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tention of travellers has also been strongly attracted by a colossal head of black granite, found lying on the ground close to the Memnonium. Norden particularly admires its charming simplicity, and Hamilton considers, it as certainly the most beautiful and perfect piece of Egyptian sculpture. This head, through the exertions of Messrs. Salt and Belzoni, has been conveyed to Europe, and is now to be found in the British Museum.
THECLA, a noble and learned lady of Alexandria, in Egypt, who in the fourth century, transcribed the whole of the Bible in the Greek language, from the original Septuagint copy, then preserved in the Alexandrian Library; and this ancient copy is still preserved, and constitutes the celebrated Alexandrian MS., so often appealed to by commentators. It was presented to king Charles I. by Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople, in 1628. See ScripTURE, sect. VIII.
THEFT, n.s. From thief. The act of stealing; the thing stolen.
If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether ox, ass, or sheep, he shall restore double. Erodus xxii. 4. Theft is an unlawful felonious taking away of another man's goods against the owner's knowledge or will. Cowel. His thefts were too open; his filching was like an unskilful singer, he kept not time. Shakspeare. Merry Wives of Windsor. Deceit in trade, a secret theft : extortion, an impudent theft. Holyday. The thefts upon the public can be looked into and punished. Davenant.
Theft, in English law, or simple larceny, “is the felloniously taking and carrying away of the personal goods of another.' By the Jewish law it was only punished with a pecuniary fine, and satisfaction to the party injured; and in the civil law, till some very late constitutions, we never find the punishment capital. The laws of Draco at Athens punished it with death; but his laws were said to be written with blood; and Solon afterwards changed the penalty to a pecuniary mulct. And so the Attic laws in general continued; except that once, in a time of dearth, it was made capital to break into a garden and steal figs; but this law, and the informers against the offence, grew so odious, that from them all malicious informers were styled sycophants; a name which we have much perverted from its original meaning. The punishment of theft throughout the greatest part of Europe is capital. The Anglo-Saxon laws nominally punished theft with death, if above the value of 12d.; but the criminal was permitted to redeem his life by a pecuniary ransom; as, among their ancestors the Germans, by a stated number of cattle. But, in the ninth year of Henry I., this power of redemption was taken away, and all persons guilty of larceny above the value of 12d. were directed to be hanged; which law continues in force to this day. See Law.
THEFT-BOTE (from the Saxon theof, i. e. a thief, and bote, compensatis), the receiving of a man's goods again from a thief, after stolen, or other amends not to prosecute the felon, and
to the intent the thief may escape; which is an offence punishable by fine and imprisonment, &c. THEIR, pron. Sax. 8eona of them. Of them : the pronoun possessive, from they : theirs is used in construction when any thing comes between the possessive and substantive. Prayer we always have in our power to bestow, and they never in theirs to refuse. Hooker. *The round world should have shook Lions into civil streets, and citizens into their dens. Shakspeare. They gave the same names to their own idols which the Egyptians did to theirs. Raleigh. Nothing but the name of zeal appears 'Twixt our best actions and the worst of theirs. Denham. The penalty to thy transgression due, And due to theirs, which out of thine will grow. Milton. Vain are our neighbours' hopes, and vain their cares; The fault is more their language's than theirs. Roscommon Which established law of theirs seems too strict at first, because it excludes all secret intrigues. Dryden. For the Italians, Dante had begun to file their language in verse before Boccace, who likewise received no little help from his master Petrarch ; but the reformation of their prose was wholly owing to Boccace. And, reading, wish like theirs our fate and fame. Pope. THEISM (from esoc, God). The doctrine, or belief, that there is but one God. This word is synonymous with deism, the latter being derived from the Latin, the former from the Greek. See DEIsM. THEISS, or Tisza, a river of Hungary, which rises from two springs in the county of Marmarosch, on the north-east frontier of the kingdom. The two streams called the Black and the White Theiss soon unite, and, after flowing above 100 miles in a western direction, it turns to the south, and either touches or divides ten distinct counties or districts, before flowing into the Danube at Salankamen, below Titul. In this long course, above 500 miles, it receives a great number of rivers. THEIST (from Gr. 9soc, God). One who believes in the eternal existence of one God. A word synonymous with Deist. See Drist. All Christians, Jews, and even Mahometans, are Theists, or Deists, though all Theists are not Christians. THELIGONUM, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the class of monoecia, and order of polyandria; natural order fifty-third, scabridae: Male cAL. bifid : cok. none : the stamina are generally twelve : FEMALE CAL. also bifid: cop. none: only one pistil : caps. coriaceous, unilocular, and monospermous. There is only one species, viz. T. cynocrambe, which is indigenous
in the South of Europe.
