so much renowned for their valor. Under the Romans they were exempt from imposts and taxes, in consequence of bearing the honorable title of allies of the republic. For their modern state, see NETHERLANDs. UNITED STATES of North AMERICA. Rica, North. UNITY, in poetry. Aristotle laid it down as a rule, that there are three unities to be observed, viz. the unity of action, of time, and to: UNJUDG'ED, adj. Not judicially determined. Causes unjudged disgrace the loaded file, And sleeping laws the king's neglect revile. Prior. UNIVER'SAL, adj. & n.s. Lat. universalis. UNiversal/ITY, m. s. General; extendUNIver's ALLY, adv. ing to all ; total; U’NIvERse, n. s. not particular: the noun substantive and adverb correspond : the universe is the general system of things; all nature. Those offences which are breaches of supernatural laws, violate in general that principle of reason, which willeth universally to fly from evil. Hooker. All sorrowed : if all the world could have seen 't, the woe had been universal. Shakspeare. Creeping murmur, and the poring dark, Fills the wide vessel of the universe. Id. To what end had the angel been set to keep the entrance into paradise after Adam's expulsion, if the


universal had been paradise Raleigh. From things particular She doth abstract the universal kinds. Davies.

This catholicism, or second affection of the church, consisteth generally in universality, as embracing all sorts of persons, as to be disseminated through all nations, as comprehending all ages, as containing all necessary and saving truths, as obliging all conditions of men to all kind of obedience, as curing all diseases, and planting all graces in the souls of men. Pearson. UNIVER'SITY, n. s. Lat. universitas. A school, where all the arts and faculties are taught. While I play the good husband at home, my son and servants spend all at the universitu. Shakspeare. Tuming of the Shrew. The universities, especially Aberdeen, flourished under many excellent scholars, and very learned men. Clarendon. UNIvERSITY is the name of a corporation formed for the education of youth in the liberal arts and sciences, and authorised to admit such as have studied in it to certain degrees in different faculties, which not only serve as certifica es of proficiency in science, but also confer on those who obtain them considerable privileges within the university, as well as some rank in the state without it. Universities generally comprehend within them one or more colleges; but this is not always the case; for the university of St. Andrew's was in being before either of its colleges was founded, and it would continue in being with all its privileges though both its colleges were levelled with the dust. In every university with which we are acquainted, there are four faculties, viz. theology, law, physic, and the arts and sciences, comprehending mathematics, natural and moral philosophy, &c.; and in Oxford, Cambridge, and some other universities, music is considered as a fifth faculty. Universities, in their present form, and with their present privileges, are institutions comparatively modern. They sprang from the convents of regular clergy, or from the chapters of cathedrals in the church of Rome, where young men were educated for holy orders, in that dark period when the clergy

