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peculiarly interesting: While our humanity is deeply engaged in the cause of the Diffidents, we cannot but lament the fatality by which a great nation is surrounded in its capital by a foreign army; and the fenators of a republic that was once free and independent, carried off by a military force for a discussion of their own affairs." This is a subject, that, notwithstanding the rectitude and integrity of the motives which guided those transactions, affords a full opportunity for the moft deep and serious reflection.

Our home affairs have not been deficient in matters sufficiently interesting. Of these we give such an account as we hope will be agreeable to our readers; and have endeavoured to preserve that impartiality, which it will be always so much our wish to support. And it shall ever be our greatest happiness, to have any opportunity of shewing the grateful sense we entertain of the repeated indulgence which we have fo constantly experienced from the public.

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General afpe&t of affairs. Prefent appearances pacific. Some ancient causes

of contention removed. France. Holland. General ftate of the North. Germany. Italy. Expulsion of the Jesuits from Naples and Parma. The intereft of the court of Rome declining in Italy. Portugal. Scarcity of corn. Friendly intercourse fubfifting between the learned.

E observe with pleasure, leaft, of that rage of conquest, which that the event has happi- had for so many centuries plunged

ly justified our prognofti- the different parts of the great cation of last year, and that the European commonwealth in to all general tranquillity of Europe is the calamities of devastation and not in any immediate danger of be war. That martial disposition, ing diftárbed. A fpirit of im- which fo entirely poffeffed the provement in the arts of peace, in people of those ages, was the namanufactures, commerce, and the tural consequence of the hardy boelegant embellishments of life, seems dies, the active and intrepid minds, ot have taken place, for a while at of the western and northern naVOL. X,

tions,

tions, when not otherwise engaged other's bodies, for the salvation of by a close attention to the uteful, their fouls, is not only wom out, or mellowed by a knowledge of the but almost forgotten. Successions, fine arts.

boundaries, and rights of governIt may now appear late to look ment, are fixed upon a more known back to the subverfion or change and settled foundation than ever of the feudal system, and from they were before ; and commercial thence to derive reasons for prog nations have discovered a more fucnofticating the approach of a less cessful and happy method of pro. martial age. This change was not curing gold, than by digging it indeed immediately productive of themselves from the mide, or foreso happy an effect. Many, how- ing it from those that do. ever, of the causes of ancient quar Many other sources of contenrels were certainly removed, by the tion of a later date, together with different modifications which that fome mistaken notions in politics, fystem underwent in most of the which have had their day and done countries of Europe. The two laft füfficient mischief, are exhausted, centuries were (partly through ac Some jaft causes of contention are cident, and partly from those epi- also removed. The ideas attenddemic paffions, which have been ing a balance of power, feem to be observed at particulareras to poffefs at present very different from what the minds of great bodies of man- they have been formerly. The kind) so peculiarly fertile in pro- dread of univerfal monarchy apducing new causes of diffenfion, pears to be much abated, if not en. that the consequences naturally to tirely at an end. With regard to be expected from the decline of England, to our happiness, the the feudal government could not be causes of those fears which were perceived amidit the continual din once fo prevalent, with respect to of fresh disputes. It may be unne- the proteftant fucceffion'; the dan. cessary to recapitulate those caufes ger of rebellions within, or invafiof diffenfion ; many of them are ons from without, from that cause, generally known. Religion, or are so entirely vanished, that they the preténce to it, had its fall share only serye to 'endear to os oar proamongst them. Theuncertain rights fent fecurity. of succession in most countries, toe. Thefe circumstances feem in gether with the avidity with which fome fort pledges of a greater tranall mankind were seized to grapple quillity to our pofterity, than wę or at the treasures of the new world, our ancestors have enjoyed. Howwere such feeds of contention, as ever, it must be confeffed that all ferved, along with many others, to speculations of this kind, however keep Europe in continual agitation. plaufible, are in their nature tex

Several of the principal of those tremely uncertain. The natural caufes, and happily, fome of those inconftancy of mankind, the fport which occasioned the greatest mis- which fortune seems at some times chief, are now no mu'

The vio- to make of every fyftem, deftroylence of religious animofity ; that ing in a day, or an hour, the best bitterness of zeal, which fet man laid foundations, and trampling kind to the destruction of each the labour of ages, and the wifett

