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the stomachs of men or dogs, “digestion was ment, be comforted thereby, without postalmost invariably retarded just in proportion poning or jeoparding, if not enhancing, reto the alcohol used; in a few cases, where 1 covery.” This comforting power is the real per cent or less was used, digestion seemed power of alcohol, and the very power that to be increased, but in more, even then, re. makes it so dangerous, as well as the explan. tarded.”
ation of its great appreciation by man all These observations are often met by the through the ages. testimony of many patients who have taken The writings of Sir Benjamin Ward Riob. alooholics with very great relief of discomfort ardson, in England, and Dr. N. S. Davis, Sr., after eating, thus Paul's advice to Timothy in this country, ought to be sufficient alone, bas continued to be handed down, and there if well known, to cause every free prescriber is no doubt that in many cases of painful of aclohol to pause and inquire whether he is digestion a great deal of temporary relief an injury or a benefit to his patient. How can be obtained from the anesthetic power often are our dearest memories of home and of the drug, but these chronic dyspeptics, mother sorely shocked by what we are comas a class, are the very people to whom it pelled to witness in the homes of the drink. would be bazardous to administer alcoholios ing poor. The bleared eyes, the soddence, continuously.
the red nose of the alooholized woman, sur. I wish that every member of this Academy rounded by dirty, unkempt obildren, is the would read and carefully consider a lecture most sickening sight that I meet. It seems by that eminent neurologist, Mr. Victor sacrilege to call these women mothers or these Horsley, delivered at St. James Hall, Lon places homes. Many of these women will don, last April. He discussed the effects of tell you, if you go to the trouble of getting aolohol upon the brain by the small doses of their stories, that they began their habit by the moderate drinker, and in conclusion Mr. taking beer to increase their milk supply. Horsley said that, from a scientific stand. Hard work, poor surroundings, frequent point, he believes that he statements which maternities are excessively wearing upon the have been made that small doses of alcohol lives of the poor, who bave so few intervals of such as people take at their meals, have prac. relaxation or recuperation. Many of them betically no deleterious effect oannot be main. come both physically and mentally unfitted tained. “The cumulative evidence on the for their severe manual labor, to say nothing subject shows that if we are to follow the of total disqualification for that highest and plain teachings of truth and common sense most responsible duty of woman, motherhood! we must be total abstainers.”
It is, as all know, the exception for these As to the use of alcohol in medioine, I have women to rear all-round, well developed, suo. long felt that it has a very narrow field of cessful children; thus these beer-drinking usefulness, and that "therapeutics'' would mothers become a real menace to the State. soon be immeasurably impruved if we could In the chronio condition of tire and ennui erase from medical literature and from the of these women, nothing so completely, medical mind every iota cf our knowledge of quickly and delightfully removes all their alcohol, and begin anew our investigations ills as just the proper dose of an alcoholic. in a purely scientific manner. If the cause of The headaches, and the backaches, the exalcohol in medicine were compelled to stand haustion, and all the heavy load of their upon its real intrinsio merits, uninfluenced overwhelming environments, that so depress by appetite, prejudice and preconceived opin- them melt away as snow before the morning ions, by social and commercial pressure, it sun. The temporary relief is about as cer. would soon take its deserved place among the tain as if you should give the proper dose of rarely used drugs.
morphine, immeasurably more pleasant and Many of the strong believers in alcohol as scarcely less dangerous in these women. å medicine appear as under somewhat of a Gentlemen before advising this seductive charm in their advocacy of their favorite rem. comforter to this very susceptible class, edy, and seem perfeotly ignorant of the fact pause and take reckoning consider your re. that there are many individuals with a con. sponsibility, and do not let any personal re. genital or acquired weakness to resist the lation to this question be a means of your drug babit power of this remedy. Our learned damaging those who put their trust in you. friend whom I quoted in the very beginning There is one phase in the evolution of the of this paper says: “I do not know of any alcohol question which will never be re. disease condition amenable to medical treat. peated, the prosecution of a physician for ment of any kind that may not be treated negligence or homioide in a fatal case of pneu. sucessfully without alcohol. This fact, how- monia, where the physician did not give al. ever, would not prevent me from prescribing coholios during the progress of the disease. alcohol in any case that might, in my judg. This question was settled for all time by the decision in the case in which Dr. Hirsobfeld, tality of 2.7 per cent, and during the same of Madgburg, Germany, was defendant. In time 82 cases of pneumonia with a mortality this case Professor Binz, of Bonn; Prof. 4.9 per cent. Struempel, of Erlangen; Prof. Harnack, Dr. Crothers, in looking over the reports of Halle with tbe Medical Council of Sax- of ten Eastern bospitals, found that the cost ony, consisting of five physicians, made state of alcoholics ranged from eleven to sixty-one ments that were summarized as follows: "The cents per patient treated. It was certainly idea that aloobol gives strength is deceptive; suggestive to find that the mortality was 8 while any other form of alcobol may produce per cent greater in the hospital using the an apparent form of stimulation, there is al. sixty-one cents' worth. ways a reaction in a profoundly marked di. I do not know who was first to recommend minution of energy. The special action of al. acetio aoid as a menstruum in the preparation cohol on the brain and spinal cord is no longer of medicinal extracts, but I do know that à theory, but a fact which can be measured and Prof. R. Mussey was an ardent advocate of proven. We are confident that experience acetic acid preparations. Since so reputable will fully sustain our belief that no single a firm as E. R. Squibb & Sons produce a human life which would bave fallen a prey to full line of the acetic acid preparations, at death without aclobol bas ever been saved by about one-half the cost of the alccbolic, I alcohol.” Gentlemen, tbis was over twenty would think it wise for us to use the acetic years ago.
