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(1) those lawfully in existence on the date of enactment of this subsection,

(2) those lawfully on any highway made a part of the interstate or primary system on or after the date of enactment of this subsection and before January 1, 1968, and

(3) those lawfully erected on or after January 1, 1968. The Federal share of such compensation shall be 75 per centum. Such compensation shall be paid for the following:

(A) The taking from the owner of such sign, display, or device of all right, title, leasehold, and interest in such sign, display, or device; and

(B) The taking from the owner of the real property on which the sign, display, or device is located, of the right to erect and maintain such signs, displays, and devices thereon.

(h) All public lands or reservations of the United States which are adjacent to any portion of the Interstate System and the primary system shall be controlled in accordance with the provisions of this section and the national standards promulgated by the Secretary.

(i) In order to provide information in the specific interest of the traveling public, the State highway departments are authorized to maintain maps and to permit informational directories and advertising pamphlets to be made available at safety rest areas. Subject to the approval of the Secretary, a State may also establish information centers at safety rest areas for the purpose of informing the public of places of interest within the State and providing such other information as a State may consider desirable.

(j) Any State highway department which has, under this section as in effect on June 30, 1965, entered into an agreement with the Secretary to control the erection and maintenance of outdoor advertising signs, displays, and devices in areas adjacent to the Interstate System shall be entitled to receive the bonus payments as set forth in the agreement, but no such State highway department shall be entitled to such payments unless the State maintains the control required under such agreement. Such payments shall be paid only from appropriations made to carry out this section. The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to exempt any State from controlling outdoor advertising as otherwise provided in this section.

(k) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a State from establishing standards imposing stricter limitations with respect to signs, displays, and devices on the Federal-aid highway systems than those established under this section.

(1) Not less than sixty days before making a final determination to withhold funds from a State under subsection (b) of this section, or to do so under subsection (b) of section 136, or with respect to failing to agree as to the size, lighting, and spacing of signs, displays, and devices or as to unzoned commercial or industrial areas in which signs, displays, and devices may be erected and maintained under subsection (d) of this section, or with respect to

failure to approve under subsection (g) of section 136, the Secretary shall give written notice to the State of his proposed determination and a statement of the reasons therefor, and during such period shall give the State an opportunity for a hearing on such determination. Following such hearing the Secretary shall issue a written order setting forth his final determination and shall furnish a copy of such order to the State. Within forty-five days of receipt of such order, the State may appeal such order to any United States district court for such State, and upon the filing of such appeal such order shall be stayed until final judgment has been entered on such appeal. Summons may be served at any place in the United States. The court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the determination of the Secretary or to set it aside, in whole or in part. The judgment of the court shall be subject to review by the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the State is located and to the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in title 28, United States Code, section 1254. If any part of an apportionment to a State is withheld by the Secretary under subsection (b) of this section or subsection (b) of section 136, the amount so withheld shall not be reapportioned to the other States as long as a suit brought by such State under this subsection is pending. Such amount shall remain available for apportionment in accordance with the final judgment and this subsection. Funds withheld from apportionment and subsequently apportioned or reapportioned under this section shall be available for expenditure for three full fiscal years after the date of such apportionment or reapportionment as the case may be.

(m) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out the provisions of this section, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1967, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, not to exceed $27,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, not to exceed $20,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, and not to exceed $50,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973. The provisions of this chapter relating to the obligation, period of availability and expenditure of Federal-aid primary highway funds shall apply to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967.

(n) No sign, display, or device shall be required to be removed under this section if the Federal share of the just compensation to be paid upon removal of such sign, display, or device is not available to make such payment. (Pub. L. 85–767, Aug. 27, 1958, 72 Stat. 904; Pub. L. 86–342, title I, § 106, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 612; Pub. L. 87-61, title I, $ 106, June 29, 1961, 75 Stat. 123; Pub. L. 88–157, § 5, Oct. 24, 1963, 77 Stat. 277; Pub. L. 89-285, title I, $ 101, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1028; Pub. L. 89-574, $ 8(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 90–495, $ 6(a)-(d), Aug. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 91-605, title I, § 122(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1726.)

