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The second thought is that the personnel The relations between medical and nursing of a hospital is a social as well as a medical staffs should be friendly and yet, it is ob. clinio for your instruction. Try to learn wby viously impossible to maintain the discip. you like one member of the visiting staff and line of a hospital of any considerable size detest another, why one has the esteem of if this friendly relation degenerates into his fellows while another gets his success in even ordinary familiarity. the face of hostility and lack of respect, what If the propensity for tale-bearing, making one man does witb drugs, foods and instru. mischief for others and whining about your ments to win confidence, and what another own troubles has not been licked out of you does with the same armamentarium to get the at some of the schools that you have at. reputation of a putterer and a man who tended, try to get rid of it ander the ample travels on his shape. .
opportunities that your bospital life will Perbaps for the first time in your life, you afford for resisting temptations of this kind. will bave to combine social and business or Don't exouse your own sins by the numer. professional relations with women. Again, ous examples that you can oite from among if you have finished your medical course at your acquaintances, and don't expect a wo. a comparatively early age, you may be some man to understand by bonor just what a what puzzled at baving to read just your re- man does. lations to the world at large so as to include In short, as you gain practical medical ex. all ages above that of maturity on a level. perience in a hospital, try to learn the lesson That is to say, you will find men and women of living with other persons of the most who, five years earlier would have treated varied types. How to do this you will bave you as a child, and whom you would bave to work out for yourself, but a simple rule is treated with the heartless aristocratio intol. to be square and yet not to push the cor. erance of youth, now expecting you to have ners of your squareness into others. as much knowledge of the world as them. selves, to meet them on the same plane of maturity, and yet to recognize the faint shades of respect for age and position that
INDIA'S DEATH-RATE FROM WILD BEASTS. society still demands.
-Statistics published in India show that in Both medically and socially, you must
1904 there were killed in that country by
1964 there are learn not to generalize, but to rate each case
snakes and wild beasts 24,034 persons—21,880 and each person at the proper value. You
by snake bites, 79 by tigers, 399 by leopards, will find some very vulgar and dangerous
and the rest by other animals. The number women in the private rooms and some very
of cattle killed was 98,582. The other side of sweet and refined unfortunates in the wards.
Tas. tbe aocount shows that 65, 146 snakes and In a sense you must treat all alike: in another
16,121 wild animals were killed, for which re. sense, you must learn to yield to true gentil.
wards of £7,313 were paid. ity, in man or woman,that suggestion of def. erence which is its due and you must, equally, TUBERCULOSIS IN ST. LOUIS. -- Statistios learn to draw that line of reserve about your have been compiled by the clerk of the St. self which the under world dares not pass and Louis board of health, showing the number which is still so faint as not to be a barrier of cases of tuberculosis and the deaths from which they can resent.
that disease in each of the seven sanitary dis. In the nurses, you will find startling dif. tricts. The third district, located east of ferences of social and intellectal standing. Jefferson Avenue and between Franklin and Avoid either extreme of regarding them with Chouteau avenues, shows a greater aggrega. a sentimental way as angels, with a balo tion of cases and deaths than any other dis. materialized into a gauze cap, or as menials. triot. In the first district, with a population of Unfortunately, all nurses are not alike, from 77,075, there were 243 cases and 182 deaths; upy standpoint, yet, in theory at least, you in the seoond, with a population of 98, 336, must treat them as intelligent gentlewomen there were 249 cases and 178 deaths; in the studying for a profession which is peces. third, with a population of 68, 159, there were sarily subordinate to our own, and usually 267 cases and 190 deaths; in the fourth, with the object of earning a living, and yet, with a population of 119,056, there were 246 a profession of dignity and practical value. cases and 183 deaths; in the fifth, with a Officially, you should treat them as you would population of 77,522, tbere were 192 cases like to have the visiting staff treat you, re. and 130 deaths; in the sixth, witb a popula. membering that a nurse who will submit to tion of 130,975, there were 271 cases and more than temporary indigoities is not of 187 deaths, and in tbe seventh, with a pop
he class of women competent to assume ulation of 123,895, there were 260 cases and 'he grave responsibilities of her profession. 162 deaths,
The reach of thend the dead hun Chouten Avenue andistrict, locatea itary digo alcohol, which with diftin
SELECTED ARTICLE hours. The sick man was with difficulty
aroused from a stupor, which seemed par. THE IDEAL ATTITUDE OF THE PHYSI tially, at least, alcoholic. The patient was
CIAN TOWARD ALCOHOL, AS A MEDI. not a drinker; he was taking no medicine CINE, A FOOD AND AS A BEVERAGE. * except whisky, which the doctor had ordered
to be given in large quantities, “as much as WM. EBERLE SHAW, M. D.