THELLUSSON (Peter Isaac), a native of Geneva, who settled for many years as a merchant in London, where he accumulated an immense fortune, which, at his death in 1798, he left by will to be disposed of as follows:— Above £100,000 to his widow and children, and all the rest to accumulate till a certain period, when, if none of his descendants shall then be in life, the whole is to be devoted to the Sinking Fund, to pay off the national debt, and to be entirely at the disposal of the British parliament. It is estimated that, within 120 years, there will be none of his posterity in life, and the sum will then have accumulated to £140,000,000 sterling. His descendants applied to the Court of Chancery to get this will set aside, but without success. THEME, n.s. Fr. theme; Greek Sena. A subject on which one speaks or writes; an original root or word; a short essay. When a soldier was the theme, my name Was not far off. Shakspeare. Cymbeline. O! could I flow like thee, and make thy stream My great example, as it is my theme: Though deep, yet clear; though gentle, yet not
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full.
THEMIS, in the mythology, the goddess of justice, but different from Astraea; she was a daughter of Coelus and Terra, and, according to the poets, was compelled to marry Jupiter, by whom she became mother of the Parcae or Fates, and of Dice, Eunomia, Irene, &c. Her oracle was famous in Attica in the age of Deucalion, who consulted her after the deluge, and was directed how to repeople the world. She is represented with a pair of scales in one hand, and a sword in the other.—Lempriere.
Themis, the daughter of Ilus, king of Troy, who married Capys, and became mother of Anchises, the father of Eneas.-Apollod. iii. c. 12.
THEMISON, a celebrated physician of Laodicea, a disciple of Asclepiades, he founded the Methodic sect, with a view to the more easily teaching and practising the art of medicine. See Medicine. Themison gave the first account of diacodium, which was prepared of the juice
and decoction of poppy-heads and honey. He
invented a purging medicine called heira.
THEMISTIUS, an ancient Greek orator and philosopher, a native of Paphlagonia, who flourished in the fourth century. He had great interest and favor with the emperors in his time, and, though a heathen, was of a very tolerating spirit. He taught for many years at Constantinople, of which city he was made prefect by Julian and Theodosius; and lived to be very old. More than thirty of his orations are still extant, besides commentaries on several parts of Aristotle's works.
THEMISTOCLES, the renowned Athenian admiral, general, and patriot, who gained the battle of Salamis against the Persians. Being banished his country, by his ungrateful fellow citizens, he fled to Artaxerxes king of Persia; but, to avoid taking up arms against his country, he slew himself, 464 B. C. See ATIica. THEN, adv. Goth. than; Sax. 8an; Belg. den. At that time; afterward; immediately after; at another time; in that case; therefore. When I tell him he hates flatterers, He says he does; being then most flattered. Shakspeare. If an herb be cut off from the roots in winter, and then the earth be trodden down hard, the roots will become very big in summer. Bacon's Natural History. If God's immediate speaking and writing argueth precepts, thus spoken or written, to be perpetually moral; then his not writing of precepts argueth them to be temporary. White. Whiles then the apostle moves us to unity, and moves us also to an endeavour to it, he bestows upon us as well a discovery as an exhortation, shewing us not only the end, but also the means. Holyday. The then bishop of London, Dr. Laud, attended on his majesty through that whole journey. If then his providence
Clarendon. Out of our evil seek to i. forth good. Milton. Till then who knew The force of those dire arms. Now then be all thy weighty cares away, Thy jealousies and fears; and, while you may, To peace and soft repose give all the day. Dryden. Had fate so pleased I had been eldest born, And then without a crime the crown had worn. Id. Thee, then a boy, with my arms I laid. Id. One while the master is not aware of what is done, and then in other cases it may fall out to be his own act. L'Estrange. If all this be so, then man has a natural freedom. Locke.
