great powers, who by treaty, as well as connection, were interefted in their confequences, brought into a train of being fettled upon the most permanent and happy footing.




Germany has offered no matter of political obfervation during the courfe of the prefent year. The Emperor and King of Pruffia fpend the fummers, either in reviewing their armies, or in making progreffes through different parts of their dominions; by which they become eye-witneffes of the improvements that are requifite to be made, the encouragement that is neceffary to be given, and of the diftreffes and wants of their fubjects. Notwithstanding this attention to domeftic and internal happiness, the two great powers of the empire are far from being negligent of their military departments; the fword feems only to lumber, but does not fleep, and their armies are kept compleat, and in the best condition, The Emprefs Queen has published an edict, whereby the foldiers in all her armies are allowed and even encouraged to marry, a corrective in fome degree to the political mifchiefs attendant on thofe extenfive military eftablishments. Turning our eyes the fouthward, the fcene is there alfo entirely pacific. Indeed the new Dey of Algiers had made fome extraordinary demands upon the republic of Venice; among the reft, befides the payment of an exorbitant fum of money, he infifted that his corfairs fhould have free liberty to Cruize in the gulf of Venice, and to take the fhips of any nation with whom he was not bound by treaty with this extraordinary



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condition annexed, that if any of his cruizers fhould happen to be taken, the republic fhould repair the lofs in ready money.

Thefe difhonourable proposals were refufed with a proper difdain by the fenate; and as the Dey of Algiers had broken the peace, and imprisoned their conful, they equipped a fquadron of men of war, which they difpatched to Algiers under the command of Admiral Emo to bring him to reafon. The Dey continued obftinate; upon which the admiral, according to his orders, immediately declared war against him, and failed out of the harbour to fulfil his inftructions, which were to block up the port, and deftroy all the Algerine corfairs he could meet with.

These vigorous refolutions foon brought the Dey to temper, and indeed to a fubmiffion as mean as his demands had been infolent; he found himself under a neceffity of making ufe of the mediation of the British, conful, to procure a renewal of the peace upon the original terms.


The other parts of Italy have afforded little remarkable, except the expulfion of the Jefuits from Naples and Parma; as thefe events are intimately connected with, or may rather be looked upon as confequences of the measures which had been already taken in Spain to the fame purpofe, we shall include them under that head; as well as the ineffectual remonftrances made by the court of Rome in their favour. The edict which has been paft by the regency of Parma, with refpect to ecclefiaftical affairs, and which almost totally fecludes the Roman fee from all jurifdiction in that dutchy, [4] 3 toge.


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Tftanding, the peaceable afpect of the

HE year we treat, notwith


times, has not been unproductive of events which claim a confiderable degree of attention. Of these, the expulfion of the Jefuits from Spain and Naples is not the leaft extraordinary, nor likely to be the leaft confiderable in its conféquences. The affairs of Poland have attracted much of the general attention of Europe; and, it is to be hoped, are now fettled upon an happy and permanent bafis. The origin of the late difputes, the paft and prefent ftate of the Diffidents, and many particularities relative to the history and government of that country, which were requifite to be known, to form a proper judgment of those transactions, were but little confidered or understood in this part of the world. We have there- . fore given our readers all the fatisfaction on those heads, which the materials that we could procure would afford, and the plan of our work allow. The fubject is indeed pecu

peculiarly interesting: While our humanity is deeply engaged in the cause of the Diffidents, we cannot but lament the fatality by which a great nation is furrounded in its capital by a foreign army; and the fenators of a republic that was once free and independent, carried off by a military force for a difcuffion of their own affairs. This is a fubject, that, notwithstanding the rectitude and integrity of the motives which guided thofe tranfactions, affords a full opportunity for the moft deep and serious reflection.

Our home affairs have not been deficient in matters fufficiently interefting. Of thefe we give fuch an account as we hope will be agreeable to our readers; and have endeavoured to preserve that impartiality, which it will be always fo much our wifh to fupport. And it fhall ever be our greatest happinefs, to have any opportunity of fhewing the grateful sense we entertain of the repeated indulgence which we have fo conftantly experienced from the public.


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For the YEAR 1767.






General afpect of affairs. Prefent appearances pacific. Some ancient caufes of contention removed. France. Holland. General state of the North. Germany. Italy. Expulfion of the Jefuits from Naples and Parma. The intereft of the court of Rome declining in Italy. Portugal. Scarcity of corn. Friendly intercourfe fubfifting between the learned.


E obferve with pleasure, that the event has happily juftified our prognoftication of last year; and that the general tranquillity of Europe is not in any immediate danger of being difturbed. A fpirit of improvement in the arts of peace, in manufactures, commerce, and the elegant embellishments of life, feems ot have taken place, for a while at VOL. X,

leaft, of that rage of conqueft, which had for fo many centuries plunged the different parts of the great European commonwealth in to all the calamities of devaftation and war. That martial difpofition, which fo entirely poffeffed the people of thofe ages, was the natural confequence of the hardy bodies, the active and intrepid minds, of the western and northern na[4] tions,

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