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The MEDICAL FORTNIGHTLY
To this, Dr. Hughes replied that the simil. arity was not a similarity, but that there was an exact reproduction in swine of the patho. logical appearances. The lesions of the dis
Issued Tenth and Twenty-Fifth of Every Month. ease in swine closely resemble the post-mor
Under the Editorial Direction of tem findings in cases of tuberculosis in man.
FRANK PARSONS NORBURY,
THOS. A. HOPKINS, Dr. Hughes, in connection with the sub
CARL E. BLACK. jeot of tuberculosis in swine stated that there
With the following staff of Department Editors was no question that there was a great deal of 0. E. LADEMANN, Internal Medicine. it in swine and in cattle. Recent investiga
JOHN MCHALE DEAN, Surgery.
R. B. H. GRADWOHL, Pathology and Bacteriology. tions made since Robert Kocb's famous
W. H. VOGT, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
WALDEMAR FISCHER, Ophthalmology. speech before the International Tuberculosis
A. LEVY, Pediatrics. Congress, beld in London, 1901, tended to
W. T. HIRSCHI, Therapeutics.
A. F. KOETTER, Otology. disprove many of his tenets, among them his HERMAN STOLTE, Laryngology and Rhinology.
F. P. NORBURY, Nervous and Mental Diseases. belief that human tuberculosis is not com. T. A. HOPKINS, Genito-Urinary Diseases. municable to animals, not that of animals to
H. DAVIS, Dermatology. man. The above report merely epitomizes the ex
EDITORIAL temporaneous address made by Dr. Hughes, and summarizes the answers to a few of the
In the space at our comamnd it will be im. questions put to him after the address. At
possible to do justice to the long-to-be-rethe close of the evening Dr. Hughes was
membered Boston meet. given a rousing unanimous vote of thanks.
ing of the American The hope was expressed by many that he The Boston
Medical Association, would soon again address the City Hospital Mee ng of
from all Alumni on some phase of the government the A.M. A.
view-points an occasion work.
of profit and pleasure. In closing the discussion Dr. Taake stated The opening session and all the general that the treatment had been entirely symp
sessions) was held in Mechanios Hall, a hall tomatic. The pain was relieved by morphine admirably suited to the association's pursulphate. A cough mixture was given to poses. The body of the hall was reserved for check the cough. The perspiration was so
members of the association, in the balconies profuse that it was thought best to reduce it were ladies and friends. Seated on the platto some extent, which was done by the ad. form at the opening session were the presid. ministration of tincture of belladonna. Pur.
Pur. ing officer, the special guests and the ex-pres. gatives were given when he took charge of idents of the association, all in the front row. the patients. Upon investigation it was They were President Lewis S. McMurtry, found that the pork was still hanging in the
with Governor Guild on one side and Rev. smoke house. This was about one month
Dr. Hale on the other; Mayor Fitzgerald, after the patients took sick. The pork was
President Elliot of Harvard University, Pres. purchased from a near-by meat market, the ident-elect William J. Mayo of the associa. proprietor of which secures his meat from a tion, Dr. Arthur T. Cabot, president of the small pucking house located in this city. Massachusetts Medical Society; Dr. Herbert Dr. Taake thought that there were many
L. Burrell, chairman of the local committee cases of trichinosis which were not diagnosed.
of arrangements: and these ex-presidents of He substantiated the latter statement by the A. M. A.: Dr. Wyeth, Dr. Keen, Dr. citing several cases discovered in the operat
Reed, Dr. Billings, Dr. Mathews, Dr. Musser
dent of the association, stepped to the front
Dr. Hale who pronounced the invocation. Severe localized pain after traumatism, es Addresses of welcome followed by Goverpecially in children, may be due to subperi nor Guild of Massachusetts, who welcomed osteal fracture, e. g., near the bead of the hu. the association to the commonwealth, and exmerus or the femur. Extreme localized ten pressed the bigh appreciate of his people in derness is the chief sign; abnormal mobility the work of our association; President Eliot, and deformity are absent, and crepitus may of Harvard, and Mayor Fitzgerald, of Boston, not be elicited.
who spoke felicitously and assured the asso.
ciation that every endeavor to the scientific disappear from the army and country, a perand social success of the meeting was ours son properly protected being immune. In to command, a matter which all already felt. the State of Minnesota inability to enforce
The retiring President, Dr. McMurtry, then vaccination in the late smallpox epidemio introduced President Mayo.