1963–Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–157 substituted "July 1, 1965" for "July 1, 1963."

1961–Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87-61 substituted “July 1, 1963" for "July 1, 1961."

1959–Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–342 substituted "Agreements entered into between the Secretary of Commerce and State highway departments under this section shall not apply to those segments of the Interstate System which traverse commercial or industrial zones within the presently existing boundaries of incorporated municipalities wherein the use of real property adjacent to the Interstate System is subject to municipal regulation or control, or which traverse other areas where the land use, as of the date of approval of this Act, is clearly established by State law as industrial or commercial" for "Upon application of the State, any such agreement may, within the discretion of the Secretary of Commerce consistent with the national policy, provide for excluding from application of the national standards segments of the Interstate System which traverse incorporated municipallties wherein the use of real property adjacent to the Interstate System is subject to municipal regulation or control, or which traverse other areas where the land use is clearly established by State law as industrial or commercial."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1968 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 90–495 effective Aug. 23, 1968, see section 37 of Pub. L. 90–495, set out as a note under section 502 of this title.

REFERENCES IN TEXT "This Act", referred to in subsec. (d), probably has reference to the "Highway Beautification Act of 1965", Pub. L. 89-285, which is classified to this section and sections 136 and 319 and 135 note of this title.

The "date of enactment of this subsection", referred to in subsec. (g), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 89285, which was approved on October 22, 1965.

AMENDMENTS 1970_Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 91-605 authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $27,000,000, $20,500,000 and $50,000,000, for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, 1972, and 1973, respectively.

1968—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–495, $ 6(a), provided that whenever a bona fide State, county, or local zoning authority has made a determination of customary use, such determination will be accepted in lieu of controls by agreement in the zoned commercial and industrial areas within the geographical jurisdiction of such authority.

Subsec. (1). Pub. L. 90–495, $ 6(b), struck out provision for the imposition of controls on outdoor advertising by the Federal government that are stricter than those imposed by the State highway department.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 90–495, $ 6(c), added provision authorizing an appropriation of not to exceed $2,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 90–495, $ 6(d), added subsec. (n).

1966—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89-574 substituted provisions making applicable to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967 the provisions of chapter 1 of this title relating to the obligation, period of availability, and expenditure of Federal-aid primary highway funds for

provisions prohibiting the use of any part of the Highway Trust Fund in carrying out this section.

1965--Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89-285 deleted specific reference to the area which lies within six-hundred and sixty feet of the edge of the right-of-way and which is visible from the right-of-way and instead made only general reference to the areas adjacent to the Interstate System and deleted reference to types of permissible signs.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–285 substituted provisions reducing by 10 per centum the apportioned share, on or after January 1, 1968, of any state not making provision for effective control of erection and maintenance of outdoor advertising signs, displays and devices within sixhundred and sixty feet of the nearest edge of the right of way and visible from the traveled portion, reapportioning withheld funds to other states, and allowing for suspension of such provisions in the discretion of the Secretary, for provisions which authorized the Secretary to enter into agreements with the states to carry out national policy on control of areas adjacent to the Interstate System.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89-285 substituted provisions setting out permissible types of signs as directional and other official signs and notices, signs advertising sale or lease of property on which the sign is located, and signs, displays, and devices advertising activities conducted on the property on which the sign is located, for provisions allowing for an increase in the federal share payable under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, as amended, in the case of states entering into an agreement with the Secretary prior to July 1, 1965.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89-285 substituted provisions allowing for agreements between the Secretary and the several states covering commercial or industrial property, for provisions covering control of the adjacent area when the Interstate System is located on or near public lands or reservations of the United States.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–285 substituted provisions setting out the timetable for removal of signs, displays, and devices lawfully along Interstate System or Federal-aid primary system highways, for provisions allowing the inclusion of the cost of purchase or condemnation of the right to advertise or control advertising in the area adjacent to Interstate System right-of-way as part of the cost of construction.

Subsecs. (f)-(m). Pub. L. 89-285 added subsecs. (f)-(m).