too all the little erudition which was left in Zurope. These convents were seminaries of learning probably from their first institution; and we know with certainty, that in Old Aberdeen there was a monastery in which youth were instructed in theology, the canon law, and the school philosoo: at least 200 years before the university and (ing's College were founded. These universities have long been considered as lay corporations; but, as a proof that they had the ecclesiastical origin which we have assigned to them, it will be sufficient to observe, that the pope arrogated to himself the right of vesting them with all their privileges; and that, prior to thereformation, every university in Europe conferred its degrees in all the faculties by authority derived from a papal bull. The most ancient universities in Europe are those of Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, Salamanca, and Bologna; and, in the two English universities, the first founded colleges are those of University, Baliol, and Merton, in the former, and St. Peter's in the latter. Oxford and Cambridge, however, were universities; or, as they were then called, studies, some hundreds of years before colleges or schools were built in them ; for the former flourished as a seminary of learning in the reign of Alfred the Great, and the other, could we believe its partial partizans, at a period still earlier. The universities of Scotland are four, St. Andrew's, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh. In Ireland there is but one university, viz. that of Dublin, founded by queen Elizabeth, and very richly endowed. UNIversity of LoNDoN. This, at the period at which we close our work, may be called still an infant institution; but it has urged some strong claims to public regard, and proceeded with great credit through its earlier sessions. Our plates contain a view of the buildings. We cannot better state its origin, and our own sentiments respecting it, than in the words of the Edinburgh Reviewer:— “We regard the event of a new university being founded, but more especially in the capital of the British empire, as, in every point of view, among the most important to which these times, so fruitful in improvement, have given birth. Its influence upon the advancement of knowledge and the progress of the species would be very great, were it even to be established upon the same principles which have been adopted in the old collegiate institutions of England. It would at least be a vast addition to the means of literary and scientific education possessed by that country, and it would in some degree enable her to keep pace with the rapid progress of her population, in her public provisions for their instruction. The fact that Oxford and Cambridge teach no more than from 3000 to 4000 young men, out of at least 200 times that number of an age fit for instruction, is of itself quite sufficient to demonstrate the deplorable want of the higher branches of education among our southern neighbours. The population of Scotland is not above a sixth part of that of England, and yet there are more students attending our universities. ‘We have the most entire persuasion that the plan of sending young men of eighteen or nineteen to live together for the three most critical years of their lives, at a distance from their parents or guardians, subject to no effectual or useful control, and suffered to drink, dice, and wench, as they please, to read what they please, and asso

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ciate with whom they please, provided only they are punctual in attendance at chapel for five minutes in a morning, and regular in wearing the proper vestments, and showing themselves at the hour of grace before meat—is one of the most extravagant follies that ever entered into the minds of men, and would have been deemed too absurd a caricature of human improvidence had it been only known in some page of Gulliver's Travels, and not grown silently into an English habit. The Scotch plan of uniting domestic habits and parental superintendance with college study seems to us incalculably better adapted to form both learned and good men, and is amply sufficient to account for the superiority of our youth in sober, prudent, and virtuous habits, as well as proficiency in their studies.’ Adverting to the practical measures adopted, this Writer continues— “The first step taken, and most wisely taken, by the promoters of this measure was to form a union of all the different interests which were concerned in its success; and accordingly those liberal churchmen who desired to see a university founded on general grounds readily joined with the various denominations of Dissenters, who, being excluded from the benefits of the ancient establishments, have no means of educating their youth except through a new foundation. As it was resolved to embrace all the branches of learning in the projected scheme, a great difficulty immediately arose as to theology and the kindred studies of ecclesiastical history and biblical criticism. If, on the one hand, these were excluded, the course of study seemed to be imperfect, and in a very important branch; beside the certainty of cavil arising among the adversaries of improvement, who would not fail to urge the omission as an intentional slight put upon sacred literature, perhaps to raise an outcry as if all religion was purposely excluded through indifference or disrespect. If, on the other hand, they were admitted, how could various opinions be so far consulted as to find teachers whose doctrines every sect might receive? How could a Catholic and Protestant, or a Churchman and Dissenter, attend the same course of theological lectures, or listen to the same historical account of the councils, the pope, the reformation, the Puritans, and the restoration? The reluctance to omit all theological literature was, however, so great that a compromise was at first propounded and nearly resolved upon. Three classes were to be taught— theology by a member of the church of England, ecclesiastical history by a member of the church of Scotland, and biblical criticism by a member of one of the Dissenting denominations. We mention this as a signal proof of the extraordinary indisposition to omit these important classes: for a very little consideration was sufficient, of course, to show the impracticability of any such arrangement, and to prove that theology cannot possibly be taught except in one of two sorts of universities— either where all the students are of one religious persuasion, or where religious belief is a matter of perfect indifference to all. Now as the new scheme was intended to comprehend every denomination of believers, and as a deep sense of the importance of religion, was the prevailing sentiment of its promoters, in so much indeed that the exclusion of Dissenters from the old establishments, which was one moving cause of the new institution, had only