permitted, from a few sources, 27,876 persons The presidential address was quite what to become infected with this disorder; all one would expect from Dr. Mayo, dealing due to a small but vociferous band of anti. largely with practical facts and existing con- vaccination agitators. ditions. He urged unity as a means to "Contagious disease in any place is not a achievement;in this connection he said: “The matter of local or State interest alone, as present organization of the American Medi. the ease and freedom of transportation cal Association is but a beginning; we must render local control impracticable and prop. further the interests of this body unselfisbly, erly place it in the hands of the General Gov. not for ourselves alone, but that we may bet. ernment. The keenness with which the ter fulfil our sacred obligations to mankind. American people are watching the affairs of The people must be educated up to a point Panama argues well for the future. The were they can understand the broad humani. communication of Dr. Charles A. L. Reed tarianism of modern medicine. Society ap- awakened publio interest. His portrayal of preciates the saving of a sick person's life by red tape and obstruction to sanitation in the the skilled physician, but fails to see the Canal Zone has resulted in obtaining for that priceless gifts to the human race made by most able army medical officer, Colonel Gorpreventive medicine and sanitary science. It gas, power to carry out the necessary reforms views everything in detail and misses the per. and has made the Canal Zone the most sani. spective. We have failed to secure the sup.' tary place in Latin America. port of the masses of the people to much. “The army and navy niedical departments needed sanitary reforms, because we bave have worked intelligently against overwhelmappealed to them as one individual to another ing odds. Their individual members have without the weight of an authoritative organ international reputations honestly achieved. ization."
Their schools for the special training of their He also urged the education of the masses men are in the highest degree efficient and in the matter of infectious diseases, especially deserving of every praise; but the departempbasizing tuberculosis. He held that ments have been so small as to be unable to there is no reason why a man who has be. act even as nuclei about which in time of come infected with typhoid from a city's neg. war competent forces could be gathered and lect should not sue for damages as he would the militia of our country enter into conflict for personal injury sustained from falling fearfully handicapped. The indications, howthrough a defective sidewalk. Unavoidable ever, are that these matters will now be recsickness is bad enough, but when we stop to tified, and if so it will guarantee to the patri. consider that the life of the individual is otic American that should be again be called worth $5000 to the State, and that those who on to serve his country his enemies will be recover under great disability and expense, in front and he will not be destroyed by his the continuance of unsanitary conditions is own side through neglect of sanitary laws. criminal. The experience of Vienna, which Contract practice, fee division, commission was converted from a typhoid center to one giving, lodge practice and other evils were of freedom from such outbreaks by bring- mentioned in condemnation. He urged the ing in a pure water supply, has now been re broadening of medical education that our peated over and over again in every civilized schools may constantly graduate stronger land. Yet hundreds of deaths from this pre- men, and further, that graduates may not rentable source yearly attest that the lesson leave college to at once embark as specialists. has not yet been learned.
“Graduation from a college, he said, is merely In the patter of governmental interfer. a commencement of a life study of medicine. ence and control, in the presence of con- Therefore, young men without special traintagious disease he said: "One of the few ing under competent teachers should not be misfortunes of the individual freedom af. encouraged in wanton assaults on major surgi. forded by a republican form of government cal diseases unless justified by necessity. The is that it enables the most ignorant man, future will demand schools for advanced train. through prejudice, to interfere with and de- ing for those who desire to do special work. lay needed legislation, with the result that In the practice of medicine the student days by the time the law can be passed the im. are never over. Tbere is so much to be learned mediate object to be obtained has often dis that a long and industrious life leaves one appeared. In Germany compulsory vaccin- with the feeling that he is but a beginner. ation has practically caused smallpox to The most important babit a young physician
of selfzent and a studeith
can form is the daily study habit.” Let President, Dr. Joseph D. Bryant, New him put in even one hour a day with the York. reading of journals and books of reference First vice-president, Dr. Herbert L. Bur. and much can be accomplished. He should rell, Boston. keep an account of the time, and if something Second vice-president, Dr. Andrew Smith, interferes for a day he should charge hiroself Portland, Ore. up with it. The practitioner must make fre- Third vice-president, Dr. D. S. Fairchild, quent trips away for the purpose of observa. Des Moines, Ia. tion. In no other way can be avoid tbe rut Fourth vice-president, Dr. William S. Fosof self-satisfied content, wbich checks ad. ter, Pittsburg, Pa. vancement and limits usefulness. No amount General Secretary, Dr. George H. Sim. of diligence as a student can take the place mons, Chicago. of personal contact with men in the same Treasurer, Dr. Frank Billings, Chicago. line of work.”