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS All functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary of Commerce and other officers and offices of the Department of Commerce under this title and nder specific related laws and parts of laws set out in the notes in this title relating generally to highways and highway and traffic safety were transferred to and vested in the Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89-670, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 931, which created the Department of Transportation. See section 1655(a) (1). (6) of Title 49, Transportation.

ACQUISITION OF DWELLINGS Section 305 of Pub. L. 89-285 provided that: "Nothing in this

Act

or the amendments made by this Act (amending this section and section 319 of this title and enacting section 136 of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 135 and 136 of this title) shall be construed to authorize the use of eminent domain to acquire any dwelling (including related buildings).” AUTHORIZATION OF ADDITIONAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR

ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES Section 402 of Pub. L. 89-285 provided that: "In addition to any other amounts authorized by this Act and the amendments made by this Act (amending this section and section 319 of this title and enacting section 136 of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 135 and 136 of this title), there is authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to the Secretary of Commerce not to exceed $5,000,000 for administrative expenses in carrying out this Act (including amendments made by this Act)."

HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION COMMISSION Section 123 of Pub. L. 91-605 provided that:

“(a) There is hereby established a commission to be known as the Commission on Highway Beautification, hereinafter referred to as the 'Commission'.

“(b) The Commission shall be comprised of eleven members as follows:

"(1) two majority and two minority members of the Senate Committee on Public Works to be appointed by the President of the Senate;

“(2) two majority and two minority members of the House Committee on Public Works to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives;

“(3) three persons to be appointed by the President of the United States from among persons who are not officers or employees of the United States.

"(c) The Chairman shall be elected from among the members of the Commission by a majority vote of such members. Any vacancy which may occur on the commission shall not affect its powers or functions but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

"(d) The organization meeting of the Commission shall be held at such time and place as may be specified in a call issued jointly by the senior member appointed by the President of the Senate and the senior member appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

“(e) Six members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a smaller number, as determined by the Commission, may conduct hearings.

"(f) Members of Congress who are members of the Commission shall serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as Members of Congress; but they shall be reimbursed for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of the duties vested in the Commission.

"(g) Members of the Commission who are not Members of Congress or officers or employees in the executive branch shall each receive $100 per diem when engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Commission, plus reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of such duties.

"(h) The Commission shall (1) study existing statutes and regulations governing the control of outdoor advertising and junkyards in areas adjacent to the Federal-aid highway system; (2) review the policies and practices of the Federal and State agencies charged with administrative jurisdiction over such highways insofar as such policies and practices relate to governing the control of outdoor advertising and junkyards; (3) compile data necessary to understand and determine the requirements for such control which may now exist or are likely to exist within the foreseeable future; (4) study problems relating to the control of on-premise outdoor advertising signs, promotional signs, directional signs, and signs providing information that is essential to the motoring public; (5) study methods of financing and possible sources of Federal funds, including use of the Highway Trust Fund, to carry out a highway beautification program; and (6) recommend such modifications or additions to existing laws, regulations, policies, practices, and demonstration programs as will, in the judgment of the Commission, achieve & workable and effective highway beautification program and best serve the public interest.

"(1) The Commission shall, not later than one year after the funding of this section submit to the President and the Congress its final report. It shall cease to exist six months after submission of said report. All records and papers of the Commission shall thereupon be delivered to the Administrator of General Services for deposit in the Archives of the United States.

"(1) The Chairman of the Commission shall request the head of each Federal department or independent agency which has an interest in or responsibility with respect to the control of outdoor advertising and of junkyards to appoint, and the head of such department or agency shall appoint, a liaison officer who shall work closely with the Commission and its staff in matters pertaining to this section.

“(k) In carrying out its duties the Commission shall seek the advice of various groups interested in the problems relating to the control of outdoor advertising and Junkyards including, but not limited to, State and local governments, public and private organizations working in the fields of environmental protection and conservation, communications media, commercial advertising interests, industry, education, and labor.