they could get into bim.” The man died
twelve hours afterwards. I am much inclined CINCINNATI.
to think the whisky bastened his death. (The . There was read before this society, at its patient was not near a crisis). I was credibly meeting September 4, 1899, a paper on “Al informed a few days afterward that the phy. oohol and Alcoholism," by a very learned and sician who had preceded me was in one of honored member, wbich begau with this sen- our hospitals, suffering with acute alcohol. tence: "For several years of late certain ism. members of the medical profession have I had under observation for eighteen earnestly, if not olanjorously, agitated tbe months a refined, devoted wife and mother, a subject of alcohol and alcoholism, making grandmother, who had been the innocent assertions and promulgating ideas that should sufferer for the sins of her husband from not go unchallenged as being either accurate many of the symptoms of that bydra-headed or wise.” The writer speaks of these “would punisher of violators of the seventh com. be reformers of medical practice and practi- mandment. The husband has always been tioners" and their claims, and adds: “Con. considered a very moral and upright man, as sidered in the light of facts and of reason and well as a devoted husband for many years common sense, 1 regard this movement as he has been a moderate user of alcoholics. one of those sinoere exaggerations of super. He told me before this calamity befell him ficially apparent truth, characteristic of fan. that "be always knew when to stop;' in fact, aticisin, that is equivalent to falsehood.” he possessed all the virtues which so many
The paper contains a severe arraignment of moderate drinkers arrogate to themselves. thousands of brave, true and well-developed "He could drink or he could let it alone." specimens of manhood who oboose to deny This man, in his perfectly suber moments, I themselves the sensual pleasures of wine, believe, would sooner have lost his right arm when he says that "A banquet without wine than to bave violated his sacred martial vows. is practically intolerable to other than ab- One evening be did what so many moderate normally or eccentrically developed men out drinkers do, “got out with the boys," and of harmony with their environments.” without being what any of them considered Speaking of alcokol as a medicine, the doctor intoxicated, drank enough to lose his good said: "Other physicians of equal reputation judgment and discretion and finer sense of profess and do treat the same variety of dis. right. With these faculties gone-and they eases successfully without alcohol, but this are the first to be affected — a man is a should not discredit its reputation and use. rudderless ship. This map on that evening fulness as a medicine.”.
drifted from his moral moorings and not only Dr. T. J. Hillis read a paper before the wrecked lis peace of mind for all time, but New York State Medical Society, October 24, most seriously damaged his own health, as 1899, in which occurs this remarkable encom. well as that of his innocent, trusting wife, ium to wbisky: “It may here be stated, with whom he bad most solemnly promised to love out the likelihood of contradiction, that if and oberish. whisky was properly ripened, or aged, before
So long as such favorable opinions of being exposed for sale by distilleries and
alcoholics are presented for the consideration saloons, two-thirds of the crime and three
of medical societies, so long as instances of fourths of the insanity charged to the account
bestiality occur among medical men, degradof alcohol would disappear from the indict.
ing the profession and destroying the holiest ment, so bulky and so terrible, that stands
things of the family and of the home, so long against it on the statute books of society.
will there be some of the so-called “would be It is the quality of the alcoholic product,
reformers of medical practice and practi. and not the quantity, that must be taken
tioners" in evidence to call a Walt to the perinto consideration."(?)
nicious ideas that alcohol is either a harmless I was recently called to see a man, ifty
universal panacea or an advisable food or years old, who was sick with pneumonia for ibree days. I was called because the physi.
beverage. cian who had been treating bim could not be
The physician who uses narcotic drugs with found, and had not seen him for twenty-six
a careless hand, regardless of the possible
contraction of the drug habit by his patient, * Abstract of a paper read befor the Academy of Medicine of Cincinnati.