been effected by their own conscientious regard for their religious principles, it was quite plain that no system of theological instruction could be adopted at all. The whole other sciences, however, might be taught; and it was clearly not because of the little value set upon the one excepted, but precisely because of its paramount importance over all human learning, which precluded alike both compromise and indifference, that this one was of necessity excluded. ‘Can it be pretended that the subscription of the Articles communicates a knowledge of their dogmas? That subscription, on the contrary, supposes or ought to suppose such a knowledge to have been previously acquired. Will it be said that the attendance at chapel for a few minutes daily effects the extrusion of the old man—the hearer half asleep, just risen from the bed he is just going to re-occupy, and the reader in such haste that he has been known repeatedly to boast of being able to give any man distance as far as the Creed and beat him? (The bet was, “I’ll give any of you to Pontius Pilate, and the odds, and beat him 1" Our universities reckon such things quite regular—and they abhor all saints!) We venture to assert, without the least fear of being contradicted by the fact or the reason, that there is absolutely no religion taught, and no attention to its observances inculcated, by the mere existence of divinity lectures and the compliance with certain outward forms; and that whatever is learnt or imbibed of this sort at either university is through the operation of private instruction, and consequently may be just as well learnt, and as fully imbibed, by the students of the London University, under the tuition of their parents and spiritual instructors. “It appears that this question, as to which the religious differences of the supporters of the plan offered so many impediments, being once settled in a manner generally satisfactory, and according with the soundest principles of universal toleration, no further difficulty was experienced, and the sketch of the proposed plan was submitted on the 1st of July, 1825, to a public meeting. This is said to have been one of the most numerous, possibly the most numerous, ever assembled in the city of London. The lord mayor presided; and was supported both by the most éminent promoters of the plan, and by the greatest names in the city for respectability and wealth. The proceedings were marked by the greatest unanimity and enthusiasm, and under these very favorable auspices this most important scheme has been ushered into the world. We shall shortly sketch the outlines of it as far as they are yet determined. “We shall begin with the constitution of the proprietary body, or what may be termed the political, as contradistinguished from the literary portion of the plan. The funds required are to be raised by shares of £100 each, and subscriptions or donations of £50. The whole cost, on a very liberal estimate, has been calculated at £200,000, and it is proposed to have 3000 shares, so as not to call for more than 66 per cent. on each share, and leave the rest as a reserve for extension of the plan, or other unforeseen contingencies. Each share is to have the privilege of sending one pupil to the university, and to receive also an interest not exceeding four per cent. Each shareholder is to have a vote at all general meetings, and in the election of the directors, or council of management, and proxies are to be allowed. Each contributor of £50 by way of gift is to have all the privileges of a shareholder for life only, and inalienably; but is to receive no interest. The executive government is to be vested in a council of twenty-one, composed of a chancellor and vice-chancellor, to be chosen, the former for life, the latter for two years, and nineteen councillors, of whom four are to go out annually, and to be ineligible for one year after. This council is to choose all the professors, to superintend them, and suspend and remove; in short to exercise all the functions of visitors. The whole circle of the sciences and of literature, except theology, is to be taught by the various professors. These branches it is unnecessary to enumerate. The professors are to be divided into two colleges, one of literature, and the other of science and the useful arts; and each college is to have a principal elected by the professors from their own body, and for life. Every thing relative to academical discipline is to be under the control of these learned persons. The salaries of the professors are to be very moderate, in order that their emoluments may depend upon their classes; the students all paying such fees as the council shall fix; the salaries are also to be fixed by the council. Beside the fees to the professors, the students are to pay five guineas yearly to the general fund, and one guinea to the library. Out of the general fund the interest to the shareholders is to be paid; and as this is not to exceed £4 a share, and as each share will send one pupil, it is plain there can never be wanting an ample fund for paying the interest.’ A chapel, where divine service is performed according to the rules of the established church, has been recently opened near the university; and the Dissenters have advertised a similar establishment for the benefit of their youth. February 25th, 1829, the proprietors met in the theatre of the institution to receive the first annual report of its progress. Lord Milton was in the chair; and the report stated that the receipts of the year amounted to £59,803 12s. Its expenditure was £47,568 14s. 3d. Receipts from students floo2 5s. 10d. The report calculated the annual current expenses of the university at £5500, which would be produced by 11,000 students. At this period there were 557 in the university. May 23d the prizes and honors of the medical classes (which opened in October 1828) were distributed at the university by the marquis of Lansdown. Of 182 students of these classes sixty-five had competed for prizes and honors, and fifty-two obtained them. UNiversity Courts in England. The two universities enjoy the sole jurisdiction, in exclusion of the king's courts, over all civil actions and suits whatsoever, where a scholar or privileged person is one of the parties; excepting in such cases where the right of freehold is concerned. And then by the university charter they are at liberty to try and determine, either according to the common law of the land, or according to their own local customs, at their discretion; which has generally led them to carry on their process in a course much conformed to the civil law. This privilege, so far as it relates to civil causes, is exercised at Oxford in the chancellor's court; the judge of which is the vice-chancellor, his deputy, or assessor. From his sentence an appeal lies to delegates appointed by the congregation; from thence to other delegates of the

