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follow and apprehend the thief (which is called making fresh suit), or convict him afterwards, or procure evidence to convict him, he shall have his goods again. Waived goods do also not belong to the king till seized by somebody for his use; for if the party robbed can seize them first, though at the distance of twenty years, the king shall never have them. If the goods are hid by the thief, or left any where by him, so that he had not them about him when he fled, and therefore did not throw them away in his flight; these also are not bona waviata, but the owner may have them again when he pleases. The goods of a foreign merchant, though stolen and thrown away in flight, shall never be waifs: the reason whereof may be not only for the encouragement of trade, but also because there is no wilful default in the foreign merchant's not pursuing the thief, he being generally a stranger to our laws, our usages, and our language. WAIL, v.a., v. n., & Italian guala; Arm. WAIL'ING, n.s. to: To moan; to WAIL'FUL, adj. lament; bewail: to grieve audibly : audible sorrow: wailing is lamentation; moan: wailful, sorrowful; mournful.

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WAIN, n.s. R Contracted from waggon. A WAIN'Rope. $ carriage; a large cord, with which the load is tied on a waggon; cartrope. There ancient Night, arriving, did alight From her high weary wain. Spenser. Oxen and wainropes cannot hale them together. Shakspeare. Your's be the harvest; 'tis the beggar's gain To glean the fallings of the loaded wain. Dryden. WAINSCOT, n.s. & v. a. Belg. wagenschot, of Goth. wegg; a wall, and schot a sheet. The inner covering of a wall; wooden lining of rooms: to line them thus. Some have the veins more varied and chambletted; as oak, whereof wainscot is made. Bacon. Musick soundeth better in chambers wainscotted. Id. She never could part with plain wainscot and clean

hangings. Arbuthnot. A rat your utmost rage defies, That safe behind the wainscot lies. Swift.

WAINscot, in building, is the timber-work that serves to line the walls of a room, being usually made in pannels, and painted, to serve instead of hangings.

WAIST, n.s. Belg. wast; modern Got wahs

Waist’coat. § tas; Welsh gwase. The smallest or middle part of the body; the part below the ribs; the middle floor of a ship: a waistcoat is a coat for thin part of the body.

They seized, and with entangling folds embraced, His neck twice compassing, and twice his waist.

Denham. She, as a veil, down to her tender waist Her unadorned golden tresses wore Dishevelled. Milton.

Sheets of water from the clouds are sent, Which, hissing through the planks, the flames prevent, And stop the fiery pest ; four ships alone Burn to the waist, and for the fleet atone. Dryden. Stiff stays constrain her slender waist. . . Gay. Selby leaned out of the coach to shew his laced waistcoat. Richardson. WAIT, v. a., v. n. & Dutch wachten. To exWAIT'ER, n. s. [n. § pect; stay for; attend; WAIT'ING, adj. accompany: to expect ; attend (taking on); stay; lie in ambush; follow: an ambush: a waiter is an attendant: waiting, attending; serving : used in composition with man, maid, &c. If he hurl at him by laying of wait, that he die, he that smote him shall be put to death. Numb. xxxv. 20. He is waited for of the sword. Job, xv. 22. The dinner is on the table; my father desires your worship's company. —I will wait on him. He made me mad To talk so like a waiting gentlewoman, Of guns, and drums, and wounds. Id. Bid them prepare within ; I am to blame to be thus waited for. Id. It is a point of cunning to wait upon him, with whom you speak, with your eye, as the Jesuits give it in precept. Bacon. Let the drawers be ready with wine and fresh glasses; Let the waiters have eyes, though their tongues must be tied. Ben Jonson. It will import those men, who dwell careless, to enter into serious consultation how they may avert that ruin, which waits on such a supine temper. Decay of Piety.

Shakspeare.

All the little lime twigs laid

By Machiavel, the waiting maid. Cowley.

Why sat'st thou like an enemy in wait? Milton. | Such doom

Waits luxury, and lawless care of gain. Philips.