THENCE, adv. Contracted, according THEN ce'Forth, }: Minsheu, from there TheNcEFok'ward. X hence. From that place
or time; for that reason: thenceforth is from that time: thenceforward, onward from that time:
‘from thence,' is a barbarism, but too well supported.
And into what hous that ye entre dwilleghe there, and go ye not out fro thence. Wiclif. Luk 9.
There shall be no more thence an infant of days.
Thenceforth this land was tributary made
To ambitious Rome. Spenser. From thence; from him, whose daughter
His tears proclaimed his parting with her ; thence
We have crossed. Shakspeare. . Fast by the oracle of God; I thence Invoke thy aid. Milton.
Not to sit idle with so great a gift . . . Useless, and thence ridiculous, about him. Id. Agonistes. There plant eyes, all mist from thence
Purge and disperse. Milton.
THEOBALD (Lewis), the son of an attorney at Sittingbourn in Kent, was a well known writer and critic in the early part of the eighteenth century. He engaged in a paper called the Censor, published in Mist's Journal, wherein, by delivering his opinions with too little reserve concerning some eminent wits, he exposed himself to their resentment. Upon the publication of Pope's Homer, he praised it in terms of extravagant admiration, yet afterwards thought proper to abuse it as earnestly; for which Pope at first made him the hero of his Dunciad, though he afterwards laid him aside for another. Mr. Theobald not only exposed himself to the lashes of Pope, but waged war with Mr. Dennis, who treated him more roughly, though with less satire. He nevertheless published an edition of Shakspeare, in which he corrected, with great pains and ingenuity, many faults that had crept into that poet's writings. This edition is still in greatesteem, being in general preferred to those published by Pope, Warburton, and Hanmer. He also wrote some plays, and translated others from the ancients.
THEOBROMA, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the class of polyadelphia, and order of pentandria; and in the natural system ranging under the thirty-seventh order, columniferae. The calyx is triphyllous; the petals, which are five in number, are vaulted and two-horned; the nectarium is pentaphyllous and regular; the stamina grow from the nectarium, each having five antherae. There are three species, viz. 1. T. angusta. 2. T. cacao, or chocolate tree. This tree delights in shady places and deep valleys. It is seldom above twenty feet high. The leaves are oblong, large, and pointed. The flowers spring from the trunk and large branches; they are small and pale red. The pods are oval and pointed. The seeds or nuts are numerous, and
curiously stowed in a white pithy substance.
See Chocolate. 3. T. guazuma. THEO'CRACY, n.s. Fr. theocratic; Greek Stoc and rparew. Government immediately superintended by God. The government is neither human nor angelical, but peculiarly theocratical. Burnet's Theory of the Earth. The characters of the reign of Christ are chiefl justice, peace, and divine presence or conduct, whic is called theocracy. Id. THEOCRITUS, the father of pastoral poetry, was born at Syracuse in Sicily, and flourished under Hiero, who began his reign about B. C.265.