is a dangerous man to be loose in any com.
munity, and he ought to be muzzled, for be part of myself. Woe to the man who per. is more to be feared than a rabid dog.
sistently offends his conscience; be is most Who are those medical gentlemen who are irretrievably damaged in the finest mechan. so sbocked by a disoussion of this subject, ism of his being! I wish to insist that I am which reaches over into the ethical field ? defining my own individual convictions and You will invariably find them to be habitual position on this question, and no other man's, users of aoloholic beverages, many of whom and I wish to do it without exciting a single honestly believe that it is nobody's business suspicion of cant or typcerisy. what they eat or driok so long as they show Every individual must reach his own final no unmistakable signs of intoxication, wbioh conviotions of right and duty before tbe bar latter statement may contain a great deal of of his own conscience; if your ultimate con. truth, for, understand me, I am an abstainer clusions on this or any other subject should of my own free will, and not by compulsion. radically differ from mine, it would certainly
The time was when I myself deemed cp be exceedingly unbecoming in me or any one position to a very liberal use of alcohol in possessing the true instinots of a gentleman medioine as the “frantic efforts of well-mean- to refuse fellowsbip or good will on account ing but illy-informed enthusiastic reform- of differing opinions. It is my duty as a ers," as the learned friend puts it. At that member of society to defend my honest contime I was practically iguorant, as I believe victions and convince, if possible, that I am thousands of the profession are today, of right, but it is despicable in me to hate my wbat Riobardson, in Enlgand, and N. S. neighbor because his opinions differ from Davis, Reuben Mussey and so many other mine. . pioneers in this field has done in the study I realize how very difficult it is to define an of this question, and in the advocacy of total ideal position in ethics without making use abstinence as a salutary measure in the pro- of expressions that leave the flavor of pharifession.
seeism, and I sball constantly bear it in mind Disgusted with the abuses of the drink during this discussion. habit in the neigbborhood where I live, the I believe that total abstinence from any. conviction was driven upon me that I could thing for conscience sake is a virtue, but tine not longer indorse the habit, be it ever so nobility of character is so very composite in tem perutely, by being myself a consumer, its nature, and depends so largely for its deespecially when I ocoupied a position to velopment upon strong, positive inspirations, ward the community as a conservator of the that negative denials are minor traits in com. health of the people.
parison. A man might possess all the negaNotwithstanding the fact that I, at that tive points of an ideal character and still be time, recognized and occasionally enjoyed its as a pigmy in the presence of a noble-bearted, use as a delightful luxury, I plainly saw. positive, large-souled drunkard even. I want that it was so dangerous to so many that it to be liboral-minded and at the same time es. was my bounded duty to willingly forego any ercise that highest type of charity, tolerance selfish pleasure that I might have in its use, for the opinions of those who differ from me, that my influence upon the young men but at the same time I do not want to forget around me would be to lead them away from that warning given by the greatest etbical an indulgence that would certainly very ser. writer of any age: "Take heed lest by any iously damage many and utterly destroy some means this liberty of yours become a stum. of them.
bling-block to them that are weak.” You I recognized the wisdom of that part of may class me as a radical on this question, the Hippooratio oath, piz., “I will follow the but please do not use that vituperant epithet, system of regimen which, according to my fanatic, for you well know my position is imability and judgment, I consider for the pregnable. benefit of my patients, abstaining from There are hundreds of young men in this wbatever is deleterious or mischievous.” city—and they are found in every community
It will be a great satisfaction to every man who have within them elements of suocess if, at the end, he oan say he never put a young that would make them useful citizens bad man on the wrong path. I felt that in advo. they sufficient force of character to resist the cating and practicing totul abstinence I could invitations, so numerous on every hand to take make no mistake, for I would be occupying a social drink, especially difficult when prof. the ideal attitude of a medical or any other fered by those whom they honor, respect or man to this question.
