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In the Iolo MSS.1 are printed eight lists of his children, which vary from ten to twenty-one in the number given. The following is an alphabetical list of the sons—Afarwy, Afrogwy (probably the same as Afanvy), Aidan y Coed Aur or Aeddan, Aneuryn (Auryn, Euryn) y Coed Aur (the same as Gildas), Annef or Ane, Bangawr (once; possibly the Angawd of Culhwch and the Angar of Iolo MSS., p. 256), Blenwyd, Caffo, Caian, Ceidio, Celyn Moel (once ; the Kelin of Culhwch), Cennydd (a son of Gildas, possibly the Konnyn of Culhwch), Cewydd, Cilydd, Cof or Coff, Cyhelyn Fardd or Foel (possibly the same as Celyn Moel), Cynddilig (a son of Xwython), Cyngan Foel (once; possibly Cyngar), Cyngar, Cynwrig, Dirinic (the Dirmyc of Culhwch), Eigrawn, Eugrad, Gallgo, Garhai or Garrai (more correctly Gwrhai or Gwrai), Gildas y Coed Aur (the same as Aneuryn), Gwrddelw, Gwrddyly, Gwrthili or Gwrddwdw (no doubt four forms of the same name, Gwrddilig), Gwydion (once), Huail, Idwal (once), Maelog (once Maelon), Peirio, Samson, and Ustig (the Iustic of Culhwch). The daughters were Cain, Caen, Canna or Cannau (apparently all representing one name, but the first two also entered as sons), Cywyllog or Cywellog, Gwenabwy or Gwenafwy, and Peithien, Peithini or Peillan.
Late Welsh tradition affirms that Caw was dispossessed of his territory in the North by the Gwyddyl Ffichti or Pictish Goidels, and that he and his family found asylum in Wales. Maelgwn Gwynedd gave him the lands of Twr Celyn in Xorth-east Anglesey, probably commensurate with the present-day rural deanery of the name. We are told that "his mother hailed from that place, and that he had claim and right to land there." 2 Who his mother was the genealogies do not tell us. Some of his children remained in North Wales and became "saints " in the so-called " Bangors " there, whilst others were granted lands, we are told, by King Arthur in South Wales, and became also "saints" in the "Bangors" of Catwg, Illtyd, and Teilo. Caw himself and his brothers Caclo, Cyngar, Selyf, and Iestyn are said to have been "saints" of Catwg's "Bangor" at Llancarfan.3 He is also credited4 with having founded the church of Llangewydd (S. Cewydd, his son), since removed to Laleston (now S. David), in Glamorganshire.
Caw is best known as the ancestor of one of the Three Saintly Tribes, but his title to saintship rests on quite late documents. In the well known Triad of the " Three Families (or Stocks) of the Saints of Britain," as given in the late and made-up " Third Series of Triads,"5 his family has been deliberately replaced by that of the mythical
I Pp. 109, 116-7, 136-7, 142-3. 2 Iolo MSS., p. 147.
II Ibid., p. 116; Myv. Arch., pp. 421, 423. 4 Iolo MSS., p. 2Jo. > Myv. Arch., p. 402.
Bran Fendigaid, by those Glamorgan antiquaries interested in bolstering up the Lucius fiction.
Among the "Sayings of the Wise" occurs the following :—1
Hast thou heard the saving of Caw?
S. CAWRDAF, King, Confessor
Cawrdaf was the son of Caradog Freichfras—the Carados Brebras of romance—by the beautiful Tegau Eurfron, daughter of Xudd Hael. He was brother of SS. Cadfarch, JIaethlu, and Tangwn, and father of SS. Cathan and Medrod. For some time he was a "saint" at Llantwit.2
We are told that "the Cor of Cawrdaf in Glamorgan was for 300 saints," and that "Einion ab Collwyn founded Llantrisant after Llangawrdaf was burnt." 3 The ruins of this religious house are to be seen about a mile and a half south of Llantrisant, on a pretty situation above Miskin Manor. It is also called Gelli Gawrdaf (his Grove).