"(1) The Commission or, on authorization of the Commission, any committee of two or more members may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, hold such hearings and sit and act at such times and places as the Commission or such authorized committee may deem advisable. Subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses or the production of written or other matter may be issued only on the authority of the Commission and shall be served by anyone designated by the Chairman of the Commission.

"(m) The Commission is authorized to secure from any department, agency, or individual instrumentality of the executive branch of the Government any information it deems necessary to carry out its functions under this section and each such department, agency, and instrumentality is authorized and directed to furnish such information to the Commission upon request made by the Chairman.

"(n) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums, but not more than $200,000, as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section and such moneys as may be appropriated shall be avallable to the Commission until expended.

"(0) The Commission is authorized to appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director, and such additional personnel as may be necessary to enable it to carry out its functions. The Director and personnel may be appointed without regard to provisions of title 5, United States Code, covering appointments in the competitive service, and may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates. Any Federal employees subject to the civil service laws and regulations who may be employed by the Commission shall retain civil service status without interruption or loss of status or privilege. In no event shall the staff director or any other employee recelve as compensation an amount in excess of the maximum rate for GS-18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code. In addition, the Commission is authorized to obtain the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed $100 per diem for individuals.

"(p) The Commission is authorized to enter into contracts or agreements for studies and surveys with public and private organizations and, if necessary, to transfer funds to Federal agencies from sums appropriated pursuant to this section to carry out such of its duties as the Commission determines can best be carried out in that manner." COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION

PROGRAMS Section 302 of Pub. L. 89–285 provided that in order to provide the basis for eavluating the continuing programs authorized by Pub. L. 89-285, and to furnish the Congress with the information necessary for authorization of appropriations for fiscal years beginning after June 30, 1967, the Secretary, in cooperation with the State highway departments, shall make a detalled estimate of the cost of carrying out the provisions of Pub. L. 89-885, and a comprehensive study of the economic impact of such programs on affected individuals and commercial and industrial enterprises, the effectiveness of such programs and the public and private benefits realized thereby, and alternate or improved methods of accomplishing the objectives of Pub. L. 89-285. The Secretary was required to submit such detalled estimate and a report concerning such comprehensive study to the Congress not later than January 10, 1967. STANDARDS, CRITERIA, RULES AND REGULATIONS; REPORT TO

CONGRESS
Section 303 of Pub. L. 89-285 provided that:

"(a) Before the promulgation of standards, criteria, and rules and regulations, necessary to carry out sections 131 and 136 of title 23 of the United States Code, the Secretary of Commerce shall hold public hearings in each State for the purpose of gathering all relevant information on which to base such standards, criteria, and rules and regulations.

"(b) The Secretary of Commerce shall report to Con. gress, not later than January 10, 1967, all standards, criteria, and rules and regulations to be applied in cartying out sections 131 and 136 of title 23 of the United States Code." TAKING OF PRIVATE PROPERTY WITHOUT JUST

COMPENSATION Section 401 of Pub, L. 89-285 provided that: "Nothing in this Act or the amendments made by this Act (amending this section and section 319 of this title and enacting

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$ 136. Control of junkyards.

(a) The Congress hereby finds and declares that the establishment and use and maintenance of junkyards in areas adjacent to the Interstate System and the primary system should be controlled in order to protect the public investment in such highways, to promote the safety and recreational value of public travel, and to preserve natural beauty.

(b) Federal-aid highway funds apportioned on or after January 1, 1968, to any State which the Secretary determines has not made provision for effective control of the establishment and maintenance along the Interstate System and the primary system of outdoor junkyards, which are within one thousand feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way and visible from the main traveled way of the system, shall be reduced by amounts equal to 10 per centum of the amounts which would otherwise be apportioned to such State under section 104 of this title, until such time as such State shall provide for such effective control. Any amount which is withheld from apportionment to any State hereunder shall be reapportioned to the other States. Whenever he determines it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may suspend, for such periods as he deems necessary, the application of this subsection to a State.

(c) Effective control means that by January 1, 1968, such junkyards shall be screened by natural objects, plantings, fences, or other appropriate means so as not to be visible from the main traveled way of the system, or shall be removed from sight.