Board of Trustees, Drs. M. L. Harris, ChiAt the second general session the orations cago; W. H. Welcb, Baltimore, and Myles on Medicine and Surgery were delivered. F. Porter, Fort Wayne, Ind. Dr. F. C. Shattuck, of Boston, delivered the Atlantic City was decided upon as the next address on Medicine, dealing with the devel. place of meeting. opment of the science rather than with any The association also passed resolutions of its special phases.
apprecaitive of the hospitality shown to the Dr. Jos. D. Bryant, of New York, deliv. members and friends of the association by ered the address on Surgery, chosing for his The local physicians, all those in fact wbo subject the "Nature and Progress of a Ma- have had to do with the arrangements for lignant Disease," referring to cancer. He the week's programme. pointed out the various known sources of Officers elected by the sections were: this disease and said that it usually inflicted Section of Surgery and Anatomy-Chair. its ravages on old age, and seldom on youth. wan, Dr. M. J. Schamberg, Philadelphia; “The list of the mountain springs and vice chairman, Dr. E. W. Branigan, Boston; brooks, and also the product of the salty secretary, Dr. Eugene S. Talbot, Chicago; bodies of water, are sources of cancer,” he delegate, Dr. Charles V. I. Brown, Milwau. said. "England and Germany' through kee, Wis. their crowned rulers are directing their ef. Obstetrics and Diseases of Women-Chair. forts to learn the source of this disease, and man, Dr. J. Wellesley Bovee, Wasbington, benevolent humanitarians are gladly supply D.C.; vice chairman, Dr. Edward Reynolds, ing the funds to pursue the work.”
Boston; secretary, Dr. W. P. Manton, Detroit; The work of the various sections was uni- delegate, Dr. Walter B. Dorsett, St. Louis. formally of suoh interest as to making the Hygienic and Sanitary Science-Chairman noting of features difficult, possibly the sym. Dr. Prince A. Morrow, New York City; posium on Tuberculosis and that on Venereal secretary, Dr. Elwer E. Hegg, Seattle, Prophylaxis were especially worthy of men. Wash. ; delegate, Dr. W. Lewis, Chicago. tion in the field outside surgery. The work Diseases of Children-Chairman, Dr. J. of the various sections was featured by num- Ross Snyder, Birmingbam, Ala.; secretary, erous and intensely interesting clinics at the Dr. George Wentworth, Chicago; delegate, many institutions which were rich in avail. Dr. T. W. Southworth, New York. able material. This was an advantage not P athology and Physiology-Chairman, Dr. found in less populous meeting places. W. L. Bierring, Iowa City, Ia.; secretary,
The social side of the meeting was 80 Dr. W. B. Cannon, Boston; delegate, Dr. eclipsed by its scientific features that many W. S. Hall, Chicago. wholly lost sight of it, yet the entertain. Laryngology, and Otology-Chairman, Dr. ment was exceptional, and quite in keeping S. M. Snow, Philadelphia; vice chairman, with the hospitality for whicb Boston is Dr. Philip Hammond, Boston; secretary, Dr. famed. There are so many points of his- W. Sobier Bryant, New York; delegate, Dr. toric and other interest within Boston's Otto F. Frier, Chicago. limits and within easy access that those Ophtbalmology-Chairman, Dr. G. C. Sav. who were tempted away from the sessions age, Nashville, Tenn.; vice chairman, Dr. A. found the time full and well spent. The A. Bubbell, Buffalo; secretary, Dr. A. E. dinners, teas, concerts and other set enter- Bulson, Jr., Fort Wayne, Ind. ; delegate, Dr. tainments were so arranged as not to in- S. D. Pisley, Philadelphia, terfere with the scientific work and were Stomatology-Chairman, Dr. Schamberg, each and all delightful.
Philadelphia; vice chairman, Dr. Branigan, The election of officers for the ensuing Boston; secretary, Dr. Eugene S. Talbct; year resulted as follows:
delegate, Dr. G. V. I. Brown, Milwaukee.
age, Hubbell: Fortiladelphian, D.Dr. Bi Talbo
way, and are affiliated to the London School
of Clinical Medicine. (WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL FORTNIGHTLY.)