The compositions of this poet are distinguished among the ancients by the name of Idylliums, in order to express their smallness and variety: they would now be called Miscellanies, or Poems on several occasions. The works of this poet were first published in folio by Aldus Manutius at Venice in 1495. But the best edition was ublished in 1770, in 2 vols. 4to, by Mr. Thomas Warton. THEODATUS, or Theodorus, the third king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, was raised to the throne by his aunt Amalasuntha, who married him, but whom the villain ungratefully murdered. See ITALY. THEODOLITE, a mathematical instrument for taking heights and distances. See GEoMETRY. THEODORE, king of Corsica, baron Nieuhoff in the county of La Marc in Westphalia. He had his education in the French service, and afterwards went to Spain; but, being of an unsettled disposition, he quitted Spain, and travelled into Italy, England, and Holland, in search of some new adventure. He at last fixed his attention on Corsica, and formed the scheme of rendering himself sovereign of that island. He went to Tunis, where he fell upon means to procure some money and arms; and then went to Leghorn, whence he wrote a letter to the Corsican chiefs Giafferi and Paoli, offering considerable assistance to the nation if they would elect him as their sovereign. This letter was consigned to Count Dominico Rivarola, who acted as Corsican plenipotentiary in Tuscany; and he gave for answer, that, if Theodore brought the assistance he promised to the Corsicans, they would very willingly make him king. Upon this he, without loss of time, set sail, and landed at Tavagna in spring 1736. He had a few attendants with him; and his manners were so engaging, and his offers so plausible, that he was proclaimed king of Corsica before Count Rivarola's despatches arrived to inform the chiefs of the terms upon which he had agreed. Theodore instantly assumed every mark of royal dignity. The Genoese were not a little confounded with this unexpected adventurer. They published a violent manifesto against Theodore, treating him with great contempt; but at the same time showing they were alarmed at his appearance. Theodore replied in a manifesto, with all the calmness and dignity of a monarch; but after being about eight months in Corsica, perceiving that the people began to cool in their affections towards him, he assembled his chiefs, and declared he would keep them no longer in a state of uncertainty, being determined to seek in person the support he had so long expected. He settled an administration during his absence, recommended unity in the strongest terms, and left the island with reciprocal assurances of fidelity and affection. He went to Holland, where he was so successful as to obtain credit from several rich merchants, particularly Jews, who trusted him with cannon and other warlike stores to a great value, under the charge of a supercargo. With these he returned to Corsica in 1739; but by this time the French, as auxiliaries to the Genoese, had become so powerful in the island, that, though Theodore threw in his supply of warlike stores, he did not incline to venture his person, the Genoese having set a high price on his head. He therefore again departed; and, after many unavailing attempts to recover the crown, at length retired to England, where he was reduced so low as to be several years before his death a prisoner for debt in the King's Bench. At length, to the honor of some gentlemen of rank, a charitable contribution was set on foot for him in 1753, by which he was released from prison: but the remainder of his life was spent in extreme poverty. Theodore died 11th December 1756, and was buried in St. Anne's church yard Westminister. He left a son, the late colonel Frederick, who was an accomplished gentleman. THEODORET, a bishop of St. Cyricus in Syria, in the fourth century, and one of the most learned fathers of the church, was born A. D. 386, and was the disciple of Theodorus of Mopsuestes and St.John Chrysostom. Having received holy orders, he was with difficulty persuaded to accept of the bishopric of St. Cyricus, about A. D. 420. He displayed great frugality in the expenses of his table, dress, and furniture, but spent considerable sums in improving and adorning the city of Cyricus. Yet his zeal was not confined to his own church; he went to preach at Antioch and the neighbouring towns, where he became admired for his eloquence and learning, and had the happiness to convert multitudes of people. He wrote in favor of John of Antioch and the Nestorians, against Cyril's Twelve Anathemas; he afterwards attacked the opinions of Nestorius, and was deposed in the synod held by the Eutychians at Ephesus; but was again restored by the general council of Chalcedon, in which he was present, in 451. It is thought that he died soon after; though others say that he lived till A. D. 457. There are still extant Theodoret's excellent Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles, and on several other books of the Holy Scriptures. 