(d) The term "junk" shall mean old or scrap copper, brass, rope, rags, batteries, paper, trash, rubber debris, waste, or junked, dismantled, or wrecked automobiles, or parts thereof, iron, steel, and other old or scrap ferrous or nonferrous material.

(e) The term "automobile graveyard" shall mean any establishment or place of business which is maintained, used, or operated for storing, keeping, buying, or selling wrecked, scrapped, ruined, or dismantled motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts.

(f) The term “junkyard" shall mean an establishment or place of business which is maintained, operated, or used for storing, keeping, buying, or selling junk, or for the maintenance or operation of an automobile graveyard, and the term shall include garbage dumps and sanitary fills.

(g) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, junkyards, auto graveyards, and scrap metal processing facilities may be operated within areas adjacent to the Interstate System and the primary system which are within one thousand feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way and which are zoned in

dustrial under authority of State law, or which are not zoned under authority of State law, but are used for industrial activities, as determined by the several States subject to approval by the Secretary.

(h) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, any junkyard in existence on the date of enactment of this section which does not conform to the requirements of this section and which the Secretary finds as a practical matter cannot be screened, shall not be required to be removed until July 1, 1970.

(1) The Federal share of landscaping and screening costs under this section shall be 75 per centum.

(j) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the relocation, removal, or disposal of the following junkyards

(1) those lawfully in existence on the date of enactment of this subsection.

(2) those lawfully along any highway made a part of the interstate or primary system on or after the enactment of this subsection and before January 1, 1968, and

(3) those lawfully established on or after January 1, 1968. The Federal share of such compensation shall be 75 per centum.

(k) All public lands or reservations of the United States which are adjacent to any portion of the interstate and primary systems shall be effectively controlled in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(1) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a State from establishing standards imposing stricter limitations with respect to outdoor junkyards on the Federal-aid highway systems than those established under this section.

(m) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1967, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, and not to exceed $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973. The provisions of this chapter relating to the obligation, period of availability, and expenditure of Federal-aid primary highway funds shall apply to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967. (Added Pub. L. 89–285, title II, $ 201, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1030, and amended Pub. L. 89-574, § 8(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 90–495, $ 6(c), Aug. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 91-605, title I, § 122(b), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1726.)

AMENDMENTS 1970—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 91-605 authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $3,000,000, $3,000,000, and $5,000,000, for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, 1972, and 1973, respectively.

1968–Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 90–495 added provision authorizing an appropriation of not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970.

1966—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89-574 substituted provisions making applicable to the funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section after June 30, 1967, the provisions of chapter 1 of this title relating to the obligation, period of availability, and expenditure of "(c) The Chairman shall be elected from among the members of the Commission by a majority vote of such members. Any vacancy which may occur on the Commission shall not affect its powers or functions but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

"(d) The organization meeting of the Commission shall be held at such time and place as may be specified in a call issued jointly by the senior member appointed by the President of the Senate and the senior member appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

"(e) Six members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a smaller number, as determined by the commission, may conduct hearings.

(1) Members of Congress who are members of the Commission shall serve without compensation in addition to that recelyed for their services as Members of Congress; but they shall be reimbursed for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of the duties vested in the Commission.

"(8) Members of the Commission who are not Members of Congress or officers or employees in the executive branch shall each recelve $100 per diem when engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Commission, plus reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the performance of such duties.

"(h) The Commission shall (1) study existing statutes and regulations governing the control of outdoor advertising and junkyards in areas adjacent to the Federal-ald highway system; (2) review the policies and practices of the Federal and State agencies charged with administrative jurisdiction over such highways insofar as such policies and practices relate to governing the control of outdoor advertising and junkyards; (3) compile data necessary to understand and determine the requirements for such control which may now exist or are likely to exist within the foreseeable future; (4) study problems relating to the control of on-premise outdoor advertising signs, promotional signs, directional signs, and signs providing information that is essential to the motoring public; (5) study methods of financing and possible sources of Federal funds, including use of the Highway Trust Fund, to carry out a highway beautification program; and (6) recommend such modifications or additions to existing laws, regulations, policies, practices, and demonstration programs as will, in the judgment of the Commission, achieve & workable and effective highway beautification program and best serve the public interest.