house of convocation; and, if they all three concur in the same sentence, it is final, at least by the statutes of the university, according to the rule of the civil law. But, if there be any discordance or variation in any of the three sentences, an appeal lies in the last resort to judges, delegates appointed by the crown, under the great seal in chancery. As to the jurisdiction of the university courts in criminal matters, the chancellor's court at Oxford, and probably also that of Cambridge, hath authority to try all offences or misdemeanors under the degree of treason, felony, or mayhem; and the trial of treason, felony, and mayhem, by a particular charter, is committed to the university jurisdiction in another court, namely, the court of the lord high steward of the university. The process of the trial is this: the high steward issues one precept to the sheriff of the county, who thereupon returns a panel of eighteen freeholders; and another precept to the bedells of the university, who thereupon return a panel of eighteen matriculated laymen, laicos #. universitatis gaudentes; and by a jury ormed de medietate, half of freeholders, and half of matriculated persons, is the indictment to be tried; and that in the guildhall of the city of Oxford. And if execution be necessary to be awarded, in consequence of finding the party guilty, the sheriff of the county must execute the university process; to which he is annually bound by an oath. UNIV’OCAL, adj. Lat. univocus. Having UNIv'ocALLY, adv. ; one meaning; certain; regular: the adverb corresponds. How is sin univocally distinguished into venial and mortal, if the venial be not sin Hall. Univocal words are such as signify but one idea, or but one sort of thing; equivocal words are such as signify two or more different ideas, or different sorts of objects. - IWatts. UNJOYOUS, adj. Not gay; not cheerful. Morn, late rising o'er the drooping world, Lifts her pale eye unjoyous. Thomson's Winter. UNJUST, adj. Fr. injuste ; Lat. inUNJUSTIF1'Able, justus. Iniquitous; conUNJustifl'ABLEN Ess, 2 trary to equity or justice: UNJUST IF 1'ABLY, *\ unjustly corresponds: UNJUST'LY. unjustifiable is not be justified or vindicated: the noun substantive and adverbs corresponding.

He that is unjust in the least, is unjust also in much, Luke xvi. The Piercies, Finding his usurpation most unjust, Endeavoured my advancement to the throne. Shaksp. He wished them to consider of the illegality of all those commissions, and of the unjustifiableness of all the proceedings which had been by virtue of them. Clarendon. The unjust the just hath slain. Milton. If aught against my life Thy country sought of thee, it sought unjustly. Id. When it is unlawful upon the unjustifiableness of the ground, we sin in it till we put and end to it. Rettlewell. He who was so unjust as to do his brother an injury, will scarce be so just to condemn himself for it. Locke. If these reproaches, which aim only at ostentation of wit, be so unjustifiable, what shall we say to those that are drawn, that are founded in malice 2 Government of the Tongue.

UNKEMPT, adj. Not combed. Obsolete.

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