For practitioners who desire, from time to JUNE 1, 1906. time, to bring themselves into touch with the
most recent scientific advances, as well as for LONDON SCHOOL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
graduates who are reading for the bigber The opportunities for post-graduation qualifications, there is ample provision for study in London bave recently been much the acquisition of practical knowledge and increased by the establishment of the London technical skill in every departmennt of medSchool of Clinical Medicine in connection icine and surgery. with the Seamen's Hospital at Greenwicb. The University of London recognizes the It is a sister institution to the London School Dreadnought Hospital as an institution from of Tropical Medicine, which has achieved so which certificates of post-graduation study mucb success and has been founded by the for the higher degrees are accepted. same body, the Seamen's Hospital Society. The hospital contains a pathological muThe school is to be reserved entirely for qual. seum and two laboratories wbich are fully ified medical practitioners.
equipped for study and research. The “Dreadnought' Seamen's Hospital Tutorial classes are arranged, when re(so-called because it was formerly housed in quired, on terms which may be ascertained the old wooden battle-ship, the “Dread. at the office of the medical superintendent. nought,” moored in the Thames) which is Residential accommodation can be prothe headquarters of the school is situated at cured in the neighborhood of the hospital. Greenwich, about balf an hour's journey from A list of respectable lodgings is kept in the the center of London, e.g., Charing Cross, medical superintendent's office for the conand is easily accessible by train, electric venience of those who desire to live in Greentram, and steamboat by a variety of routes. wich. The hospital contains 250 beds and provides A reading-room, reference-library,smoking. annually for 2000 in-patients and 10,000 out room, cloak-room and billiard-room are pro. patients. The out-patient department at vided for the use of gentlemen who are study. Greenwich is supplemented by dispensaries ing at the hospital. in the East India dock road and at Gravesend, The physicians and surgeons attend the at which the annual attendance numbers hospital every afternoon except Saturday. 15,000 patients.
The physicians and surgeons in charge of Three sessions of ten weeks duration are special departments attend the hospital on held in each year, and a short Vacation- two afternoons a week. Course of instruction will be provided dur. The assistant-pbysicians and assistant-sur. ing September when a sufficient demand geons attend the out-patient department daily, arises to justify its institution.
in the forenoon. Every variety of disease may be studied in The officers of the society in charge of the the wards and out-patient rooms of the hos dispensaries in the East India dock road and pital, at the dispensaries, and at the affiliated at Gravesend attend daily at 12 o'clcok. hospitals.
Clinical lectures are delivered on five afterThe supply of material affords exceptional noons a week, in the lecture room and wards. facilities for practical instruction in opera. Operations are performed daily. tive surgery and in pathology on the cadaver. Post-mortem examinations are conducted The hospital also offers a wide field for the by the pathologist, in the morning, at 10 study of venereal diseases, and there is a o'clock. Intimation of such examinations is special department with open-air wards for posted on the notice-boards within the hos. the treatment of tuberculosis.
Male patients only are received as in-pa- The physicians are Sir Dyce Duckworth, tients by the Seamen's Society, but arrange. Dr. Frederich Taylor, Dr. Rose Bradford, ments have been entered into with the Royal Dr. Tanner Hewlett and Dr. Guthrie Rankin; Waterloo Hospital for the reception of post. the surgeons Sir William Bennett, Mr. Mayo graduates who desire instruction in diseases Robson, Mr. Albert Carless, Mr. William of women and children; with the Bethlem Turner and Mr. Lawrie McGavin; ophthal. Hospital for those who require tuition in mic surgeon, Mr. Vernon Cargill; physi. mental disease; and with the General Lying cian for diseases of the throat, etc., Dr. St. in Hospital for the prosecution of study in Clair Thomson; surgeon for diseases of the midwifery.
