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Columbian Leprosy and Photographs of off, as by a knife. In many figures we find Three Pre-Columbian Skulls with Ten there is partial or total loss of upper lip, eaten Huacos Potteries," I said: “In the first or cut away. Not drawn away by cicatrizaphotograph, the one containing the figure ly. tion as would be the case in lepers. One of ing on its belly, there is shown both feet am. the figures in the American Museum, has reputated. The other four figuers have also tracted head, this is accompanied by loss of amputated feet which is not seen in the pho. nose and partial loss of upper lip. The same tographs, for the figures are represented faced disease which here destroyed the nose and front and kneeling. By turning the real im. upper lip, it is reasonable to suppose afflicted ages front facing backwards, tbe amputations the spine. Only Uta (skin-tuberoulosis) could be seen. The surgical flaps are shown could have worked thus-never leprosy." in the clay, and even the two bones of the leg O ne thing more. There is but a single near the ankle at the seat of amputation. pottery in the whole museum world tbat Whatever disease is here represented on the shows conclusively amputation of a single faces must have been accompanied by dis. foot. The next nearest to such is the one I
eased feet. And amputation was frequently have represented as dressing a foot with a required for some reason, but not only of one cup of medicine, while the other's condition foot, but of both. One of the figores is shown is bidden as be sits on it. Everywhere else in the act of dressing the stump with medi. where amputation is shown it is double. But cine, the other extremity cannot be seen, as the fact, that there is known even one foot he is sitting on it. At least it does not pro. showing unmistakably single amputation, trude behind as he sits down. In many of makes us believe that many, if not most of the faces these images, the nose has been the double amputations were performed one eaten away, irregularly. The fleshy and car foot at a time. As the disease progressed, the tilaginous parts, up to the bridge is gone. other foot was probably later on amputated. In not a single instance does this eating In that single amputation, moreover, there away show any resern blance to leprosy. The is represented not so certainly that the nose bones are never melted away as in lepers, and upper lip of the image are not intended fallen in at the bridge. In every case the to be shown diseased. The wings of the bony structure remains; only the soft part nose are represented widely spread out, and is absent, either gnawed away, or clean cut the mouth-angles of the upper lip are swollen
and overbang. It is possible that they are diseased, although no eating away can be observed as represented. There is another prob. ability to consider, namely, that a disease usually of nose and upper lip might have involved the foot in this case.
In every vase of double amputation examined and published thus far, there was always represented at work an eating disease of nose and upper lip, and far advanced. Perhaps wben the first foot only was amputated, the facial disease bad not yet had time to show its eating stage, like when the second foot had been amputated. But this is problematical. In all my observations, there is never shown, on any Huacos pottery of Peru, a representation of amputated upper extremity or extremities. The hands of all the images, even where is shown the most horrible mutilations of face and feet are represented as perfect. Now if these amputations of feet were intended by the artist to represent punishment for crime, would they not also some. times have shown amputation of bands? And wbat is most strange is that there is never shown a diseased band ? Surely if the feet were diseased by Uta, the bands too, exposed as they are just as much, to the ravages of insects, as the bare feet are, should as often, or more often, be the seat of the same disease, and to the same extent be damaged.
As clearly as I can see it, the explanation of this strange absence of evidence is as fol. lows: Those ancient Peruvians had the belief that the soul after burial took a four days journey from the grave before it reached Paradise. Hence food and drink were buried with the corpse, to supply its needs while on this journey. That there is no hand ever represented amputated on a vase, is because the band was needed to reach out for its food and drink. If the hands were mutilated on the vase, like the real hand of the corpse or amputated and represented amputated, the soul in its grave could not take up its drinking vessel, while journeying to Paradise.