Awed with these words, in camps they still abide, And wait with longing looks their promised guide. Dryden. Fortune and victory he did pursue, To bring them, as his slaves, to wait on you. Id. A man of fire is a general enemy to all the waiters where you drink. Tatler. How shall we know when to wait for, when to decline, persecution ? South's Sermons. Remorse and heaviness of heart shall wait thee, And everlasting anguish be thy portion. Rowe. The waiting-maid or. to ingratiate herself. Swift. We can now not only converse with, but gladly attend and wait upon, the poorest kind of people. Law. WAIVE, in law, a woman that is put out of the protection of the law. She is called waive, as being forsaken of the law, and not outlaw, as a man is; by reason women cannot be of the decenna, and are not sworn in leets to the king, nor to the law, as men are; whereas women are not, and so cannot be outlawed, since they never were within it. WAIVER, in law, the passing by of a thing, or a declining or refusal to accept it. Sometimes it is applied to an estate, or something conveyed to a man, and sometimes to a plea, &c. A waiver or disagreement as to goods and chattels, in case of a gift, will be effectual. If a jointure of lands be made to a woman after marriage, she may waive this after her husband's death 3 Rep. 27. An infant, or if he die, his heirs, may by waiver avoid an estate made to him during his minority. 1 Inst. 23. 348. But, where a particular estate is given with a remainder over, there regularly he that hath it may not waive it, to the damage of him in remainder : though it is otherwise where one hath a reversion; for that shall not be hurt by such waiver. 4 Shep. Abr. 192. After special issue joined in any action, the parties cannot waive it without motion in court. 1 Keb. 255. Assignment of error by attorney on an outlawry, ordered to be waived, and the party to assign in person, after demurrer for this cause. 2 Keb. 15. WAKE, v. n., v. a., & Saxon pacian; Goth. Wake'FUL, adj. [n. s. (wakan; Belg, waecken ; Wake'FULNEss, n. s. (Dan. wakke. To watch; WA'KEN, v. a. forbearsleeping; cease or be roused from sleep; be put in action : to wake, verb active, or waken, is to rouse from sleep or inactivity; bring to life again: the verb neuter waken is also synonymous with wake: a wake is a vigil; feast of the dedication of a church: wakeful and wakefulness correspond. Thou holdest mine eyes waking. Psalm lxxvii. 4. Prepare war; wake up the mighty men, let them come up. Joel iii. 9. A man that is wakened out of sleep. Zech. iv. 1. Fill oven full of flawnes, Ginnie passe not for sleepe, To-morrow thy father his wake-daie will keepe. Tusser. The sisters awaked from dreams, which flattered them with more comfort than their waking would conSent to. Sidney. All night she watched, ne once a-down would lay Her dainty limbs in her sad dreriment, But praying still did wake, and waking did lament. Spenser. Before her gate high God did sweat ordain, And wakeful watches, ever to abide. Id. They waked each other, and I stood and heard them. Shakspeare. Other perfumes are fit to be used in burning agues, consumptions, and too much wakefulness. Bacon's Natural History. Why dost thou shake thy leaden sceptre go, Bestow thy poppy upon wakeful woe. Crashaw. All thy fears, Thy wakeful terrors, and affrighting dreams, Have now their full reward. Denham's Sophy. By dimpled brook, and fountain brim, The wood-nymphs decked with daisies trim Their merry wakes and pastimes keep :

What hath night to do with sleep? Milton.
They introduce
Their sacred song, and waken raptures high. Id.
Though wisdom wakes, suspicion sleeps. d.
We make no longer stay; go, waken Eve. Id.

Then Homer's and Tyrtaeus' martial muse Wakened the world, and sounded loud alarms. Roscommon. Early Turnus wakening with the light, All clad in armour, calls his troops to fight. Dryden. Putting all the Grecian actors down, And winning at the wake their parsley grown. Id. I cannot think any time, waking or sleeping, without being sensible of it. Locke. Sometimes the vulgar will of mirth partake, And have excessive doings at their wake. What you've said Has waked a thought in me which may be lucky. Rowe. The droiling peasant scarce thinks there is any world beyond his village, nor *} beyond that of a wake.

overnment of the Tongue.

King.

Thine, like Amphion's hand, had waked the stone, And from destruction called the rising town; Nor could he burn so fast as thou couldst build.

Prior.

