Vol. XLI.




The Greatest Commercial City.

New York City, though more than 800 years younger than London, England, has grown to be the first city in the United States in population and commercial importance, the second city in the world in population, and first in commercial importance.

Henry Hudson, an English adventurer in the service of the Dutch East India Company, sailed up the river which bears his name in 1609. Another vessel from Holland did some profitable trading with the Indians, which brought three vessels in 1613 to establish trading posts, with Captain Christaensen in charge, and a small fort was built near Albany and one on Manhattan Island. In 1623 about 30 came over as traders and were divided be


tween the fort at Albany and the one on Manhattan Island; but in 1625 the real colonists began to arrive who came as home-makers and not as traders, and Peter Minuit was appointed Director General of the colony with power to organize a provisional government; and in 1626 he bought Manhattan Island from the Indians for $24 and christened the town New Amsterdam.

Minuit was succeeded in 1632 by Mouter Van Twiller, who built the first church, a bakery and a brewery, but was removed under charges in 1637 and William Keift succeeded him; but his administration was a failure and war with the Indians nearly extinguished the colony. Then came Peter Stuyvesant, a Hollander, who lost a leg in an attack upon the Spanish islands of St. Martin in 1602, who

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was director of its affairs from 1647 to 1664. He was autocratic but diplomatic, made peace with the Indians, and in 1664 Manhattan Island had 1,000 inhabitants.

England having claimed the whole continent, Charles II. sent the Duke of York and Albany to seize New Amsterdam, who arrived in August 1664. Stuyvesant wanted to fight but the mixed population did not like the East India Company any too well and demanded that he capitulate, which he finally did on September 8th and Colonel Nicolls took possession of the town and province in the name of the king, and for the use of the Duke of York and Albany, and New Amsterdam was renamed after the duke-New York, Albany getting its name from the same source.

In 1665 the New York City government was reorganized in accordance with the English custom, and in 1686 it received the charter which still forms the basis of its civic rights. Sir Edmond Andros, the first English governor, was overthrown in 1689 by the progressive party and the leader, Leisler, usurped the government until 1691, when he was hanged for


New York had an important part in the Revolutionary War, in that of 1812, and in 1861 to 1865 the city supplied 116,382 troops for the Civil War.

In 1805 the first free school was opened and in 1807 the first steamboat trip from New York to Albany was made. The

city was visited by a cholera epidemic in


1832, 1834, 1849 and 1854, and it had a disastrous fire in 1835, but it continued to grow in population and financial importance. The charter for Greater New York, which consolidated New York,

Brooklyn, Queens county, Staten Island and the Bronx, went into effect January 1, 1898, amended in 1901, which gives Greater New York, according to the census of 1900, 3,437,202 population. Greater New York presents figures for improvements and government almost beyond comprehension. It is lighted by gas and electricity at a cost of $3,000,000 per year. The waterworks system owned by the city cost $113,300,000 and has a capacity of 538,000,000 gallons per day, and an average consumption of 348,000,000 gallons. It has 2,466 miles of streets, 1,423 miles of sewers, and 1,670 miles of water mains. Removing garbage costs $5,000,000 a year, the fire department $4,500,000, police $11,200,000. The city gov

ernment is maintained at a cost of $86,000,000, the total for 1900 being $108,673,277.

Over one-half the imports and one-third of the export trade of the United States is carried on through the port of New York. Three-fourths of the immigrants entering the United States land at New York. The Standard Encyclopedia says that in 1902 New York had deposits representing more than $2,000,000,000 available for investment, the greatest amount of money accumulated in one place in so short a time in the history of the world. In 1901 London exchanges amounted to $46,000,000,000, while the exchanges in New York leaped to the great sum of $79,000,000,000; and while New York takes second place in population, it is fair to give it first place in commercial importance.

In Pursuit of a Lover.


Copyright, 1905, by Alice Louise Lee. Never was there an uncle watched over with more solicitous care than was Bennett Henry, and when a certain disquieting though vague report reached his niece she promptly laid aside her palette, wrote to Jane to air the front rooms and started for Alldale a month before the close of the New York Art School.



Greater New York has 109 parks, 580 churches, 425 public school buildings, 9 public high schools and 72 private secondary schools, 14 colleges and universities, and а very expensive and extensive endowed free library system.

In connection with this subject, we present a few pictures of the hundreds of interesting sights in this great city.



When her uncle met her at the station his appearance confirmed her worst fears. He was smoothly shaven, his iron gray hair was closely cropped, his suit new and jaunty, while-crowning shock-his head was surmounted by a tall silk hat. Josephine Henry scarcely recognized him.