I am the father of two boys and surrounded I feel very thankful for the influences that and watched by many other boys, and this made me a total abstainer, for the blood of position forced itself upon me; there was these men who go down by aloohol is not on no escape without seriously offending the best my hands, and besides, I have the satisfac
tion of feeling that I have helped many were, by the anesthetic power of the drug, the young men to their frail bark away from the danger of which every intelligent physician apparently innocent outer ciroling waves of constantly recognizes. The result will often. this maelstrom whose vortex has engulfed so times be not less disastrous than if the en. many noble souls.
gineer should weight his safety-valve far be. There is not a gentleman on the floor of yond the point of danger, and then increase this Academy who uses alcoholios but would his fires under the boilers by using aloohol as willingly-yes, gladly-abstain on any ocoa a source of energy. Should he be so fortun. sion if he could know that that particular ate as to escape an explosion, he should have indulgence would be the causative factor in his license revoked as an incompetent and the ruin of his own or my son. Gentlemen, unsafe workman. the only absolute safety, especially for us, We often bear it proclaimed that the who are looked upon as the guardians of the brightest minds are found in habitual users health of the community, is total abstinence. of alcohol, as though its use were evidences
The "Autoorat of the Breakfast Table of intellectual capacity. It cannot be denied said: “The way to argue down a vice is not that many men of high intelligence use to tell lies about it, to say it has no attrac- them, and that many such use them intem. tions when everybody knows that it has, but perately, but I think if any observer of even rather to let it make out its own case, as it ordinary intelligence and perception will fix certain!y will in the moment of temptation, his gaze just for a moment upon the whole and then meet it with the weapons furnished class of drinkers, instead of on the occasional. by the Divine Armory."
brilliant one, he wculd not have the temerity to In taking this position of total abstinence again refer to the habit as particularly char. as a physician I fully realize wbat I lose in acteristio of a high order of intelligence. One the buon, good obeer, social ease and fellow of the best known editors in this country says ship among gentlemen, that comes from a that he selected twenty-four of the most emi. moderate indulgence in alcoholics. There is nent men in the world and found upon inves. certainly nothing which adds so much to the tigation that twenty were total abstainers completion of the joys of a social hour as a and the other four moderate users. moderate indulgence in the "cup that when we assume the responsibilities of the cbeers.” It blots out for the time differ medical profession we become peculiarly the ences, diffidences, jealousies; makes us for. servants of the public in a most sacred relaget our troubles, places us on an equality, in tionship. We enter the home under condi. fact makes us what we naturally should be- tions which often exclude the nearest friends, boan companions, full of good fellowship. and become the depositories of secrets known Could I be persuaded that no harm would to no others. We are in the very holy of come to me or my family or my neighbor bolies, at times, that tiy men's souls; when through my indulgence, I most assuredly the beloved one is in the most terrific agonies would be a moderate drinker.
known to humanity, when a new being is be. The doctor also emphasizes the common ing ushered into a new existence, when life observation that the strongest, most intelli. trembles in the balance, when the last goodgent, initiative, pushing, progressive, success. byes are said, and the very heart-strings are ful peoples on earth were the most liberal being torn asunder. We are peculiarly re. users of aloobol." I do not accuse the doc. lated to humanity at its crises, and it is tor of intentionally using this statement in a right and proper that the community should sophistical manner, but he certainly would demand a high standard in the character of not think of even intimating to this audience the medical profession who occupy this in. that an individual's intelligence, energy, cour. timate association. age, comfort or suocess in life depended upon Personal experience is so convincing that the amount of alcohol be consumed. As it is not easily overcome. “Seeing is believDavid Harum would say, “It was purty good ing.” “Alas for the worth of human testi. jury truth but not gospel truth." The truth mony," although not so old, is an expression back of this statement is that the very fact which has been one of the obstacles that of a nation's possessing these good qualities has interfered with the correct understand. necessitates a very great wear and tear upon ing of the true action of alcohol. the energies of the people who are doing the When a person has studied the effects of work, many of whom, instead of paying heed this drug upon his own person, has felt the to the physiological warning of tire and ex. warm glow starting from his throat and stomhaustion, and recuperating their wasted ener. ach, and felt it gradually extend all over his gies by rest, sleep and wholesome food and body to his finger tips and to the very roots drink, under a fanlty education in regard to of his hair, even the most accurate ther. alcohol, weight down their safety-valves, as it mometric observation to the contrary will
often scarcely over-balance bis fooled sensa. This blunting of the intellectual processes tions, and convince him that no real increase is most beautifully shown by the experiments in bodily ten perature bas taken place; if of Professor Kraepelin with even smaller tbere were any increase at all, it was as the quantities of alcoboltban Professor Atwater flash of gunpowder.