2. His Ecclesiastical History, from the time of Arius to Theodosius the Younger. 3. History of the Anchorites. 4. Epistles. 5. Discourses on Providence. 6. A treatise entitled De Curandis Graecorum Affectibus; and other works. The best edition is that of Sirmond, in Greek and Latin, in 4 vols. folio. THEODORICK, the first and greatest monarch of the Ostrogoths in Italy. He had many virtues, shaded with some vices. He defeated Clovis king of France, and Odoacer king of Italy, A. D. 526. See FRANce, Goths, and ITALY. Theodorick, or ThierRI, king of Metz; the eldest son of Clovis. See FRANCE. THEODORUS, bishop of Mopsuestes, a city in Cilicia, a learned prelate of the fifth century. He wrote a Commentary on the Psalms, another On the Twelve minor Prophets; which, with some other fragments, are extant. He died A. D. 428. But his works were condemned in the fifth general council, as favoring Nestorianism (see NestoriaNs) and Socinianism. THEODOSIUS, a celebrated mathematician, who flourished in the times of Cicero and Pompey, but the time and place of his death are un
known. Theodosius chiefly cultivated that part of geometry which relates to the doctrine of the sphere, concerning which he published three books, of which a good English translation was made by Dr. Barrow. Theodosius I., called the Great, was a native of Spain. The valor he had shown, and the great services he had done the empire, made Gratian, attacked by the Goths and Germans, to admit him as a partner in the government. He received the purple in A.D. 379, aged forty-three. See CoNSTANTINople. THEODOTUS, a native of Byzantium, who flourished in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, and at first professed Christianity, but, during the persecution under that emperor, renounced it, and set up a new heresy, called Theodotian, or Theodosian. See Theodosi ANs. He was a tanner by profession. THEOGNIS, an ancient Greek poet of Megara in Achaia, who flourished about the fiftyninth Olympiad, 144 B. C. We have a work of his extant, concerning a summary of precepts and reflections, usually to be found in the collections of the Greek minor poets. THEOGONY, from 9soc, God, and yovn, genitura, seed or offspring. Hesiod gives us the ancient theogony, in a poem under that title. Among the most ancient writers, Dr. Burnet observes, that theogony and cosmogony signified the same thing. In effect, the generation of the gods of the ancient Persians, fire, water, and earth, is apparently no other than that of the rimary elements. See Polytheism. THEO'LOGY, n.s. Y Fr. theologie; Gr. Theolo'gi AN, SeoMoyla. Divinity: Theolog'IcAL, adj. a theologian, theoloTheolog'IcALLY, adv. (gist, or theologue is Theologist, n.s. | a professor of or one The'ologue. J skilled in divinity : theological pertaining to divinity: the adverb corresponding. The whole drift of the scripture of God, what is it but only to teach theology? Theology, what is it but the science of things divine ! Hooker. The cardinals of Rome, which are theologues, friars, and school-men, call all temporal business, of wars, embassages, shirrery, which is under sheriffries. Bacon's Essays. Some theologians defile places erected only for religion by defending oppressions. Hayward. She was most dear to the king in regard of her knowledge in languages, in theology, and in philosophy. Id. Although some pens have only symbolized the same from the mystery of its colours, yet are there other affections might admit of theological allusions. Browne. The oldest writers of theology were of this mind. Tillotson. A theologue more by need than genial bent; Interest in all his actions was discerned. Dryden. It is no more an order, according to popish theologists, than the prima tonsura, they allowing only seven ecclesiastical theologists. Ayliffe's Parergon. They generally are extracts of theological and moral sentences, drawn from ecclesiastical and other authors. Swift.