He is now generally, and has been for some time, accounted the patron of Abererch, in Carnarvonshire, as also sometimes of Llangoed in Anglesey, either solely or conjointly with his brother Tangwn.1 In the older saintly genealogies, however, he is never associated with either, nor even included as a saint. There is a Ffynnon Gawrdaf at Abererch, and on a small eminence about a quarter of a mile from the church, is a large boulder stone, with a flat piece cut out of it, called Cadair Gawrdaf, his chair or seat. Angharad Llwyd, in her History of Anglesey,5 says that Llangoed is dedicated to " S. Cowrda, one of the ancient Colidei, who was buried here." At Bron Llangowrda in Cardiganshire are the remains of a chapel.6 Gallt Cawrdaf
1 Iolo MSS,, p. 254.
2 Ibid., pp. 102, 123. Cawrdaf was anciently written Caurtam (Y Cymmrodov, ix, pp. 175, 1S0).
J Ibid., pp. 151, 221. These late documents must be taken at their value.
4 In Browne Willis, Survey of Ba>igor, pp. 275, 28 \ both are given as dedicated to Cawrdaf.
5 P. 284. 6 Lewis Morris, Cdtlc ]<•. mains, p. 103.
(his wood) is mentioned as being in Gwent,1 but by it is no doubt intended Gelli Gavvrdaf. Leland (Itin., iv, fo. 60) calls it Galthe Caurde.
His name not infrequently occurs as Cowrda, but it is very doubtful whether Cwrda and Gwrda are corruptions of Cawrdaf, especially the latter. The church of Jordanston, Pembrokeshire, is usually given as dedicated to a S. Cwrda, evolved, as it would appear, from Tre Iwrdan, the Welsh form of the parish-name. Llanwrda in Carmarthenshire is sometimes ascribed to S. Cawrdaf, but the form postulates Gwrda, probably for Gwrdaf. The Llanwrda wakes were November 12 (All Saints' Day, O.S.),2 on the first Monday after which, until recently, a fair was held.
The Festival of S. Cawrdaf occurs on December 5 in the Calendars in Peniarth MSS. 172, 186 and 187, Llanstephan MS. 117, the I0I0 MSS. (where he is styled Bishop), the Welsh Prymersof 1618 and 1633, Alhvydd Paradxvys, 1670 (where he is called Gwrda), and in a number of eighteenth century Welsh Almanacks. In the Calendars in Additional MS. 14,882, and Peniarth MS. 219, Cowrda stands against February 21.
The following extract, referring to Abererch, occurs in the Archceologia Cambrensis for 1856 : 3 "A curious custom prevailed in this
1 Iolo AISS., p. 102. 2 Rees, Welsh Saints, p. 270. 3 Pp. 305-6. parish within the memory of persons still alive. On the eve of S. Cawrdaf's festival all the children brought into the church a number of candles, which they had been making themselves, or had bought— one candle for each member of their family in whom they were particularly interested, and which they had called after their names. They knelt down, lighted them, and muttered any prayer they recollected as long as the candles continued burning; but, according as the candles became extinguished one after the other, they supposed that the person whose name was attached to the candle that burnt out first would certainly die first ; and so on in the order of successive extinctions."
The Triads state that Cawrdaf was one of the three " chief or prime ministers (Cynweisiaid) of the Isle of Britain." 1 They were so called on account of their great influence; whenever they went to battle the whole population of the country to a man followed them of their own accord. In the Tale of the Dream of Rhonabwy he is mentioned among the " counsellors" of King Arthur.
