1 oz. sulphuric ether,
1 oz. laudanum,
1 pint oil,

will be found efficacious.

In the early stages, “gripes," as they are called, may be cured by simply “back-raking,” followed by a drench of a bottle of ale, warmed and mixed with one ounce of powdered ginger, and a brisk trot in heavy clothing.

Under highly inflammatory symptoms, the professional man attending will probably bleed.

To guard against colic, avoid giving cold water when the beast is heated, or on a fasting stomach. With horses subject to gripes the water should always be given with the chill off, if possible, or just previous to a good grooming or other gentle exercise tending to circulate internal warmth. Never allow any animal the opportunity of gorging himself with any kind of food after the stomach has been weakened by extra-severe work and long fasting.

For costiveness only give soft bran or linseed mashes, or green feeding; and see treatment for excessive or painful costiveness, page 122.


or profuse staling, is unfortunately a common disease, and is generally attributed to something wrong in the water, but bad provender may occasion it.

Thirst is generally very great.

Give catechu, 2 drachms at a time, two or three times daily, in mashes.

Change the food or water, whichever on examination seems most objectionable. Give no hay or grass, but plenty of linseed tea to drink; give good bruised or scalded oats, with a small quantity of warm bran mixed in each feed, and leave a lump of chalk in manger: or administer diluted phosphoric acid, one ounce to one pint lukewarm water, twice daily, till the symptoms abate, then gradually reduce the dose.*

A horse once found to be subject to this disease should be very carefully fed and watered.


are indicated by a state of the coat called “hide-bound” and “staring,” with loss of condition and indisposition to work; by a slimy mucus covering the dung-balls ; also occasionally by the adherence of the parasites round the anus, and thin evacuation in the fæces.'

They cling so pertinaceously to the internals, that they will eat through the coat of the stomach, and are never likely to be removed by a single dose of any medicine. Spirit of turpentine is highly recommended as a cure, but if given it must be diluted largely—one part turpentine to four parts oil.

Practical experience of various remedies for worms justifies me in recommending one to two grains of arsenic and twenty grains of kamela twice daily (each dose mixed in a handful of wet bran, and given with oats

* This will be found almost a specific ; it is recommended by Mr Mayhew, and is said to have originated with Mr Woodyer, V.S., at Paddington. Professor Dick is also reputed to have been very successful in the treatment of this disease, by the use of small and repeated doses of iodine or iodide of potassium.

or other feeding) for eighteen days, and a purge the nineteenth morning.

The horse may get moderate work during the administration of the powders.

Common salt is also considered a good remedy: about a tablespoonful daily mixed with the food.

To guard against these pests, avoid the use of Egyptian beans; but as “bots” are mostly taken in at grass by the animal licking off and swallowing their larvæ laid in the hair of the legs, it is almost impossible to exclude them. In a few cases they are bred in the internals without any accountable cause, and against this no precaution can avail. · Liver Diseases, or the farriers' “Yellows,” so called from the fact that such cases are marked by the eyelids, linings of the nose, and lips when turned up, being found to be tinged more or less with yellow.

Here mercury must be administered, and aided by subsequent purging, as is necessary with the human subject.

Thus, give half a drachm to a drachm of calomel mixed in a little flour, and put in a mash of bran one evening, and next morning follow it up with the aloes purge-ball (page 108).

If the “yellows” be very marked, with other derangement of the system, give for two days one drachm of calomel daily in doses of half a drachm each, mixed in mashes as described above; and after two drachms have been taken in this way, administer on the third morning the aloetic purge.

Inflammation of the Kidneys and Bladder.—With regard to internal inflammation arising from various causes, the symptoms of distress bear a general resemblance to each other: legs spread out, extremities cold,

ho mashes agaily in doses, sive for the

breathing accelerated, and a look of pain pervading the animal's whole appearance, except that in diseases of the urinary organs there is generally a straddling gait ; and on observance of the genitals, some marked action in this region on the part of the beast will be discovered.

Such attacks can only be properly treated by a professional man, therefore lose no time in procuring his services; but, in the meanwhile, I shall observe that inflammation of the kidneys is, sad to say, too common to admit of its being passed by without offering some caution and advice regarding it, more for the purpose of prevention than cure.

Disease of the kidneys is generally brought on by the misuse by grooms of their favourite diuretics; a dose of nitre to “fine his legs,” or “ bloom his coat,” or for any other purpose to save themselves trouble, is the groom's specific for the poor creatures under their care; but so injurious are diuretics that masters ought to make their secret administration, as commonly practised by the class referred to, a case of instant dismissal.

The kidneys of the horse are peculiarly susceptible of action ; so much so, that purges frequently, in place of acting as intended, will take effect on them.

It should, besides, be borne in mind that while the kidneys are in artificial action and secreting an extra quantity of urine which is being passed away, the creature should have the same opportunity of rest, and as much consideration given him, as if he were in a state of purgation. The secretion is blood in its changed form, and is a serious call on the system. All this does not enter into the head of an ignorant groom, who, on the contrary, will work or treat the poor suffering creature as if he was in his best vigour.

Inflammation of the kidneys is marked by an appearance of general distress—hind legs straddled, the backbone hogged, urine small in quantity, tenderness over the loins when pressed.

If a practitioner be not procurable, immediately place warm mustard poultices over the loins, and cover them with sheepskins.

Give half a drachm extract of belladonna with half an ounce laudanum in a pint of linseed tea every four hours, and inject constantly with warm linseed tea.

Inflammation of the Bladder presents very similar symptoms to that of the kidneys, only that the bladder being farther away from the backbone, instead of the latter being hogged, it is rather depressed. In this case, as in inflammation of the kidneys, call in the veterinary surgeon ; meanwhile give the drink recommended for the kidneys, and though the surgeon's decision is desirable with regard to mustard blistering, the use of this counter-irritant should not be too long delayed ; therefore, in the event of his non-arrival within an hour or so, apply mustard blister to the stomach far back (between the flanks), as being nearest the seat of this disease.


Once more the old proverb that "prevention is better than cure” deserves to be dwelt upon, for very many diseases under this head can be prevented, and very few can ever be cured.

Generally speaking, the fore feet and hocks of a horse are the most susceptible of disease induced by wear and tear—the fore feet, because the greater part of the

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