Therefore, if the corpse had lost its hands, before burial, the potter would give it some artificial hands to use, otherwise the double or spirit of the departed one might die of thirst or hunger on its four days journey.
tery deformations and pre-columbian syphilis. "Journal of
cutaneous and genito-urinary diseases," for February, 1898. Albert S. Ashmead: Pre-columbian leprosy. "Journal of
the American Medical Association," April 10, 1897. Albert S. Ashmead : The question of pre-columbian leprosy:
photographs of three pre-columbian skulls, and some Huacos pottery. Mitteilungen nnd Verhandlungen der internationalen wissenschaftlichen Lepra-Conferenz, im Octo
ber 1897. Berlin 1897 ; Band I. Abt. 4, p. 71-73. Virchow : Die von Dr. Ashmead (New York) aufgefundenen
krankhaften Darstellungen an alt-peruanischen Thonfiguren, ibidem, Band II, 3. Sitzung vom 13. October 1897, p. 798. Ad hoc. Polakowsky: ibidem, Band II, p. 82. Virchow: Die internationale Lepra-Conferenz in Berlin und die verstummelten peruanischen Figuren. Verhandlungen
etc. 1997, p. 4:4-276. Ad hoc. Polakowsky: ibidem, p 470-477 Lehmann-Nitsche : ¿Ha exist do la lepra en la epoca precolombiana?
Actas del primer Congreso Cientifico Latino. Americano (en prensa). Vease el resumen en “La Semana Medica,” Buenos Aires, Ano V, numero 228, Mayo 26 de
1803, paginas 182-183 Lehmann-Nitsche : ? Ha existido la lepra en la epoca precol
ombiana? Reproduccion del anterior (sin la discusion y sin la bibliografia, en los "Anales del Circulo Medico Argen
tino," tomo XXI, ano XXI, numero 7 y 8. paginas 196-198. Virchow, W. von den Steinen, Polakowsky (Bastian, Reiss,
Stubel, Middendorf, Jimenez de la Espada): Discussion uber. Die verstummelten Thonfiguren aus Peru." Verhandlungen etc, 1897, paginas 558.561. Seler: Nachrichten uber den Aussatz in alten mexikanis
chen Quellen. Verhandlungen etc., 1897, paginas 609-611. Polakowsky Jimenez de la Espada), W. von den Steinen,
Virchow: Discussion uber “ Pracolumbischen Aussatz und verstummelten peruanischen Thonfiguren.” Verhandlun
gen etc. 1897, p. 612-621. Lemano-Nitsche: ¿Lepra precolumbiana? "Revista del Museo
de La Plata", tomh IX, p. 337-370. Una traduccion alemana de la mayor parte de este trabajo 08: -: Pracolumbianisch, Lepra und die verstummelten peruanis
chen Thon Figuren des La Plata Museums vor dem ersten wissenschaftlichen lateinisch-amerikanischrn Con resse 20 Buenos Aires; die angebliche Krankheit Llaga und brieflicbe Nachrichten von Hrn. Carrasquilla. “Verhandlungeu der Berliner Gesellschabt fur Authropologie, Ethnologin und Urgeschichte", 1899, p. 81-99.-Ad hoc. Virchow: ibidem, p. 99. Polakowski: (Besprechung der ;Lepra precolombina?] • Zelt
schift for Ethpologie, 1898, p. 417–418.-"Petermanns
Mitteilungen", 1899, Litteraturbericht, No. 518. p. 127; -: Ueber prakolumbianische Lepra. “Dermatologisches Ceu
tralblatt". 3. Jahrg. No. 2,7 pp. Fritsch: Zwei Aufnahmen von Lepra-Kranken. "Verhandlun
gen etc.", 1898, p. 41--142. Pulakowsky: ¿Gab es eine prakolumbianische Lepra in Ameri
ka?"Peterinanns Mitteilungen", 1898, No. 8, p. 188. Ashmead: Was leprosy Pre-Columbian in America?“Verhand.
lungea etc.,"1898, p. 448–492.-Ad hoc, Virchow: ibidem, p. 493—494. Bloch: Zur Vorges chichte des Aunsatzes. "Verhandlungen
etc.," 1999, p. 205-215.-Ad hoc. v. Luschan: ibidem, p 214 ; Virchow: ibidem, p. 214–216. Asbmead: No evidence in America of Pre-Columbian leprosy.
The Canadian Journal uf Medicine and Surgery," March, 1899, 19. pp. Richter: Zur Erklarong der altperuanischen Varen, welche ver.
stum melte menschliche Figuren darstellen. "Verbandlungen
etc.", 1901), p. 244-237. Ashmead: Nu relation between the leprosy and syphilis of
Japan and Pre-Columbian America. Verhandlungen etc.",
1900, p 536. —; Pre-Columbian lopus (uta) and its surgical treatment by
amputation of nose and upper lip, as represented on tbe Huacos pottery of Peru. "The St. Louis Medical and Surgi
cal Journal". Nov, 1900, 14 pp. --: Deformations on American (Incan) pottery not evidence of
Pre-Columbian leprosy. “The st. Lonis Medical and Surgical Journal", whole No 724, Volume LXXX, April, 1901, No. 4, p.