skin, Mr. Malcolm Morris; X-rays, Mr. These hospitals are situated on the south Mackenzie Davidscn; dental surgeon, Mr. side of the river, are directly linked to the Kenneth Goodby, besides assistant physicians "Dreadnought” by both railway and tram. and surgeons and extra-mural lecturers on
diseases of the nervous system, hygiene, ap- agents, partioularly mercurial ointments. It plied anatomy, diseases of women and cbild. was found that in the monkey inunction at ren, midwifery, anesthetics and mental dis- the seat of inoculation with an ointment eases. The medical superintendent is Dr. composed of calomel, one part and lanolin Choyce, and the secretary is Mr. P. Michelli, three or four parts, prevented infection up from whom full particulars may be obtained. to twenty hours after inoculation. A young HARBEN LECTURES.
man, a medical student who volunteered for
the experiment, and four monkeys were inoc. The Harben lectures of the Royal Institute ulated with syphilitio virus, and an hour of Publio Health have this year been deliv. afterwards the man and one of the monkeys ered by Prof. Metchpikoff of the Pasteur In- were rubbed with the calomel ointment, one stitute, Paris, and have proved very interest. monkey was treated twenty hours after inoouing and instructive. In the first looture, lation, the two other monkeys were left unProf. Metchninoff dealt with the “hygiene of treated. The two untreated monkeys showed the tissues.” He directed attention to the primary lesions seventeen days afterwards, fact that persons frequently carried in their the one treated twenty hours after inoculation persons pathogenio microbes without suffer. developed primary symptoms in thirty-nine ing any ill-effect, and from an analysis of days, while the man and monkey treated one many facts he considers that immunity must hour after inoculation developed no sign of be due to a modification of certain living primary lesions. parts of the body, in particular of the phagocytes. Wright had recently sought to prove
BRITISH MEDICAL MEETING. that the phagocytes exert a passive role, act. May I remind our American friends that ing only on microbes exposed to the action the annual meeting of the British Medical of substances (opsopins) present in the Association is to be held this year at Toronto, blood and body fluids, but experiments commencing August 21st. We hope that quoted seemed to indicate tbat the phagocy. many of them may be able to attend. tosis occurred in the absence of opsonins.
RICHARD T. HEWLETT. The influence of alcohol in reducing resistance to infection was alluded to, and it was suggested that alcohol, opium, and other
FRACTURES of the head of the radius are similar drugs should be used with great cau
probably more common than generally sup. tion in infective diseases. On the other hand
posed, being overlooked frequently because serum and physiological salt solution stimu
cf the absence of the ordinary signs of fraclate phagooytosis, and Paris surgeons have
ture. been using serum lavage and infections with the greatest benefit in major operations. SEA VOYAGES FOR INVALIDS.—The discus.
The second lecture dealt with the "hygiene sion on “Sea Voyages for Invalids," pub. of the alimentary canal.” Prof. Metchninoff lished in the Journal of Balneology and stated that there could be no doubt that mi. Climatology, January, 1906, provoked a num. crobes frequently found their way into the ber of opinions as to the advantages and disblood and tissues from the intestinal tract, advantages of sea travel for invalids. The even when the wall of the intestine was in consensus of opinion, including that of tact, and he suggested that digestive leucocy Dr. Robert W. Felkin, who opened the distosis was a means of defence against such in- cussion, seemed to be, as a rule, against the vasion. A good deal of evidence was ad. treatment. He stated that the principal ail. duced to show that intestinal worms were fre. ments which precluded a sea voyage are: (a) quently the cause of appendicitis by sitting The strength of the patient-if there is too up inflammation followed by infection. great exhaustion it is better to keep on Prof. Metobnikoff therefore considers that land; (b) grave dyspepsia; (c) hepatio en. no food should be eaten raw, no salads, no largement; (d) cardiac dilatation; (e) pyrexia fresh fruit, no raw milk, everything must be or any inflammatory condition; (f) any tendcooked! The third lecture dealt with the ency to hemorrbage; (g) epilepsy; (b) in"bygiene of syphilis.” Prof. Metchnikoff sanity; (i) pregnanoy; (k) patients suffering pointed out that by far the great proportion from eye diseases; (1) any kidney disease; of sufferers from «syphilis were innocent vic. (m) phthisis, except, perhaps, in the very tims. After having found that apes could first stages. Dr. F. Sandwith's remark that: be infected with syphilis attempts were made “The doctor who sept many patients to sea to prepare unti-syphilitic sera and vaccines, was generally one who had not done much but they were found to be impracticable. travelling in bad weather," succeeded best Next preventive measures were tried by treat. perhaps in summing up the situation.-The ing the seat of inoculation with various Journal of Tropical Medicine.