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thrown down, may be thus quoted from his own directions :
“Everything that we want to teach a horse must be commenced in some way to give him an idea of what you want him to do, and then be repeated till he learns perfectly.
“To make a horse lie down, bend his left fore-leg and slip a loop over it, so that he cannot get it down. Then put a surcingle round his body, and fasten one end of a long strap around the other fore-leg, just above the hoof. Place the other end under the surcingle so as to keep the strap in the right direction; take a short hold of it with your right hand ; stand on the left side of the horse ; grasp the bit in your left hand ; pull steadily on the strap with your right; bear against his shoulder till you cause him to move. As soon as he lifts his weight, your pulling will raise the other foot, and he will have to come on his knees.
“Keep the strap tight in your hand, so that he cannot straighten his leg if he rises up. Hold him in this position, and turn his head towards you ; bear against his side with your shoulder, not hard, but with a steady equal pressure, and in about ten minutes he will be down. As soon as he lies down he will be completely conquered, and you can handle him at your pleasure.
“Take off the straps and straighten out his legs; rub him lightly about the face and neck with your hand the way the hair lies ; handle all his legs, and after he has lain ten or twenty minutes let him get up again. After resting him a short time make him lie down and get up as before. Repeat the operation three or four times, which will be sufficient for one lesson.
“Give him two lessons a-day; and when you have given him four lessons he will lie down by taking hold of one foot. As soon as he is well broken to lie down in this way, tap him on the opposite leg with a stick when you take hold of his foot, and in a few days he will lie down from the mere motion of the stick.”
For the purpose of handling horses more easily without casting them, when slight operations have to be performed, a twitch is used, made by 7 or 8 inches of cord formed into a noose, which is attached to about 2 feet of a strong stick. The noose is placed on the upper lip of the horse, and by turning the stick round and round, it is tightened. The pain thus occasioned to the animal subdues him to bear almost anything, and he can thus be subjected to minor operations while standing, but it is also as well to place a cloth over his eyes to prevent his being too well informed of what is going on,-a precaution which may be used with advantage under various other circumstances, such as measuring the height, when the sight of the sizemeasure as placed against his shoulder might alarm him ;-in fact, upon any occasion when it may be desirable that a horse should not be aware of what is passing around him ; for instance, if he is unwilling to go on board ship or into a horse-van.
TO GIVE A BALL.
Turn the animal round in the stall so as to have his head to the right, making the least possible fuss or noise.
Stand on a stool on the off side, and, gently putting
your hand in the mouth, draw the tongue a little out; place the fingers of the left hand over it, and keep it firmly in this position by pressure against the jawą not holding the tongue by itself, as a restless horse, by suddenly drawing back or sideways while his tongue is tightly held, may seriously injure himself.
The ball, having been oiled to cause it to pass easily, is to be taken between the tips of the fingers of the right hand, and then, making the hand as small as possible, pass the ball up the mouth by the roof to avoid injury from the teeth. Directly the ball is landed well up on the root of the tongue, take away that hand, and as soon as it is out of the mouth, let the left hand release the tongue, which, in the act of being drawn to its proper place, will help the ball down.
An assistant standing at the near side may be useful to hand the ball to the operator, and to gently keep the jaws open while the ball is being given.
Have a warm drink ready to give immediately after the ball is taken.
It may be remarked that in racing stables, where such things are generally well done, young and small boys will, quite alone, coolly take spirited, and often vicious animals, and in the most gentle manner administer the ball, unsuspected by the beast himself, who is hardly made aware of the operation he is undergoing.
To give a Drench.—Turn the animal round in his stall as in administering a ball. Use a cow's horn, the wide end having been closed up by a tinman.
Pour in the liquid at the narrow end, the mouth of which should be an inch in diameter.
The operator, standing on the off side, should have an assistant; both should be tall, or make themselves so by standing on firm stools or a form.
The assistant must raise the horse's head till his mouth is above the level of his forehead, and keep it in that elevated position steadily while the drench is administered—such position being necessary to facilitate the passage of the liquid down the throat by its own gravity, the tongue not being here an available agent, as with the ball.
The operator, taking the wide end of the horn in his right hand, can steady and assist himself by holding the upper jaw with his left, and, leaving the tongue at liberty, will discharge the drench from the horn below the root of the tongue if possible.
A proper drenching-horn should be always kept at hand, and be well cleaned after use.
A glass bottle should never on any account be substituted for the proper instrument.
Whenever an animal accustomed to high feeding and hard work is from any cause laid by, it is most desirable (in pursuance of the golden rule that prevention is better than cure) to take such opportunity to relax the hitherto tightly-strung bow, by administering a mild purge.
The object of this precaution is, that the absorbents, having been accustomed to a perpetual call as the result of perspiration induced by work, are liable, when the beast is left at rest for several days, and this call is thus discontinued, to take on unhealthy action, and
engender diseases, the most fatal of which is that scourge “Farcy.”
How many a fine horse, to all appearance in the best condition, have I seen stricken with this fell malady, from no other accountable cause than that which it is hereby proposed to guard against; besides, every one knows that any animal kept at rest and fed up is more predisposed to all kinds of inflammatory attacks, and when thus visited the system more readily succumbs.
More than this, every practical man is aware that an occasional aloetic purge improves the health, condition, and vigour of a horse.
It seems as if the aloes acted as a powerful tonic and renovator as well as purge.
What trainer will think of putting a lusty or ill-conditioned animal into “fettle” without employing this purge as a partial means ?
It is very dangerous to give a purging medicine to a horse without first preparing the bowels by relaxing them moderately with bran mashes.
This is best done by giving about three or four sloppy mashes, three in the course of the day preceding the administration of the purge (reducing the quantity of hay to one-third the usual amount), and one the first thing next morning, no water or hay being given beforehand that day; about two or three hours after the mash, administer the purge, giving just before and after it as much warm water as the beast will drink.
No hay should be allowed this day or night, but as many sloppy mashes, as will be accepted should be given. : Give two hours' brisk walking exercise in clothes about six or eight hours after the administration of the