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SEC. 15. The justices of the supreme court, and judges of the district courts, shall severally, at stated times during their continuation in office, receive for their services a compensation to be paid out of the treasury, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected. The county judges shall also severally, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation to be paid out of the county treasury of their respective counties, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected. SEc. 16. The justices of the supreme court and district judges shall be ineligible to any other office during the term for which they shall have been elected. SEC. 17. Judges shall not charge juries with respect to matters of fact, but may state the testimony and declare the law. SEC. 18. The style of all process shall be “The people of the state of California;' and all prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the same.

ARTICLE VII.
MILITIA.

SECTION 1. The legislature shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia, in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the constitution and laws of the United States.

SEC. 2. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed, in such manner as the legislature shall from time to time direct, and shall be commissioned by the governor.

SEC. 3. The governor shall have power to call forth the militia, to execute the laws of the state, to suppress insurrections and repel invasions. o

o ARTICLE VIII.
STATE DEBTS.

The legislature shall not in any manner create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities, which shall singly, or in the aggre

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gate, with any previous debts or liabilities, exceed the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, except in case of war, to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized by some law for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified therein, which law shall provide ways and means, exclusive of loans, for the payment of the interest of such debt or liability, as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until the principal and interest thereon shall be paid and discharged; but no such law shall take effect until, at a general election, it shall have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election; and all money raised by authority of such law, shall be applied only to the specific object therein stated, or to the payment of the debt thereby created; and such law shall be published in at least one newspaper in each judicial district, if one be published therein, throughout the state, for three months next preceding the election at which it is submitted to the people.'

A RTICLE IX.
EDUCATION.

SECTION 1. The legislature shall provide for the election, by the people, of a superintendent of public instruction, who shall hold his office for three years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law, and who shall receive such compensation as the legislature may direct.

SEC. 2. The legislature shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improvement. The proceeds of all lands that may be granted by the United States to this state for the support of schools, which may be sold or disposed of, and the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new states, under an act of congress distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several states of the Union, approved A. D. one thousand eight hundred and forty-one; and all estates of deceased persons who may have died without leaving a will, or heir, and also such per cent. as may be granted by congress on the sale of lands in this state, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with all the rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the legislature may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools throughout the state. SEC. 3. The legislature shall provide for a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each district at least three months in every year, and any school district neglecting to keep up and support such a school may be deprived of its proportion of the interest of the public fund during such neglect. SEC. 4. The legislature shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may hereafter be reserved or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, to this state for the use of a university; and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and remain a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be applied to the support of said university, with such branches as the public convenience may demand, for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the legislature, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said university.

* The entire state debt over three hundred thousand dollars, declared unconstitutional. People v. Johnson, Oct. T. 1856. Nougues v. Douglass, Jan. T. 1857.

A R T I C L E X.
MODE OF AMENDING AND REVISING THE CONSTITUTION.

SECTION 1. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution, may be proposed in the senate or assembly; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the legislature then next to be chosen, and shall be published for three months next preceding the time of making such choice. And if, in the legislature next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the legislature to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people, in such manner and at such time as the legislature shall prescribe; and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the legislature voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become part of the constitution. SEc. 2. And if, at any time, two-thirds of the senate and assembly shall think it necessary to revise or change this entire constitution, they shall recommend to the electors, at the next election for members of the legislature, to vote for or against a convention, and if it shall appear that a majority of the electors, voting at such election, have voted in favor of calling a convention, the legislature shall, at its next session, provide, by law, for calling a convention, to be holden within six months after the passage of such law; and such convention shall consist of a number of members, not less than that of both branches of the legislature. The constitution that may have been agreed upon and adopted by such convention, shall be submitted to the people, at a special election, to be provided for by law, for their ratification or rejection; each voter shall express his opinion by depositing in the ballot-box a ticket, whereon shall be written or printed, the words “for the new constitution,” or “against the new constitution.” The returns of such election shall, in such manner as the convention shall direct, be certified to the executive of the state, who shall call to his assistance the controller, treasurer and secretary of state, and compare the votes so certified to him. If, by such examination, it be ascertained that a majority of the whole number of votes cast at such election, be in favor of such new constitution, the executive of this state shall, by his proclamation, declare such new constitution to be the constitution of the state of California.-[Am. Nov. 4, 1856.]

A RTICLE XI.
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

SECTION 1. The first session of the legislature shall be held at the Pueblo de San José; which place shall be the permanent seat of government, until removed by law; provided, however, that two-thirds of all the members elected to each house of the legislature shall concur in the passage of such law.” SEC. 2. Any citizen of this state who shall, after the adoption of this constitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons, or send or accept a challenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons, either within this state or out of it; or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid or assist in any manner those thus offending, shall not be allowed to hold any office of profit or to enjoy the right of suffrage under this constitution. SEC. 3. Members of the legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial, except such inferior officers as may be by law exempted, shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of California, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of , according to the best of my ability.” And no other oath, declaration, or test, shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust. SEC. 4. The legislature shall establish a system of county and town governments, which shall be as nearly uniform as practicable throughout the state. SEC. 5. The legislature shall have power to provide for the election of a board of supervisors in each county; and these supervisors shall jointly and individually perform such duties as may be prescribed by law. SEC. 6. All officers whose election or appointment is not pro

1 This section places the location of the capital in the discretion of the legislature, and it is not subject to the control of the judiciary. People v. Bigler, 5 Cal. 28.

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