Theology, or divinity, has been defined that science which treats of the being and attributes of God, his relations to us, the dispensations of his providence, his will with respect to our actions, and his purposes with respect to our end. The word was first used to denote the systems of those poets and philosophers who wrote of the genealogy and exploits of the gods of Greece. Hence Orpheus, Museus, Hesiod, Pherecydes, and Pythagoras, were called theologians; as was Plato, on account of his speculations on the same subject. It was afterwards adopted by the earliest writers of the Christian church, who styled the author of the apocalypse, by way of eminence, à 980Aoyoc, the divine.
INTRoduction.—The Pagan systems are treated of under Polytheism ; and that of the Mahometans under Alcor AN, and MAhom ETANIsM : the only theology of which we have to treat at p." is Christian theology, which compre
ends that which is commonly called natural,
and that which is revealed in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. These taken together, and they ought never to be separated, compose a body of science so important, that, in comparison with it, all other sciences sink into insignificance.
Christian theology, we have said, is divided into two great parts, natural and revealed; the former comprehending that which may be known of God from the creation of the world, even his eternal power and Godhead; the latter, that which is discovered to man only in the Bible. Concerning the extent of natural theology many opinions have been formed; but into these disputes we mean not to enter. It is undeniable that there are some of the principles of theology which may be called natural; for, though it is probable that the parents of mankind received all their theological knowledge by supernatural means, it is still obvious that some parts of that knowledge must have been capable of a proof purely rational, otherwise not a single religious truth could have been conveyed through the succeeding generations of the human race but by the immediate inspiration of each individual. We indeed admit many propositions as certainly true upon the sole authority of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures; but it is self-evident that we could not do either the one or the other, were we not convinced by natural means that God exists, that he is a Being of goodness, justice, and power, and that he inspired with divine wisdom the penmen of these sacred volumes.
of every man who has any notion of the relation between effects and their causes, and whose curiosity has ever been excited by the phenomena of nature. This great and important truth the Scriptures no where undertake to demonstrate; but they open with the sublimest and strongest mode of confirming it, i.e. by ascribing the entire work of creation to the one Only God; and it may be proved by arguments much more simple than are the first principles of any other Science. We see that the human race, and every other species of animals, is at present propagated by the co-operation of two parents; but has this process continued from eternity? A moment's reflection will convince us that it has not. Let us take any one man alive, and, to avoid perplexity, let us suppose his father and mother dead, and himself the only person at present existing: how came he into the world? It will be said he was produced mechanically or chemically by the conjunction of is parents, and that his parents were produced in the same manner by theirs. Let this then be supposed; it must surely be granted that when this man was born, an addition was made to the series of the human race. But a series which can be enlarged may likewise be diminished; and, by tracing it backwards, we must at some period, however remote, reach its beginning. There must therefore have been a first pair of the human race, who were not propagated by the conjunction of parents. How did these come into the world ! Anaximander tells us that the first men and all animals were bred in warm moisture, enclosed in crustaceous skins like crab-fish or lobsters; and that when they arrived at a proper age their shelly prisons growing dry, broke, and made way for their liberty. Empedocles that our mother earth at first brought forth vast numbers of legs, and arms, and heads, &c., which, approaching each other, arranging themselves, properly, and being cemented together, started up at once full grown men. Another of these philosophers relates that there first grew up a sort of wombs, which, having their roots in the earth, attracted thence a kind of milk for the nourishment of the foetus, which in process of time broke through the membranes and shifted for itself; whilst the Egyptian fathers of this hopeful school content d themselves with simply affirming that animals, like vegetables, sprung at first from the bosom of the earth. Surely these sages, or their followers, should have been able to tell us why the earth has not in any climate this prolific power of putting forth vegetable men or the parts of men at present. If this universal parent be eternal and self-existent, it must be incapable of decay or the smallest change in any of its qualities: if it be not eternal, we shall be obliged to find a cause for its existence, or at least for its form and all its powers. But such a cause may have produced the first human pair, and undoubtedly did produce them, without making them spring