extracts if for no other tban economic reaH. C. Wood long ago said that “perhaps sons. many of the deaths which have been set down Members of the Academy, if you wish to as due to chloroform and ether have been use alcoholics as a beverage, please remember produced by the alcohol which was given for that the more honorable, attractive and es. the relief of the patient." I believe that most teemed a moderate drinker may be, the more of the teachers call attention to this danger, apt he is to lead young men into an indul. but if you will visit most of the operations gence that may prove their destruction. If performed in this city you will find whisky on you wish to use it as a food, do not forget the side table and should the patient get into that many as well qualified men as any in a dangerous stage of anesthesia I fear be the profession agree with Prof. Hodge, of would run great risk of getting a few hypo. Clark University, whose extensive experi. dermics of it.
ments forced him to the conclusion that Dr. Wood also calls attention to the danger "alcohol retards, perverts and is destructive, of giving alcohol in shock where it used to be in either large or small doses, to normal cell the "sheet anchor.” Dr. Wood said: “It is growth and development." If you wish to use of no use-indeed I am perfectly sure that a it as a diffusible stimulant and generator of good dose of alcohol in a case of profound force, in low forms of disease, remember that shook puts a nail in the coffin of the patient." many high in the estimation of their breth.
I am glad that Cinoinnati bas the honor of ren, whose honesty and ability are above claiming one of the poineers in oorrecting the question, and whose motives are irreproachamistaken ideas in regard to alcohol. In 1835 ble, declare that they have had better results Dr. Reuben Mussey with Dr. Harvey Lindsley without them. wrote a prize essay on alcohol in which oc- Members of the Academy, in preparing this curs this sentence, at that time almost revolu. paper I have treated the subjeot in a frank tionary: "I bave no hesitanoy in asserting and impolitio manner, setting forth my hon. that there is no state of the system, however est convictions without fear or favor, and I exhausted or enfeebled; no species of malady, feel satisfied that I have produced enough however obstinate or unyielding; no case of evidence to convince any unprejudiced mind disease, however dangerous or appalling in that total abstinence is the only attitude I whiob a substitute, perfectly equal to alcohol can recommend to my sun, who says he is go. in all the exigencies of the case, may be ing to study medicine, and also that alcohol
as a medicine is at least of very doubtful effi. Dr. N. S. Davis and his son, Dr. N. S. cacy and utility in the very conditions where Davis, Jr., have reported 1,000 cases of typhoid it was formerly most prized by the medical fever treated in Mercy Hospital, Chicago, profession.—Lancet.Clinic. without alcohol, with a mortality of 5 per cent, while the statistios from other hospitals in this country at the same time ranged from 15 to 25 per cent.
For membranous enteritis, an emulsion of Dr. J. H. Kellogg and colleagues have castor oil and salol, continued for a consider. treated during the last twenty years, 333 cases able period, is often useful in this troubleof typhoid fever without aloohol, with a mor- some condition.