"How d'ye do, Josie?" this new looking uncle inquired in the old, big, hearty voice.

Josephine stopped short and stared. "Uncle Ben! Where is your beard?"

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phasize her height. Her large black hat sent its broad brim out over a face which was capable of many expressions, but the predominating one was pride. She carried herself proudly, her head was well back, her figure erect, her step light. All her life she had cultivated the pose which best expressed her style-and expectations, for she was Bennett Henry's only heir and would continue such, provided he did not marry.

They came in sight of two white houses facing each other on opposite sides of the


street. Josephine gave one glance at her
uncle's house and bit her lips.
uncle, exceedingly uncomfortable, picked
at the fingers of his gloves and rattled on
at random.

"Awfully sorry, Jo, you've come back to such a lonesome house. If you'd waited awhile longer your mother 'd be back. Guess her sister is some better now. Mighty hard lines to be shut up in a sickroom this hot weather. Well, I hope Jane will feed you well. If she

doesn't you know where there's a boss cook and always welcome."

Josephine turned in at her gate, saying coldly and ceremoniously, "Thanks, uncle; I am sure Jane and I will get along nicely."

Jane admitted her. On the threshold Josephine turned and glanced at the carpenters at work beautifying the house opposite. "Uncle is making quite a change, is he not, Jane?" she remarked carelessly, and the girl grinned knowingly as she replied, "Folks do say, Miss Josephine, as he's gettin' ready for a bigger change."

Josephine smiled calmly, but it was with a heavy and angry heart that she went upstairs to her own room. She sat down in front of the window without stopping to remove her hat.

Her uncle, being an easygoing and jolly man, had shown alarming matrimonial symptoms before, but Josephine had always been enabled to check them by use of prompt and skillful



She reviewed her maneuvers as she sat staring at the improvements across the street. There was evident need of prompt action on her part, but she was handicapped by a lack of knowledge. She had yet to learn for whose benefit these changes were being made. She began to pass in review all the eligible women in Alldale, with a possible obstruction plan in each case, until the rattle of wheels and the rapid thud of horses' hoofs aroused her.

It was her uncle in his high hat and gloves, driving a smart new trap. The vehicle rolled down the long street and disappeared. It reappeared, crawling slowly up the side of the mountain which rose sharply from the town, and then-a

paralyzing fear seized Josephine. She dashed into her mother's room, seized a field-glass which lay on the table and was back at her post in a moment, raising the glass with unsteady hands. Halfway up the mountain side was perched a small brown house, standing out bare and unsheltered against the green. In front of that house Uncle Ben secured his horses and, sauntering up the steps with the air of one familiar with the place, sat down on the piazza. In a moment a woman came out of the house and joined him. Josephine lowered the glass. Her cheeks were flaming, her hands were cold. That brown house was the last house in Alldale where she would have her uncle call; Ellen Beck was the last woman in Alldale that she would have had her uncle choose. She sat down and stared at the door across the way. Was she too late? Her anger rose hotly against her uncle, who knew that she and Ellen Beck had been rivals from the time they had contended for the spelling prize in the fifth grade until the previous year, when Jim AshdownJosephine gave a sudden exclamation.

An idea had shot above her mental horizon, carrying in its wake a plan, an obstruction plan.

When she arose there was a tight, unpleasant expression about her lips. The expression deepened as she unpacked her trunks. She carefully shook out the folds of a handsome ecru silk, one of Bennett Henry's latest gifts. Josephine looked exceedingly well in ecru, and her plans required that she should look and act exceedingly well, beginning with a church sociable to be held that very evening.

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Alldale had never before seen Josephine at a church social. She had heretofore scorned them, but her campaign required her attendance at this one. She went prepared to cope with a situation which met her eyes as she entered the doors of the church parlors. It was a situation in the form of a gay group centered around Mr. Henry and Ellen Beck.

Ellen wore a dress of some cheap material which she had made herself. It was made with a view to laundering easily, but the fabric was a delicate blue, which

royal progress. She astonished Mrs. Brown, her mother's most intimate friend and her own particular aversion, by a kiss. She surprised Ellen Beck by the unaffected cordiality of her greeting. She caused her uncle's heart to swell with pride, and she fascinated Jim Ashdown by her vivacity.

But it was not until near the close of the evening that she permitted Jim to draw her aside. "Why didn't you let me know you were coming, Josie?" he asked reproachfully.

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