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qualified electors in the respective counties and districts which they represent. SEc. 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of two years, at the same time and places as members of assembly, and no person shall be a member of the senate or assembly who has not been a citizen and inhabitant of the state for one year, and of the county or district for which he shall be chosen six months next before his election. SEC. 6. The number of senators shall not be less than onethird, nor more than one-half of that of the members of assembly; and at the first session of the legislature after this constitution takes effect the senators shall be divided by lot, as equally as may be, into two classes: the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, so that one-half shall be chosen annually. SEC. 7. When the number of senators is increased, they shall be apportioned by lot, so as to keep the two classes as nearly equal in number as possible. SEC. 8. Each house shall choose its own officers, and judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns of its own members. SEC. 9. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide. SEc. 10. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and may, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members elected, expel a member. SEc. 11. Each house shall keep a journal of its own proceedings, and publish the same; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of any three members present, be entered on the journal. SEc. 12. Members of the legislature shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, and shall not be subject to any civil process during the session of the legislature, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the termination of each session. SEC. 13. When vacancies occur in either house, the governor, or the person exercising the functions of the governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

SEC, 14. The doors of each house shall be open, except on Such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy. SEC. 15. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting. SEC. 16. Any bill may originate in either house of the legislature, and all bills passed by one house may be amended in the Other. SEC. 17. Every bill which may have passed the legislature shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor. If he approve it he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon the journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, it again pass both houses, by yeas and nays, by a majority of two-thirds of the members of each house present, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the governor's objections. If any bill shall not be returned within ten days after it shall have been presented to him (Sundays excepted), the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the legislature, by adjournment, prevent such return.' SEC. 18. The assembly shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. SEC. 19. The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, controller, treasurer, attorney-general, surveyor-general, justices of the supreme court and judges of the district courts, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under the state; but the party convicted or acquitted shall, nevertheless, be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried, for misdemeanors in office, in such a manner as the legislature may provide. SEC. 20. No senator or member of assembly shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit, under this state, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such term, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people. SEC. 21. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or any other power, shall be eligible to any civil office of profit under this state; provided, that officers in the militia, to which there is attached no annual salary, or local officers and postmasters, whose compensation does not exceed five hundred dollars per annum, shall not be deemed lucrative. SEC. 22. No person who shall be convicted of the embezzlement or defalcation of the public funds of this state shall ever be eligible to any office of honor, trust or profit, under this state; and the legislature shall, as soon as practicable, pass a law providing for the punishment of such embezzlement or defalcation as a felony. SEC. 23. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public moneys shall be attached to, and published with, the laws at every regular session of the legislature. SEC. 24. The members of the legislature shall receive for their services a compensation to be fixed by law, and paid out of the public treasury; but no increase of the compensation shall take effect during the term for which the members of either house shall have been elected. SEC. 25. Every law enacted by the legislature shall embrace but one object, and that shall be expressed in the title; and no law shall be revised or amended by reference to its title; but in such case the act revised, or section amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length.' SEC. 26. No divorce shall be granted by the legislature.

* The term “Sundays excepted" applies only to the last day of the ten which the executive has for consideration of a bill. People ex rel, Hepburn v. Whitman, Oct. T. 1856.

1 A law is constitutional, in view of this section, where the subjects embraced in the statute, and not expressed in the title, have congruity or proper connection. Dewitt v. San Francisco, 3 Cal. 289. This section is merely directory. Washington v. Page, 4 Cal. 888.

SEC, 27. No lottery shall be authorized by this state, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed. • . SEC. 28. The enumeration of the inhabitants of this state shall be taken, under the direction of the legislature, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, and one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, and at the end of every ten years thereafter; and these enumerations, together with the census that may be taken, under the direction of the congress of the United States, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty, and every subsequent ten years, shall serve as the basis of representation in both houses of the legislature. SEC, 29. The number of senators and members of assembly shall, at the first session of the legislature holden after the enumerations herein provided for are made, be fixed by the legislature, and apportioned among the several counties and districts to be established by law, according to the number of white inhabitants. The number of members of assembly shall not be less than twenty-four, nor more than thirty-six, until the number of inhabitants within this state shall amount to one hundred thousand; and, after that period, at such ratio that the whole number of members of assembly shall never be less than thirty, nor more than eighty. SEC. 30. When a congressional, senatorial or assembly district, shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be separated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a congressional, senatorial or assembly district. SEC. 31. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal purposes.' All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered from time to time, or repealed. SEC. 32. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liability of the corporators, and other means, as may be prescribed by law. SEC. 33. The term corporations, as used in this article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock compa

"The term “municipal" is limited to governmental, and cannot be extended to commercial purposes. Lowe v. Marysville, 5 Cal 214.

nies having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to be sued, in all courts, in like cases as natural persons. SEC. 34. The legislature shall have no power to pass any act granting any charter for banking purposes; but associations may be formed, under general laws, for the deposit of gold and silver; but no such association shall make, issue or put in circulation, any bill, check, ticket, certificate, promissory note, or other paper, or the paper of any bank, to circulate as money. SEC. 35. The legislature of this state shall prohibit by law any person or persons, association, company or corporation, from exercising the privileges of banking, or creating paper to circulate as money. SEC. 36. Each stockholder of a corporation or joint-stock association shall be individually and personally liable for his proportion of all its debts and liabilities. SEC. 37. It shall be the duty of the legislature to provide for the organization of cities and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessments and in contracting debts by such municipal corporations. SEc. 38. In all elections by the legislature the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journal.

ARTICLE V.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

SECTION 1. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the state of California.

SEC. 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and places of voting for members of assembly, and shall hold his office two years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be qualified.

SEC. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor (except at the first election) who has not been a citizen of the

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