177-19!. Uhle: Die Deformierten Kople von peruanischen Mumien and
die Uta. Krankheit. “Verhandlungen etc.", 1901, p. 404–408. Ashmead: Patbological evidence of the Huacos Potteries of
Peru Trans American Philosophical society, Phil., Pa. 1904.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Albert S. Ashmead: Vorkommen von Aussatz in pracolum.
bischer Zeit in America. "Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urges
chichte," 1895, p. 305-306. Ad hoc. Virchow; ibidem. Bastian: Vorkommen von Aussatz in America in pracolum
bischer Zeit Verhandlungen etc. 1895, p. 165-366. Ad hoc. Virchow- ibidem. Albert S. Ashmead: Photographs of two ancient Peruvian
vases. with some particularities presented by them, and some observatione about them. "Journal of cutaneous
and genito-urinary diseases," for November, 1905. Albert S. Ashmead: Pre-columbian leprosy. “Journal of
the American Medical Association," 1895, Ext., 66 pages. Albert S. Ashmead: Prof. Bandeliers views on Huacos Pot
The Medical Society of City Hospital Alumni
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branching columns of cells which cluster FEMALE PROSTATE -ANATOMICO-SUR
together at the back of the uretbra, where GICAL-STUDY.
they are seen in two separate masses, one on
each side of the middle line. At this stage CHAS. E. BARNETT, M. D.
they are entirely within the layer of volun. FORT WAYNE, IND.
tary muscle of the urethral wall, and do not
form any visible projection. In the ninth FROM the hypothesis that the prostate in
month they are larger, more fully developed, the male arises as two separate glands, which
and form visible projections; they are two are developments of the lining membrane of
separate and distinct glands and have grown the first part of the urethra, instead of the
beyond the limits of the external wall of the Müllerian duct coalescence embryologic idea
urethra.”—Richardson. gives the female the opportunity for a like
It would seem from a study in comparative glandular development. So in order to call a anatomy, that the prostate gland, Cowper's closer attention to the subject of the deep glands, and the vesiculae seminales (glands)l urethral glands of the female, I have dubbed furnish the culture media for the sperm them, in the title of this paper, the Female cell in the male. Prostate.
Would it be straining a point too far to In substantiation of the claim that the
consider the female accessory glands, viz., male prostate has an entirely distinct and the deep urethral, Bartholin(2) and Nabothian different origin from that of the utriculus
as secreting a still further culture media for masculinus,” and thus allowing, in the
the spermatozoa,(3) active if the male is paswriter's opinion, the analogy between the sive and performing a greater function than male prostate and the female deep urethral a mere lubricant di (Skene's) glands, the following points in em. It is claimed as an undoubted fact that we bryology are offered as evidence:
have the orgasm with discharge of semen in "In the male the utriculus masculinus (the the male and the orgasm and reception of coalesced Müllerian duots) enters the back of
semen in the female." -Lydston. the first part of the urethra (the urogenital
The smaller mucous glands in the male are sinus) in the ciddle of the line, and the vasa pouring out their fluid during tbe exciting deferentia (the Wolffian ducts) terminate, in
stage of passion, we will say for the purpose the edge of the orifice of the utricle, on either of lubrication, but not so with the larger ones side.
until the orgasm occurs. From the limited In the female the vagina (the coalesced investigation that the writer has been able Müllerian duots) enters the back of the vesti.
to make there a like functuation condition bule (the urogenital sinus) in the middle line, present in the female, with the difference and the duots of Gärtner (the Wolffian ducts)
that the simple mucous primary low is terminate in the lower part of the vagina on
greater than in the male and the secondary either side.
special flow with orgasm is not so profuse. The homology between the male prostatic Observations on the chemistry of semen utricle and the female uterus and vagina is a have been so few and fragmentary in characdemonstrable fact.
The male prostatic utricle and the female uterus and vagina have an origin distinct glands of Bartholin is good They both lie just below the
bulb, within the triangular ligament; upon the levator ani or and different from that of the urogenital sinus.