The Wake was kept with feasting and rural diversions. The learned Whitaker, in his History of Manchester, has given a particular account of the origin of wakes and fairs. He observes that every church at its consecration received the name of some particular saint: this custom was practised among the Romans, Britons, and continued among the Saxons; and in the council of Cealchythe, in 816, the name of the denominating saint was expressly required to be inscribed on the altars, and also on the walls of the church, or a tablet within it. The feast of this saint became of course the festival of the church. Thus Christian festivals were substituted in the room of the idolatrous anniversaries of heathenism. Accordingly, at the first introduction of Christianity among the Jutes of Kent, pope Gregory the Great advised what had been previously done among the Romans, viz. Christian festivals to be instituted in the room of the idolatrous, and the suffering day of the martyr whose relics were deposited in the church, or the day on which the building was actually dedicated, to be the established feast of the parish. Both were appointed and observed; and they were clearly distinguished at first among the Saxons, as appears from the laws of the Confessor, where the dies dedicationis, or dedicatio, is repeatedly discriminated from the propria festivitas sancti, or celebratio sancti. They remained equally distinct to the Reformation; the dedication day in 1536 being ordered for the future to be kept on the first Sunday in October, and the festival of the patron saint to be celebrated no longer. The latter was, b way of pre-eminence, denominated the church's holiday, or its peculiar festival: and, while this remains in many parishes at present, the other is so utterly annihilated in all, that bishop Kennet (says Mr. Whitaker) knew nothing of its distinct existence, and has attributed to the day of dedication what is true only concerning the saint's day. Thus instituted at first, the day of the tutelar saint was observed, most probably by the Britons, and certainly by the Saxons, with great devotion. And the evening before every saint's day, in the Saxon Jewish method of reckoning the hours, being an actual hour of the day, and therefore like that appropriated to the duties of public religion, as they reckoned Sunday from the first to commence at the sun-set of Saturday; the evening preceding the church's holiday would be observed with all the devotion of the festival. The people actually repaired to the church, and joined in the services of it; and they thus spent the evening of their greater festivities in the monasteries of the north, as early as the conclusion of the seventh century. These services were naturally denominated, from their late hours, watccan or wakes, and vigils or eves. That of the anniversary at Rippon, as early as the commencement of the eighth century, is expressly denominated the vigil. But that of the church's holiday was named cyric waccan, or church-wake, the church-vigil, or church-eve. And it was this commencement of both with a wake which has now caused the days to be generally preceded with vigils, and the church holiday particularly to be denominated the church wake. So religiously was the eve and festival of the patron saint observed for many ages by the Saxons, even as late as the reign of Edgar, the former being spent in the church, and employed in prayer. And the wakes, and all the other holidays in the year, were put upon the same footing with the octaves of Christmas, Easter, and of Pentecost. When Gregory recommended the festival of the patron saint, he advised the people to erect booths of branches about the church on the day of the festival, and to feast and be merry in them with innocence. Accordingly, in every parish, on the returning anniversary of the saint, little pavilions were constructed of boughs, and the People indulged in them in hospitality and mirth. The feasting of the saint's day, however, was soon abused; and even in the body of the church, when the people were assembled for devotion, they began to mind diversions and to introduce drinking. The growing intemperance gradually stained the service of the vigil, till the festivity of it was converted, as it now is, into the rigor of a fast. At length they too justly scandalised the Puritans of the seventeenth century, and numbers of the wakes were disused entirely, especially in the east and some western parts of England; but they are commonly observed in the north, and in the midland counties. This custom of celebrity in the neighbourhood of the church, on the days of particular saints, was introduced into England from the continent, and must have been familiar equally to the Britons and Saxons, being observed among the churches of Asia in the sixth century, and by those of the west of Europe in the seventh. And equally in Asia and Europe, on the continent and in the islands, the celebrities were the causes of those commercial marts which we denominate fairs. The people resorted in crowds to the festival, and a considerable provision would be wanted for their entertainment. The prospect of interest invited the little traders of the country to come and offer their wares; and thus, among the many pavilions for hospitality in the neighbourhood of the church, various booths were erected for the sale of different commodities. In larger towns, surrounded with populous districts, the resort of the people to the wakes would be great, and the attendance of traders numerous; and this resort and attendance constitute a fair.—Basil expressly mentions the numerous appearance of traders at these festivals in Asia, and Gregory notes the same custom to be common in Europe. And, as the festival was observed on a feria or holiday, it naturally assumed to itself, and as naturally communicated to the mart, the appellation offeria or fair. Indeed, several of our most ancient fairs appear to have been usually held, and have been continued to our time, on the original church holidays of the places: besides it is observable that fairs were generally kept in churchyards, and even in the churches, and also on Sundays, till the indecency and scandal were so great as to need reformation. WAxe, in navigation, the print or track impressed by the course of a ship on the surface of the water. It is formed by the reunion of the body of water which was separated by the ship's bottom whilst moving through it; and may be seen to a considerable distance behind the stern, as smoother than the rest of the sea. Hence it is usually observed by the compass, to discover the angle of leeway. A ship is said to be in the wake of another when she follows her on the same track, or a line supposed to be formed on the continuation of her

