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caused by a band, an organ, or other unusual noise, or even by the sudden entrance of the beast's own attendant, the bounding of a cat, &c.

Strangles generally attacks young horses about the age of maturity, or when first stabled. Debility gradually possesses them; the throat, and particularly the parotid glands under the ears, are sore and swelled, tending to distinguish this disease from ordinary cold and influenza; a discharge from the nose is also present. The sooner the suppurative process can be induced in the throat the better.

For this purpose rub in turpentine and oil (one part turpentine to two parts oil) once or twice a-day, which,when the skin becomes tender, must be carefully done with a sponge.

When the suppuration is ripe, a professional man should let it out with a knife, and recovery speedily ensues.

As great debility is attendant on this disease, the system should be kept up by bruised and scalded corn, and the appetite tempted in every way by green meats, minced carrots, &c, if requisite. Plenty of air is also essential.

It ought to be superfluous to remark that under such circumstances neither bleeding, purging, nor reducing means of any kind should be adopted, the bowels being merely kept open by bran and occasional linseed mashes, which will assist the mucous surfaces. The chill to be taken off the drink.

Soreness of the Throat frequently accompanies distemper or cold, and is indicated by want of appetite, constant endeavour to swallow the saliva, difficulty in imbibing liquids, which, instead of going down the throat, appear to be returned through the nostrils, noisy gulping, &c.

Rub the throat at once with a mixture of equal parts turpentine and oil, and keep up the irritation on the skin.

Administer 2 drachms of nitre once or twice the first twenty-four hours, the animal being, of course, laid by from all work, and placed in a loose-box; let him be fed on bran and linseed mashes, and given green food, carrots, and anything that will tempt his appetite.

Avoid purging, bleeding, or anything that will lower the system—a rule to be most particularly observed in 'all diseases of the respiratory organs, unless severe inflammation be present, when a professional man only can judge to what extent the lowering process may be necessary.

Broken Wind is caused by a large number of the aircells of the lungs becoming fused, as it were, into one large air-cell, thus diminishing the aerating surface, and rendering the lungs weaker. It is indicated by a sudden inspiration and a long, almost double, expiration; the flanks and abdomen are observed to suddenly fall down, instead of being gradually expanded.

Broken wind is, in fact, emphysema of the lung, and there is said to be no absolute cure for it; but it may be alleviated by restricting the animal in hay and water, and giving the latter only in small quantities, not more than half-a-pint at a time, and moistening all food.

Take care he does not eat his bed, which he will make every effort to do. He should have no straw about him in the day, and be muzzled at night.

Lampas does not belong properly to these diseases, indicating sonie derangement in the alimentary canal, 120 DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS, ETC.

but is here mentioned to guard against a brutal practice commonly resorted to by farriers as a cure for the disorder.

The groom complains that his charge is "off his feed," and fancies that the palate is swollen more than usual—the fact being that he never examined it at any other time; and the farrier proceeds to cure the rejection of food by searing the poor beast's mouth with a red-hot iron, or scarifying it with a knife. The reasonable treatment of an ailment proceeding from heat or disorder of the stomach will be to withhold all heating food, at all events to a great extent, giving occasional mashes, also tonics and alteratives, the latter to those of full habit, the former in cases of evident debility.

DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE AND URINARY ORGANS.

Diarrhoea and Dysentery.—The first (diarrhoea, or mere looseness) is, in the horse, seldom more than a temporary debility. In many cases it is an effort of nature to relieve herself, and will probably effect its own cure.

The symptoms require no definition, except that it may be remarked that they are almost invariably unaccompanied by pain or any other inconvenience. Eest, and the use of more astringent food, and leaving a piece of chalk in the manger (which, with horses subject to diarrhoea, should never be absent), will in all probability arrest the attack, which may, to a certain extent, proceed from a predisposition to acidity.

Animals disposed to this disease should be fed on a drier description of food.

Dysentery is, on the contrary, a highly dangerous illness, accompanied with pain.

It mostly commences with excessive purgation, the evacuations being mere foul water in appearance, and stinking. The beast will drink greedily; the pulse is weak; great anguish of body perceptible, the perspiration breaking out in patches.

On the first appearance of such dangerous symptoms, procure the assistance of a professional man; but in the interval the following drench may be given :—

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or,

Sulphuric ether and laudanum, of each one ounce.

Also injections of cold linseed-tea. The dose may be repeated in three or four hours, if medical assistance does not arrive. As great care is necessary in the diet, as well as general treatment, after partial recovery, everything should be done under professional advice.

An attack of dysentery is very likely to be caused by the existence of some acrid matter in the intestines, or by an overdose, or too constant use, of aloes.

As with diarrhoea, horses predisposed to dysentery ought always to have a lump of chalk in the manger, and constant or over-doses of aloes should be avoided.

COLIC AND GRIPES.

As these diseases are sudden, and require prompt treatment, it is well to have some idea of the kind of remedy to be employed, pending the arrival of the veterinary surgeon. Some animals are peculiarly subject to them, from a susceptible state of the alimentary canal. Cold water, taken on an empty stomach, or when a beast is heated, will cause the malady.

The symptoms are distress, evinced by pawing, lifting of the fore and hind feet towards the stomach, the head being turned towards the sides, with a look of anguish; a cold sweat will sometimes bedew the body. A desire to lie down may be exhibited, and when on the ground the animal rolls about in evident agony. The upper lip is strained upwards from the teeth, almost closing the nostrils, and the pulse indicates derangement of the system.

When the true character of the ailment has been ascertained, it is well to inquire as to the character of the evacuations. If they are in a lax state, and a cause for the same can be discovered, of course discontinue it, and use astringent clysters for the bowels (page 159). If there be reason to apprehend that some offending matter is retained in the alimentary canal, use emollient laxatives and clysters (pages 158 and 159). But if anything like costiveness is present, and other remedies fail, recourse must be had to that of "back-raking," a process which need not be here explained, being well known to every experienced groom, any one of whom may safely be intrusted with the operation, the only necessary precaution being to have rather a small hand used, and that well lubricated with lard or oil. Let all the faecal matter that can be reached be carefully extracted. Afterwards a warm enema, composed of one pint of turpentine mixed in two quarts of hot soap-suds, and a soothing drench of

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