The prostate glands are developed in the wall of the genito-urinary sinus, at a point farther from the bladder than the opening
four to forty-eight hours after death, and for still longer of the utricle. They are apparently mu
period in the secretion of the female genitalia. * Acids cous gland of the urogenital sinus, and
secondary fiow in the female that was sufficiently alkaline to they consist, in the fourth month, of a few
(1) Piersal finds glandular tissue in the vesiculae seminales. (2) The comparison between Cowper's glands and the
constrictor urethra muscle, as it is called, in this region. Their size and lengths of ducts are practically the same.
(3) Stohr's Histology, fifth edition, says, “In this mixture of fluids (i, e., spermatozoa plus vesicular, prostatic and Cow. per's gland fluid) the motions may continue for from twenty
suspend motion while animal fluids of alkaline reaction restore motion." This would tend to show that there was a
neutralize the ordinary acid vaginal mucous membrane.
ter tbat the writer was not surprised not to The usual case comes late to the surgeon. be able, after considerable search to gain Should there be sufficient time to abort sup. any information relative to the chemistry, puration, the best procedure, in the writer's or physiology of the female accessory-gland- opinion, is to slit the ducts to the glands and ular fluid.
cauterize the field with silver nitrate. The study of the anatomy of the bladder If suppuration is present, the absoess and bladder appendages has never been should be opened from the vaginal side and more active than today, and it is not im. properly drained. After resolution has taken possible that some things have been over place if any glandular rempants remain, they looked by our older anatomists, on account should be taken away during the interval beof their non-importance heretofore.
tween the inflammatory crises, thus giving The new anatomies are giving the deep the operator a chance to avoid urethro-vaurethral glands of the female a passing no. giual fistula. In case of urethro-glandular tice, wbile the older ones are silent on tbat fistula, cauterization of the fistulous traot an subjeot. Our recent works on the surgery abscess cavity should be done, followed by of the urogenital tract of the female are further advanced even than the more recent anatomies in their anatomic description. This shows that the subject courts fartber investigation.
The writer has found, after having made a number of female bladder dissections—the last ones being made in Weichselbaum's pathologic laboratory in Vienna-that the deep urethral glands of the female were located midway between the neck of the bladder and the meatus urinarus externus; placed latterly to the urethra, above the ves. ico-vaginal fascia and having duots which empty just internal to the external meatus. When hypertrophic, the gland encroached upon the bladder neck. The changes in shape during hypertrophy being similar to the male prostate during its outcroppings of lobules. (See out).
In the majority of gonorrheas of the female, the uretbra is invaded. During this urethritis the deep uretbral glands are con. stantly in danger. Should they become infected the pathology present is much similar to gonorrheal prostatitis in the male. Should
len. 24. December 1905 pus form and the abscess break the solution of continuity will either be toward the urethra or toward the vagina. Should the vaginal
an interval operation, if possible, after the route be taken, there is a great danger of an uretbro-vaginal fistula which is practically
urethra has healed. In vesico-vaginal fistula a vesico-vaginal fistula.
a plastic operation with the removal of all
glandular remnants is indicated. The vesico-vaginal fascia is so thin and so
In all of these cases the bladder neok will lacking in tone quality that an abscess pene.
e be found inflamed and will need attention. tration of it is affected with no great effort.
The writer sees no reason why hypertrophy Should the urethra remain competent the
should need surgical attention unless it would drainage opening will close and the abscess
happen to be like the case illustrated. Even will reform ad libitum until surgical help is
with that condition present, the Fenwiok called. Should this infection be not suffi.
operation with the large urethral specula for ciently virulent to produce a breaking down
the removal of papalomatous growths in the of the tissues, there will remain a passive in
bladder, could be utilized for the removal of flammation that by the stimulating effect,
the glandular lobule. within the ascinus, will produce an hyper.
The report of three cases will give an idea trophy of the glands. *
of the kind of cases encountered by the sur. *See writer's article on Pathological Changes Resulting geon that are due to inflammation of these
from Prostatic Enlargement, American Medicine, April 8, 1905.