“(1) The Commission shall, not later than one year after the funding of this section submit to the President and the Congress its final report. It shall cease to exist six months after submission of said report. All records and papers of the Commission shall thereupon be delivered to the Administrator of General Services for deposit in the Archives of the United States.

"(J) The Chairman of the Commission shall request the head of each Federal department or independent agency which has an interest in or responsibility with respect to the control of outdoor advertising and of junkyards to appoint, and the head of such department or agency shall appoint, a liaison officer who shall work closely with the Commission and its staff in matters pertaining to this section.

"(k) In carrying out its duties the Commission shall seek the advice of various groups interested in the problems relating to the control of outdoor advertising and junkyards including, but not limited to, State and local governments, public and private organizations working in the fields of environmental protection and conservation, communications media, commercial advertising interests, industry, education, and labor.

(1) The Commission or, on authorization of the Commission, any committee of two or more members may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, hold such hearings and sit and act at such times and places as the Commission or such authorized committee may deem advisable. Subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses or the production of written or other matter may be issued only on the authority of the Commission and shall be served by anyone designated by the Chairman of the Commission.

"(m) The Commission is authorized to secure from any department, agency, or individual instrumentality of the executive branch of the Government any information it deems necessary to carry out its functions under this section and each such department, agency, and instrumentality is authorized and directed to furnish such information to the Commission upon request made by the Chairman.

"(n) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums, but not more than $200,000, as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section and such moneys as may be appropriated shall be available to the Commission until expended.

"(0) The Commission is authorized to appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director, and such additional personnel as may be necessary to enable it to carry out its functions. The Director and personnel may be appointed without regard to provisions of title 5, United States Code, covering appointments in the competitive service, and may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 63 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates. Any Federal employees subject to the civil service laws and regulations who may be employed by the Commission shall retain civil service status without interruption or loss of status or privilege. In no event shall the stafi director or any other employee recelve as compensation an amount in excess of the maximum rate for GS-18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code. In addition, the Commission is authorized to obtain the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed $100 per diem for individuals.

“(p) The Commission is authorized to enter into contracts or agreements for studies and surveys with public and private organizations and, if necessary, to transfer funds to Federal agencies from sums appropriated pursuant to this section to carry out such of its duties as the Commission determines can best be carried out in that manner." COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION

PROGRAMS Section 302 of Pub. L. 89-285 provided that in order to provide the basis for eavluating the continuing programs authorized by Pub. L. 89-285, and to furnish the Congress with the information necessary for authorization of appropriations for fiscal years beginning after June 30, 1967, the Secretary, in cooperation with the State highway departments, shall make a detailed estimate of the cost of carrying out the provisions of Pub. L. 89-885, and a comprehensive study of the economic impact of such programs on affected individuals and commercial and industrial enterprises, the effectiveness of such programs and the public and private benefits realized thereby, and alternate or improved methods of accomplishing the objectives of Pub. L. 89–285. The Secretary was required to submit such detalled estimate and a report concerning such comprehensive study to the Congress not later than January 10, 1967. STANDARDS, CRITERIA, RULES AND REGULATIONS; REPORT TO

CONGRESS
Section 303 of Pub. L. 89–285 provided that:

"(a) Before the promulgation of standards, criteria, and rules and regulations, necessary to carry out sections 131 and 136 of title 23 of the United States Code, the Secretary of Commerce shall hold public hearings in each State for the purpose of gathering all relevant information on which to base such standards, criteria, and rules and regulations.

"(b) The Secretary of Commerce shall report to Congress, not later than January 10, 1967, all standards, criteria, and rules and regulations to be applied in cartying out sections 131 and 136 of title 23 of the United States Code." TAKING OF PRIVATE PROPERTY WITHOUT JUST

COMPENSATION Section 401 of Pub. L. 89-285 provided that: "Nothing in this Act or the amendments made by this Act (amending this section and section 319 of this title and enacting

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