The following occurs among the "Sayings of the Wise " :—2
Hast thou heard the saying of Cawrdaf,
Hywel Rheinallt, in the fifteenth century, wrote a poem, Cywydd Cowrda Sunt, in honour of him.3 It contains a few, but vague, allusions to his legend. He is associated with Abererch, otherwise Llan Gawrda, of which the writer evidently regarded him as patron. Here, it would seem, was his shrine, and also his statue, with " his book and holy bell." His sanctuary and the boulder stone are referred to, and "Deiniol and his men " are mentioned as having given him land.
Morgan Mwynfawr, King of Morganwg, we are told lived to a great age, as did also many members of his family. This, it was believed, was "in consequence of a benediction bestowed upon him by S. Cawrdaf." 4 There were two kings or princes of this district called Morgan. The first, Morgan ab Athrwys, is possibly the Morcant who died circa 665. The second, Morgan ab Owen ab Hywel ab Rhys, known as Morgan Hen, died circa 974, and it was from him that Morganwg took its name. Evidently the story refers to the latter.
1 Red Book Triads in Oxford Mabinogion, p. 302 ; Skene, Four Ancient Books, ii, pp. 458-9; Myv. Arch., p. 405. 2 Iolo MSS., p. 253.
3 There are copies of it, e.g., in the seventeenth century MSS., Jesus College MS. cxl (=15), Llanstephan MS. 47, Llyfr Hir Llywarch Reynolds, and also Cwrtmawr MS. 12, and Panton MS. 42.
4 D. Lloyd Isaac, Siluriana, Newport, Mon., 1859, p. 15.
VOL. II. H
Cedol occurs only in the Myvyrian alphabetical Bonedd,1 but without the customary pedigree. The name is simply entered as that of the patron of Llangedol, near Bangor, now usually called Pentir.
The Festival of S. Cedol does not appear in any of the early calendars, but it is given as All Saints' Day.2
Cedol as an adjective means munificent, or kind, and Goronwy Owain in one of his poems has a happy play upon the word in reference to Cors y Gedol, above Barmouth.
S. CEDWYN, Confessor
Cedwyn was the son of Gwgon Gwron ab Peredur ab Eliffer Gosgorcldfawr, by Madrun, daughter of Gwrthefyr Fendigaid.3 His mother was at one time also married to Ynyr Gwent, and is reckoned among the Welsh Saints.
Cedwyn is the patron of Llangedwyn, in Denbighshire. Scrwgan, the name of one of its two townships, is believed to stand for Esgair Wgan, the Ridge or Hill of Gwgan, embodying his father's name. Lewis Glyn Cothi, in the fifteenth century, invokes Cedwyn in two of his poems.1
In the Book of Llan Ddv,5 Lann Cetguinn in Ystrad Yw (a commote in south-east Breconshire) is named among the churches which were consecrated by Bishop Herwald (died 1104), but there do not appear to be any traces of it now. In the same work,6 Cum Cetguinn is mentioned in the boundary of the parish of Wonastow, near Monmouth. Nant Cedwyn is the name of a brook which runs into the Ely in the parish of Leckwith, near Cardiff, and Cwm Cedwyn is the woody dell on the right bank of the Ely, between Leckwith and Llandough.
The Cedwyn of Ynys Cedwyn in North Glamorgan, near the junction of the Twrch with the Tawe, is said to have been a giant.7
1 Pp. 422-3. 2 Willis, Bangor, p. 272 ; Cambrian Register, 1818, iii, p. 223.
3 Peniarth MSS. 74 and 75 (sixteenth century) ; Myv. Arch., p. 420 ; lolo MSS., p. 12S. His father is mentioned as Gwgawn Gwrawn in the Triads of Arthur and his Warriors (Peniarth MS. 45); cf. also Peniarth MS. 12, and Myv. Arch., pp. 389, 404. The late saintly pedigrees give the name as Gwgon ab Gwron and Gwgon Megwron.
i Poetical Works, Oxford, 1837, pp. 30, 96. 5 P. 279. 6 P. 202.
7 Peniarth MS. 118 date sixteenth century).