CASE 1.-Mrs. “X.” Operated by the cystotomy in two sittings. After cleaning writer several years ago for kidney stone, the bladder thoroughly, to freshen the edges with recovery. About a year following oper of the fistula, olose same tightly with chromation she was infected by her husband with icised catgut, then cover over the whole fisgonorrhea. On account of her innocence and tulus region with a flap composed princi. unsuspecting disposition the writer was called pally of the bulb of the vagina (patient being late, and consequently got the sequela of the put to bed, lying on her belly, in order to disease, which in this case was an aoute aden drain the urine away from the wound). Should itis of the deep urethral glands. Under treut. the closure be complete a urethral canal will ment the inflammation subsided to a marked be tunneled at another sitting. degree, leaving a passive inflammation with tenderness and some enlargement in that region. An operation for the removal of the
THE TUBERCULOSIS CAMPAIGN IN CHICAGO. glands was suggested, which was declined by
- A campaign to secure funds for the treatthe patient. The fact is that the patient is
ment of tuberculosis in Chicago was planned not aware of the cause of her trouble and, un
recently at the bi-monthly meeting of the fortunately for the writer, considers that it is
Executive Committee of the Chicago Tuber. a remnant of her old kidney trouble.
culosis Institute. Although efforts are being CASE 2-In consultation with a doctor of
made to secure donations for summer camps our city, Miss “Y.” was examined. She
and other means of treatment, the physicians gave a history of acute inlammation at the
and societies interested in the work pin most neck of the bladder. Emphatically denied
of their hopes for adequate funds on the gonorrheal infection. She was ordered to
charter legislation. A committee, consisting the hospital where a vaginal examination was
of Dr. Henry B. Favill, Dr. Frank Billings made, at which time a slide was smeared
and Mrs. Lenora Hamlin, of the Institute, with pus milked from the deep urethral
was appointed to confer with the obarter conglands. The pus contained Niserian diplo. vention with regard to additional revenue for cocoi; a cystoscopy was done the next day;
the Department of Health. The Institute neck of the bladder found bighly congested;
bas raised, through the auxiliary committee, bladder washed and neok painted with silver
$1,000 for a summer camp, but has been nitrate; duots of glands silt and cauterized
obliged to abandon its plan of having tents with silver nitrate. Two weeks after leaving
in une of the parks, the South Park Board the hospital there was a reourrence of the
having very properly deolined to listen to a adenitis, with suppuration. A cutting oper.
proposition to that effect. ation for drainage followed by the removal of the glands during the interval, was sug. THE NATIONAL FORMULARY. —- The Nagested; said suggestion caused the discharge tional Formulary bids fair to become, in a of both the attending physicians and the way, an actual rival of the United States writer. From our hands she landed in the Pharmacopoeia. It caters to the require. hands of a thoroughly competent practitioner, ments of the average retail druggist in place who called in a surgeon, who was also thor- of being ambitious to oocupy a position as oughly competent, but they failed to find the an authority for expert chemists and ethical true cause of the trouble, "more's the pity,” professors. If the American Pharmaceutical and from these men the patient bas drifted Association recognizes its opportunities, the until finally, on account of their Auwery prom. next revision of the National Formulary will ises, she has been attracted to the osteopath contain a statement of the therapeutio action and the Christian Scientists. As this dis of each preparation, as well as the maximum ease is entirely out of their sphere, the writer and minimum doses. It will give, in so would not be surprised at no distant date to many words, the amount of eachi potent inhave the patient return for the surgical relief gredient in an average dose of the beroio that was advised in the beginning.
preparations. These are some of the practiCASE 3.—Was called to Detroit to see Mrs. cal improvements wbich will find their way Z. Gave history of infection of deep urethral into the every day hand-book of the dispensglands seven years ago which was followed ing pharmacist. The medical profession is with abscess formation. Vesico-vaginal fis. crossing the border line between medicine tula followed the breaking of the abscess, and pharmacy in its effort to find standard leaving au opening larger than would admit drug store remedies to prescribe. If the Na. one finger. She had been operated for the tional Formulary titles are reduced to a man. closure of the fistula five or six times by com. ageable form, the preparations will meet with petent surgeons with negative results.
favor at the hands of the prescribers and inThe writer proposes, in endeavoring to close crease the prescription trade of competent the fistula, in this case, to do a suprapubic pharmacists. —Meyer Bros. Druggist.