Penrhos (anciently Llangatwg Penrhos), Caerleon, Raglan and Trevethin, in Monmouthshire; Llancarfan, Llanmaes, Pendoylan (Pendeulwyn), Pentyrch, Gelligaer, Cadoxton-juxta-Barry, Cadoxton-juxtaXeath (Llangatwg Glyn Nedd), and Port Eynon, in Glamorganshire; Llangattock and Llanspyddid in Brecknockshire ; and Llangadog Fawr in Carmarthenshire. A meadow, Cae Maen Catwg (his stonefield), is near Gelligaer church; and a Pistyll Catwg is given among the possessions of the canons of Llancarfan. Gwyddfa Gatwg (his mound) is situated in a dingle in the parish of Llanegwad, in Carmarthenshire. There was formerly a church dedicated to him in the parish of Monmouth, near the Castle, which was conferred by Withenoc, lord of Monmouth in the eleventh century, on the Benedictine monks of ! >. Florence of Saumur at Monmouth. In the Valor of 1535 (iv, p. 359) is mentioned a chantry, "Cantar' de S'to Cadoc' infr' D'n'm de Ber(jeveny" (Abergavenny). There is a farm, called Llangatwg, in the parish of Llanedern, near Cardiff, which is no doubt the site of a dismantled chapel.

There was also formerly a capella, now ruined, Llangadog, under K'dwelly, in Carmarthenshire, and another of the same name under Amlwch in Anglesey.

According to a monumental inscription dated 1507, there was formerly a statue {imago) of the saint in Cadoxton-juxta-Neath church.1 The Cadoc cult in Wales was practically confined to the south-eastern parts.

In Brittany, Cadoc was highly venerated, especially in the diocese of Vannes. When the Thirty of the Franco-Breton party prepared to march from Josselin to fight the Thirty of the Anglo-Bretons at the Tree of Mil-voye in 1351, they paid their vows and offered ; rayers before the altar of S. Cadoc in the principal church of Josselin.2

At Gouesnac'h, near Fouesnant, in Finistere, is a chapel of S. Cadou; some years ago this chapel had a painted ceiling of wood, on which were represented scenes from the life of S. Cadoc. But, as on the occasion of the Pardon, regrettable abuses had crept in, or rather old pagan usages were continued, the Pardon was suppressed, and the chapel was allowed to fall into ruin. Of late years, the chapel has

1 For a supposed figure of him in the niche over the south doorway of Llancarfan church, see C. B. Fowler, Rambling Sketches in Diocese of Llandaff, Cardiff, 1896, plate 7. It has now disappeared.

2 De la Villemarque, in his Pieces Justincatives to his La Ligende Celtique, has published a hymn to S. Cadoc attributed to the Thirty Bretons. It is an impudent forgery. He also gives a ballad dialogue between Cadoc and Merlin. It is also a quite recent composition, passed off as an antique.

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been restored, and the Pardon reinstituted, and is held on September 28. Unhappily, the painted series on the roof has disappeared. S. Cadou in the Sizun district has been transferred to S. Cadoc from S. Cadfan, its original patron, as it lies in that part of the country where are the foundations of this saint. So also has Poullan been transferred to S. Cadoc, and the statue of Cadfan relegated to the garden of the presbytery, and S. Cadoc with palm-branch erected near the high altar. It is supposed that S. Cast, in Cotes du Nord, has Cadoc as its patron, but this is more than doubtful.

The day of S. Cadoc in the Altemps Martyrology (end of thirteenth century) and in a Norwich Martyrology of the fifteenth century {Cotton MS. Julius B. vii) is January 23; so also a Worcester Calendar of the fifteenth century {Karl. MS. 7398). The Calendars of the Welsh Saints in the early thirteenth century, Cotton MS. Vesp. A. xiv, the AM. MS. 14,886, Iolo MSS., Peniarth MSS. 60 and 219, Hafod MS. 8, the Prymers of 1618 and 1633, Allwydd Paradwys (1670), and in fact all the Welsh Calendars, give January 24. At Padstow, in Cornwall, near which are his chapel and well, also formerly on January 24. Rees in his Welsh Saints gives February 24, but this is a slip. Albert le Grand gives S. Cadoc on November 1. Lobineau on September 21, the Vannes Breviaries of 1660 and 1757 also September 21. In the Quimper Breviaries up to 1838, September 21, then transferred to September 23. Whytford gives him as Saynt Codoke on January 24; Nicolas Roscarrock on the same day—" S. Cadoc, Cathmael or Sophias, Bishop and Martyr" and the Exeter Martyrology.