THE MEDICAL FORTNIGHTLY
testimony is helpful to a jury is grotesque. The juryman is asked to choose between
two conflicting infallibilities. As a matter Issued Tenth and Twenty-Fifth of Every Month. of fact, he invokes a plague on both of them THOMAS A. HOPKINS,
and deoides the case as best he oan on the Managing Editor.
other evidence produced. Editorial Staff :
"Justice must and ought to rely upon 0. E. LADEMANN, Internal Medicine.
science, especially in criminal casos. It JOHN MCHALE DEAN, Surgery.
would be illogical and absurdly devoted to F. P. NORBURY, Nervous and Mental Diseases. R. B. H. GRADWOHL, Pathology and Bacteriology. the good old ways to refuse to hear what W. H. VOGT, Obstetrics and Gynecology. WALDEMAR FISCHER, Ophthalmology.
science bas to say. But science is one A. LEVY, Pediatrics.
thing, the retained, well-feed scientist is an. W. T. HIRSCHI, Therapeutics. A. F. KOETTER, Otology.
other. The one enlightene, the other darkHERMAN STOLTE, Laryngology and Rhinology. T. A. HOPKINS, Genito-Urinary Diseases.
ens and confuses. ROBERT H. DAVIS, Dermatology. .
"Expert testimony should be tendered in Editorial Rooms, Suite 319-321 Century Building, St. Louis.
the interesi of truth, not in the interest of prosecution or defenso. If some means can
be found by legislation to obtain good scienEDITORIAL
tifio expert testimony unbiased and unfeed,
it will be a great advance. Capnot the APROPOS to a recently developed phase of
State employ experts to investigate and rethe Patriok case an editorial appeared in the
port facts and deductions, charging the ex. Post-Dispatch which is
pense to the publio treasury? That would worthy of reproduction, Expert
tend to discredit paid for testimony and enas it emphasizes that Testimony.
able the jury to get the benefit of real and the lay mind is coming
ming honest rather than warped and partisan opin.
to view this question in ion", the same light as has been voiced by Dr. Gradwohl in these columns repeatedly. It
Tt Dr. Scherok's reply was as follows: also emphasizes the fact that even a great To the Editor of the Post-Dispatch: daily is not keeping itself informed on what
sed on what.
An editorial under the caption "Expert is doing in our own Health Department along
Testiinony," which appeared in your paper this line, and we take pleasure in reproduc
columns of September 21st, 1906, has sug. ing with the editorial a letter to the paper
gested the idea that a communication from from Chief Dispensary Physician Scherok,
me to the effect that a distinct advance in the prompted by the editorial and dealing with
matter of expert testimony has been in oper. local aspects of the subject, whioh should be
ation in this city for more than a year, for the property of the general public, but espe.
which the Health Department of St. Louis cially of the medical profession.
can claim credit, and since the spirit which aoThe editor of the Post-Dispatch says: tuates the commission is in strict acoordance
"A petition signed by 3500 physicians has with the ideas expressed in your very valuable been forwarded to Gov. Higgins, of New editorial, I have deemed it of sufficient imYork, in behalf of Alfred T. Patrick, the portance to request that you give this letter · lawyer now under sentence of death for mur publicity. der. Only four requests to sign were refused There exists an informal Commission on out of the thousands sent out.
Insanity to examine all cases of supposed in. "With the signatures came letters from 250 sanity which occur among the criminal classes prominent physicians, in which a marked who are under arrest and charged with crime. feature was the contempt expressed by many The chief purposes underlying the organizawriters for expert testimony rendered for pay tion of this commission were a cultivation of by one side or the other in criminal cases." a better undertsanding of expert testimony in
"The protest of the New York physicians respect to mental questions in the Criminal against expert testimony for pay which has Court of St. Louis; and second, the training assumed the dimensions and character of a of a group of experts in such questions for scandal should suggest to lawyers the ex- service in the courts and the collection of pediency of a reform.
such data as afterwards might prove of value "Tbe guilt or innocence of any particu. in respect to the problems that arise in the lar defendant is not here in question. But relation of the criminal to nervous and mental it is remarkable that whenever one side diseases. offers an eminent expert as a witness the The most common plea in extenuation of other is ready with one equally eminent and criminal acts of major importance is insanity, equally cooksure. The notion that such and to establish this defence it is the custom
for the defendant to hire such experts as the testimony introduced by the experts for the size of his purse and that of his friends will defense. allow. In this way expert testimony becomes The practical results of the commission's prejudiced, illogical and is not given upon work has been entirely satisfactory. En. the question at issue, but as a defense or couragement has been given it by many of prosecution argument. Nothing need be the criminal judges, the city attorney's office said at this point as to the quality of the and others interested. It is of great satisexpert testimony wbich such a method pro faction that I can state that in no single duces. It was for the above reasons that instance has a report of the commission steps were taken and an organization com- been rejected by the jury in those cases in pleted which has been in successful opera. whiol the defense bas refused to accept the tion for more than a year past, and which, opinion of the commission and have brought during that time, bas forwarded to the the case to trial, and attempted to prove a courts more than thirty opinions.