used in his experipients (two and a half to To this observer, "feeling is believing." three ounces). Kraepelin's experiments ex. Instead of a real increase in temperature, tended over a period of twenty-seven days, and what has really taken place? Through its mental capacity was tested by problems in effects upon the vasomotor nerves, the super- addition and memorizing. The test was first ficial blood vessels are being filled with the made for a few days without alcohol, with a warm internal blood, transmitting a sense of daily increase in efficiency; the alcohol as warmth to the more delicate nerves of sensa. then given for a few days, the mental capaction, so abundantly distributed to the skin.. ity remaining about the same, then greatly This warm blood is being more rapidly cooled and rapidly decreased, the decrease being by a nearer proximity to the cooler surround. more noticeable in the power to memorize. ing atmosphere. In a cold atmosphere alco. Stopping the alcohol, there was immediate hol is a refrigerant, just in proportion as the increase of efficienoy, which continued for air is colder than the body, explaining the seven days, then the alcohol was begun again, common observation that most persons who and immediately there was a great lesseping have frozen to death have been under the of mental capacity.” influence of alcohol.
The investigator who has satisfied himself A friend who was with a surveying party that alcoholics warm him when he is cold, on the Canadian Pacific Railway told nie make hie ideas flow more easily when he is that the Manitoba Indians bave a saying like dull, is equally true that it strengthens him this: “If a man drink no fire-water, he wakes when he is weak. The “old brain fooler" up well; if be drink a little he wakes up does not miss a single fibre or function of the ill; if he drinks much, he wakes up dead.” human body.
Brinton, in bis lectures on medicine, gives The experiments of Professors Chittenden an incident which is a good foundation for and Mendel, at Yale University, have often such a saying: "A party of engineers sur- been quoted to prove that alcohol increases veying in the Sierra Nevadas camped at a gastric juice, wbich it undoubtedly did in great height above the sea, where the air their experiments, but their experiments were was very cold; some drank a little whisky made on dogs which were killed after diges. And went to bed more comfortable, others tion bad gone to a certain stage, the control drank a lot of whisky and went to bed very taking no alcobol. The contents of the stom. jolly. In the morning the men who had achs were then analyzed with the above renot drank got up in good condition; those sults, but Professor Cbittenden adds: “Not. who had drank a little felt miserable, and withstanding the apparent increase in gastrio those who went to bed so jolly did not get up juice under alcohol, it is of no value to di. at all; they were fruzen to death."
gestion, for in nearly every instance the presWhen the student of this subject "takes ence of alcohol in the stomach has retarded a drop to keep him warm" and feels the first digestion just in proportion to the alcohol transient movement of thought, he is per. used.” Dr. W. H. Riley, of Boulder, Colol feotly unconscious, so far as his sensations rado, in a very exhaustive paper, “The Effect are concerned, that his powers of judgment of Alcohol on the Function and Structure of discretion and nice discernment are being the Stomach," says that if the experiments proportionately paralyzed by the oncording at Yale had been performed on the same dog force of the drug's anesthetio power, as repeatedly, emptying the stomach without Kraepelin bas so surely demonstrated, viz., killing the dogs, the fallacy of the supposed "Alcohol makes more words, less thought.” increase of gastric juice would have been
Helmholtz said that "in bis own case, the readily detected." In Professors Cbittenden smallest quantity of alcobol seemed to utterly and Mendel's experiments the irritant effect dissipate brilliant or original thought.” A of the alcohol caused a more complete disrenowned literary writer of England gave os charge of the gastric juice already stored up his own experience that if he took wine with in the gastrio glands. Dr. Riley says that his dinner, even in moderation, he found where he had so frequently taken pains to that during the evening he could write with carefully analyze the stomach's contents or remarkable ease and satisfaction at the even very moderate drinkers, he almost in. time; next morning he found that what bad variably found the gastric secretions were been so very satisfactory the evening before very much lessened. He also found as Chit. would not at all satisfy the oritical judg. tenden and Mendel bad, that whether the es. ment of his unalooholized brain."
periments were made in the test-tube or in