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intitutions in the daft; all these declared Queen of Naples; but may forbid the hopes of a latting upon this occasion it made no great permanency to any system of tran. change, and the young Prince has quillity, let the present appearances been fince contracted to her next be ever so ferene,

fifter the · Archduchefs Caroline, It must be admitted that this who is about a year younger. age seems to have a cause of con. Unnatural as the present friend. tention more particularly its own, hip and alliance between those anand which cannot fail to Tupply in cient and hereditary enemies, the fome degree, those which are now houses of Bourbon and Austria, may by time and change of manners ex- appear, and dangerous as the ef. tinguished. The desire of naval pow. fects of it might at first seem co er, which at prefent as fo ftrongly many of their neighbours ; it is not upon many of the nations in Èu- perhaps impossible, but it may conrope, will generate daily disputes, tribute to preserve that tranquillity, and must become a fruitful source which feemed to be so much enof diffenfion. The spirit of com- dangered by it. This will appear merce will not be confined to the the less problematical, if we reflect acquisitions of industry. The new on the many wars in which the -adventurers in this field will en. bickerings and enmity of these two croach upon the old, while the families have engaged for near two same passion will act as powerfully centuries the rest of Europe. Neiwith the old pofsefsors, not to re

ther does this alliance appear fo linquish any of those profits which very formidable to its neighbours, usually came into their hands, and as it might have done in another to which they will think that long situation of things. The great prescription has given them a right weight which has accumulated in

With respect to other matters, the northern balance of late years, the general Atate of affairs in Eu. may well prevent the scale from rope has suffered no material change preponderating excefively in their fince the conclusion of our lalt favour. volume. The same close union and It does not at present appear, alliance till fubfifts between the that any of the three powers in different branches of the house of question are disposed, or indeed in Bourbon. The friend hip and union a condition to difturb the public between that family and thc house repofe. France has been long a of Austria, is still more closely ce loser by her wars,

nor do the mented by a marriage between the late trials she has made of her young King of Naples, and a daugh- strength, comparatively with that ter of the Emprefs Queen. The of her neighbours, give the leatt hopes of this alliance might in- encouragement to her feeking for deed have been frustrated in a less new. The fyftem of Europe is

numerous family, by much changed since those vietom 150 OA. the death of the Arch- rious days of Lewis the 14th, when -1767; duchess Maria Josepha, he was 3 huch the terror of it.

who was seized with Other nations have gained great the small-pox in a few days after additional strength, whilft France her being married by proxy and has without question rather loft

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ground ; yet it must be owned, not betwen the two nations, is in some in such a degree, but that her great degree wearing off; and it is obnatural resources, and the very va. servable, that more French of din luable and improveable colonies ftinction have visited England fince she is still poffeffed of, will always the last war, than at any other make her very respectable if not period fince the English lost their formidable. At present she is load- great possessions in that country. ed with a very heavy debt, which The most interesting event which will require length of time, joined the past year has produced in Hol: with strict economy and close land, has been the marriage of the attention to her finances, to dis- Prince Stadtholder with the Prin: charge. Nor will her commerce, cess Royal of Pruflia. Nothing though greatly recovered, suddenly could be more pleafing to the forget the shocks it received in the whole republic than this marri. laft war. Agriculture has, through age, nor could any thing happen a series of mismanagement, been of a more interesting nature ; the long on the decline in that coun. public and private rejoicings they try; it was the error of the famous made, and the marks of respect Colbert, that he wanted to form and regard which they shewed the the French into a nation of manu. princess upon every occafion, suffacturers, and forgot that agricul- ficiently testified the sense they had ture is the principal ftrength of a of it. By this marriage the comftate. The French miniftry, as monwealth has entered into a nearer well as the nation, feem now fully connection with a great, a powerfenfible of this error ; and agricul. ful, and à neighbouring prince, ture meets with all that encourage- whose difpofition, if not a certain ment and attention which so friend, was always to be dreaded ; juftly merits. It will, however, and the vicinity of whose terrirequire length of time, and all the tories to those of the states, would leisure of peace, to bring it in any always furnith fufficient matter for degree near the perfection to which altercation, whenever he chose to it is capable of arriving:

seek for it. At the same time this Upon the whole it is evident, marriage is juftly to be looked upthat nothing can be so essential to on in a very interefting light with the interest of France, as the con- respect to the Proteftant fyftem in tinuation of peace; and that they general, and to connect that chain must be the most pernicious poli. of union, which it will always be tics, which could at present urge so much the common intereft to it to enter wantonly into a war. preserve between the maritime and

With respect to England, France northern powers, and the Protefeems at present to be in a state of Itant princes of Germany. perfect good neighbourhood ; nor In the north, affairs at present is there any apparent cause of wear the most benign aspect. The quarrel likely to difturb this har- great disputes in Poland about the mony. It may not perhaps be Diffidents, which seemed pregnant quite visionary to imagine that the with fo much danger to the gene

violent animosity and national pre. ral repose, are through the weighjudice, which has so long subfifted ty and effectual mediation of the

great

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