no assistance from their native isle, where those who remained were engaged in deadly conflict with the Teutonic invaders, and they sought for some authority that would maintain them against the pretensions of the Gallo-Romans in the great towns. They sought and obtained what they required at the hands of the Frank kings in Paris. There does not exist a particle of evidence to show that they came into conflict with the Franks till the time of Canao of Vannes, who took up the cause of Chramm against his father in 560.
1 "Quod conspiciens Anthemius imperator protinus solatia Britonum postulavit. Rex eorum Riothimus cum xii. millibus in Biturigas civitatem, Oceano e navibus egressus, susceptus est." Jornandes, De rebus Gothicis, xlv.
2 "Chanao . . . regnum ejus integrum accepit. Nam semper Britanni post mortem Clodovechis regis sub potestate Francorum fuerunt; et duces eorum, comites, non reges appellati sunt." Hist. Francorum, iv, 4.
3 De Bello Gothico, 1, 12.
The Franks made no attempt to occupy Armorica, they confirmed the Britons in their settlements and did not dispossess them.
The reason of the migration was most probably due to intestinal feud.
It has been said " Gallus Gallo lupus," and the same applies to all Celtic races. The subdivision of rights on the death of a prince led to fratricidal war, when the most headstrong and powerful of the brothers either murdered or expelled his brethren, usurped their tribal lands and rights, and reigned supreme.
The family of Emyr Llydaw migrated from Broweroc,1 that is to say from the modern department of Morbihan, where Weroc had usurped the sovereignty. But Cadfan himself probably came from Cornugallia, and thence Grallo had swept away all rivals and had there made himself supreme.
The great flight of the families of Emyr and of Eneas across the sea, we may conjecture, was to save themselves from massacre by these two masterful men, Weroc and Grallo.
Some of the party accompanying Cadfan were kinsmen. Padarn was son of Pedrwn, and therefore a first cousin on the mother's side. So was Tydecho, son of Amwn ; so also Trunio, son of Dyfwng. Gwyndaf was his uncle ; Sulien a first cousin, son of Hywel; Sadwrn was son of Bicanys brother of Emyr, Lleuddad son of Alan ab Emyr, and Maelrys was also a cousin, as son of Gwyddno.
On his arrival in Wales, Cadfan founded a church at Towyn, in Merioneth, land having been granted him by the king, one Cyngen, as also another, Llangadfan, in Montgomeryshire. Later on he became first abbot, penrhaith, or principal, as he is styled, of Bangor Gadfan in Enlli, or Bardsey Isle,2 at the instigation of Einion Frenin, prince of Lleyn in Carnarvonshire.
Bangor Gadfan soon became very celebrated, for we are told that there were there, " a great many saints of the Welsh nation, whither they went after Bangor Fawr in Maelor had been destroyed by the pagan Saxons (607 or 613) ; and from the other Choirs a great many went also ; " 3 so many that Cor Gadfan at one time accommodated "20,000 saints. There were no cells there, but every one did as he chose; and after the 20,000 saints, Bardsey became a Choir with a cell of 500 saints." 4
The little island became the Insula Sanctorum or the Iona of Wales. It is called in the Book of LlanDdv, " Roma Britannia?," 5 and 20,000,
1 Iolo MSS., pp. 103, 133, give Graweg for Broweroc.
2 Iolo MSS., pp. 133. 145. 3 Ibid., p. 112. 4 Ibid., p. 151. 5 P. 1.