condition opposite to that of the report of the The commission as now organized is com comission. posed of three of the most prominent psy. In a discussion of its method before one of chiatrists of our city. These gentlemen, ac. the most advanced associations in mental tuated solely by a desire to elevate the stand conditions, it was conceded that this step ard of medical testimony, volunteered their was one of the most advanced that had been
pon the request of the writer, to attempted in the United States. assist him in determining the mental status As was said before, the commission has no of certain individuals charged with crime, legal standing as at present constituted, and when from their actions or upon the sugges can be dissolved at a moment's notice if the tion that such individuals were not mentally judge shouid see fit. The precarious exist. responsible for the acts for which they were ence of the commission has been the cause charged.
of some debate as to the possibility of pass. It is obvious that the proper time to con
ing a State law constituting such a comsider the question of mental responsibility
mission of experts, and giving it the proper is before the trial takos place, not at the trial
authority and standing. We are content at wbere the defense of insanity becomes not a
present to let the work it is doing effeot in medical question, but in the nature an ex
as large a way as possible the prooedure in parte appeal to the jury.
the courts in respeot to the employment of
expert testimony, and leave the solution of It was agreed that the commission was to
tbe permanenoy of such a commission to be at the service of the court-present their
other hands. findings to the jury, or in any other way to
In conclusion, it may be stated tbat the vol. assist the court to arrive at a just opinion
untary and unpaid service to the state of in regard to the sanity or insanity of a per
these experts has appealed to me as being in son. It goes without saying that this body
line with the larger view of the civic responserves without compensation. As mentioned
sibility which physicians feel bound to share, above, the commission as now constituted,
and from which until of late there bas been which of course, has no legal status, con
considerable shrinking. It is a part of a sists of three neurologists together with the
widespread movement whioh is tending to rejail physician. The method of procedure is
move the isolaticn which the profession holds as follows:
to the community in which it is a part, and Any prisoner in the jail before he is for the elevation of expert testimony to the brought to trial, and in some cases before dignity wbere it belongs. he is arraigned, in whom is found the slight. est evidence of abnormality, is examined by IN THE REALM OF SPECIALISM.-Should the commission and a report of its findings the general practitioner send his eye cases to is transmitted to the circuit attorney. De. the eye doctor, bis ear cases to the ear doctor, pending upon the report of the commission, his throat cases to the throat doctor, his cbest the prisoner is tried for his crime or is cases to the chest doctor, bis stomach cases brought into court and de lunatico inquir. to the stomach doctor, his rectal cases to the endo is instituted as a result of the opinion rectum doctor, his genito-urinary cases to of the commission. Naturally, as it fre. the G. U. doctor, his skin oases to the skin quently occurs, in the event that the ccm- doctor, his gynecological cases to the gyne. mission believe the prisoner to be sane the cological doctor, his X-ray cases to the X. defense introduces it own experts. In such ray doctor, eto., and had not married rich, case, the court bas the privilege to see the who will pay the bills of the generous genreport of the commission, or its members eral practitioner?- E. S. McKee, in Lancet. are put upon the stand, in rebuttal of the Clinic.
HOSPITALS OF NEW ST.
LOUIS. St. Luke's Hospital, at Delmar Boulevard and Belt Ave., is conducted under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Diocese of Missouri, by which it was organized in 1866. The pres. ent structure was completed April 23d, 1904, its cost, to. gether with the ground and the Nurse's Home, baving been $150,000. It is built to accommodate 110 patients, there being 50 private rooms and 60 ward beds. Its medi. cal and surgical conduct is under a physician's staff, at the head of which is Dr. H. G. Mudd; its school for nurses is uuder the superin. terdenoy of Miss Ella Fligg.
The hospital has a small endowment from various sources, amounting to $75. 000. The extent of charity is limited only by the capacity of the hospital and means
ASTHMA.–J. Madison Tay. lor (Monthly Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine) states that the manual treatment of asthma has proved of the greatest value in his hands. He regulates vasomotor ac. tion by alternating pressure on the erector spinal muscles, by means of the hand or by beat, cold, dry cups, electric. ity or specially devised ma. chines. A sufferer from asth. ma should be taught in the intervals to forcefully expel all the residual air possible, to educate his diaphragm and external abdominal musoles. Gentle exercise for more than a half bour tends to equalize blood pressure.
ST. LUKE'S NURSES HOME.