The Welsh accounts invariably ascribe the foundation of Llancarfan to Garmon, and they add that Dyfrig was its first Abbot, and that when he became Bishop of Llandaff he was succeeded by Catwg or Cadoc. This does not accord with the Vita.

Tradition has it that Dyfrig was so devoted to Catwg that he made him his companion always in his travels, and that he continued to reside at Garnllwyd, near Llanfeithin. This does not appear to have been the case, for he usually resided at Ynys Byr or one of his other monasteries.

Llancarfan formed one of the three great Bangors or monastic establishments within the Diocese of Llandaff. The brotherhood numbered at one time as many as 2,000, and among them were Catwg's own brothers, Bugi and Cynfyw, and the brothers, as well as sons, of Gildas. The close connexion between Llancarfan and Ireland, which began with Catwg, was continued for a long time by his successors; and it is very probable that the ninth century Welsh MS., the Juvencus Codex, now in the Cambridge University Library, which contains entries relating to Bishops of Armagh, belonged originally to the monastery of Llancarfan.1

The late Welsh Triads connect Catwg with King Arthur's Court, and they assert that he was one of its three " knights of upright judgment," "chaste knights," "wise chief counsellors," "wise bards," as well as one of the " three knights that kept the Holy Grail," 2 and one of the three "holy bachelors" (gwynfebydd) of the Isle of Britain.3

A cywydd poem written in his honour by Rhisiart ab Rhys of Llancarfan (flor. c. 1480-1520) is printed in the Iolo A/55.,4 but it is evidently imperfect. It recounts chiefly his miracles.

It is somewhat remarkable that, though the name bestowed on him by the angel, according to the legend, was Cathmail, this name should have been generally abandoned for Catwg or Cadog. Cathmail is an Irish form, and was the name with which the Irish hermit baptized him.5 It would now assume in Welsh the form Cadfael, and means literally "a war-prince or battle-hero." Cadog is a diminutive, cut down from Cadfael, and appears under the early form Catacus on the Llanfihangel Cwm Du inscribed stone.

The epithet Doeth, "wise," as applied to Catwg is comparatively late. The earliest genealogies, those for instance in the thirteenth century Peniarth MSS. 16 and 45, know him only as " Cadwc Sant ab Gwynlliw ab Gliwis ab Tegit ab Cadell of Llan gadwc in Gwent." The earliest date that we have been able to find for the epithet is the latter part of the seventeenth century,6 when the confusion between him and Cato the philosopher had become established. The confusion was due to a similarity in name, just as the name Beneventum led to his being confounded with S. Sophias.

1 Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, etc., i, p. 198.

2 It has been supposed that he was the original of Sir Galahad.

3 Myv. Arch., pp. 409, 411, 755.

4 Pp. 301-2. Copies of it occur in Llanstephan MSS. 47 and 164.

5 In the Book of Llan Ddv, p. 131, the Abbot of Llancarfan is called " Abbas Catmaili" (—Catoci). Cadoc is usually called by this name in Irish hagiology. See, e.g., the Life of S. Finnian of Clonard in Colgan's Acta SS. Hib., i, p. 393, where will be found a remarkable legend of the miraculous drying up of the lake on whose site Llancarfan and Melboc or Melboi were to stand. The Breton forms of his name are Cado, Cazou, and Cazout, but the Welsh form appears in the name Pleucadeuc. The Vita states (p. 69) that the Bretons called him Catbodu, which would now be Cadfoddw in Welsh. (See Mr. Phillimore's note in Y Cymmrodor, xi, p. 92.) The -og and -wg (for earlier -auc and -uc) of Cadog and Catwg seem to be merely variants; cf. such forms as Cinauc and Cinuc, and Matauc and Matuc, in the Book of Llan Ddv, pp. 408, 411 (index).

6 Myv. Arch., pp. 751-6.

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