keel. Two distant objects observed at sea are called . in the wake of each other, when the view of the farthest is intercepted by the nearest, so that the observer's eye and the two objects are all placed on the same right line. WAxe (Sir Isaac), a miscellaneous writer, born in Northamptonshire, and elected fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and public orator to the university. He was sent ambassador to Venice and Savoy, on which occasion he was knighted. He wrote, 1. Rex Platonicus: 2. Discourse on the thirteen Cantons of the Helvetic League: 3. On the State of Italy: 4. On the Proceedings of the King of Sweden; &c. He died in 1632. WAKE (William), D. D., a learned prelate, born at Blandford, Dorsetshire, in 1657. He became fellow of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1672. He graduated in 1689, and was made chaplain to William and Mary, canon of Christ's Church, rector of St. James's, in 1694; dean of Exeter in 1701; bishop of Lincoln in 1705; and archbishop of Canterbury in 1716. He had a great controversy with Dr. Atterbury about the Rights of Convocations; and corresponded with some French bishops about a union between the churches. Some account and extracts of this correspondence are published in Dr. Maclaine's translation of Mosheim's Church History. He published, 1. A Translation of the Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers, 8vo: 2. An Exposition of the Church Catechism : 3. Some Tracts against Popery: and several sermons. He died in 1737. WAKEFIELD (Robert), a learned divine, born in the north of England, and educated at Cambridge. In 1519 he became professor of Hebrew at Louvain. Soon after he returned to England, was made king's chaplain to Henry VIII., professor of Hebrew at Oxford, and a canon of Christ Church. He wrote, 1. A Paraphrase on Ecclesiastes; 2. Syntagma Hebraeorum; and other tracts. He died in 1537. WAKEFIELD (Gilbert), A. B., a learned political writer, born at Nottingham, in 1756. e was educated by Mr. Wooddeson, at Kingston upon Thames. In 1772 he entered at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he took his degree. In 1776 he published some Latin poems, and Notes on Homer. In 1778 he took deacon's orders, and became curate of Stockport, whence he removed to Liverpool. In 1779 he married, left the church, and became tutor in the dissenting academy at Warrington. He published 1. Translations of St. Matthew, and the epistles to the Thessalonians. 2. An Enquiry into the Opinions of the Christian Writers of the first three centuries, concerning Jesus Christ, in 4 vols. 4. Silva Critica. 5. He next astonished his friends with a pamphlet against public worship. After the French revolution he wrote some severe tracts against government. But his Letter to the Bishop of Llandaff subjected him and the printer to a prosecution, and two years imprisonment in Dorchester jail. He was liberated in May 1801, but died in September. As a classical scholar he had few equals, but he was both a Socinian and a republican, and of a temper singularly irritable and discontented. A He published also Tragaediarum Graecarum delectus, 2 vols. 12mo.; and a superb edition of Lucretius, 3 vols. 4to. WAKEFIELD, a market town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, situate on the river Calder,

eight miles and a half south of Leeds, and 180 north of London. The town consists chiefly of nine handsome built streets, paved, and lighted with gas, beautifully situate on an eminence sloping to the Calder, and is continually improving. The church is a lofty Gothic structure, with a high spire. An elegant new church, or chapel of ease, was erected towards the close of the eighteenth century. The Calvinists, Methodists, and other dissenters, have chapels in this town. The market cross consists of Doric columns supporting a dome, and has an ascent by a circular flight of stairs in the centre, leading to a room used as the town hall, in which the quarter-sessions for the West Riding and petty-sessions are held. The house of correction for the Riding, erected in 1770, is a noble building, and stands in an excellent and airy situation. The free grammar school is a good building, and is endowed with many benefactions. From it are several valuable exhibitions to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Of the other public buildings the chief are the new court, the new banks, the corn and auction marts, an elegant assembly room (attached to which is a library and news rooms), a neat theatre, a dispensary, an asylum for pauper lunatics, a charity school for clothing and instructing 106 boys and girls, and a cloth hall for exhibiting for sale the various woollen goods made here. The town has long been noted for its manufacture of woollen cloths and stuffs. The numerous manufactories here and in the neighbouring villages principally supply the markets at Leeds and Huddersfield; it has also an extensive trade in corn and coals. About the middle of September are horse races on a two mile course, on Wakefield-Outwood, two miles distant from the town. Wakefield has a navigation to Huddersfield by a canal from the Calder, in a line with the river &l. to Barnsley by a canal; and to Leeds by the Calder, joining the Aire, where their it: streams fall into the river Ouse at Armin, near Howden. Over the river is a handsome stone bridge of nine arches; and a warehouse thereon, originally a chapel, still exhibits some curious Saracenic architecture. A little above the bridge is a dam which forms an admirable cascade. Market on Friday, at which there is a considerable trade in wool and grain. Fairs 4th and 5th of July, and 11th and 12th of November. The first and third for cattle, the latter is a statute fair; besides these there is every Wednesday fortnight a considerable sheep and cattle fair. WALCHEREN, or WALEHERN, an island of the Netherlands, in the province of Zealand, situated at the mouth of the Scheldt, and only separated from the islands of Beveland by a narrow channel called the Sloe. If not the largest it is the most }. and best cultivated of the islands of ealand; but the climate is wretched. It is of an oblong form; its length from north-west to southeast being about twelve miles; its breadth from north-east to south-west eight miles. It would be subject to inundations from the sea, were it not protected by strong dykes. The dyke of West Cappel in particular is of great size. This island contains the three towns of Middleburgh the capital, Flushing, and Veere. The villages are numerous. It will long be memorable for the general sickness prevalent among the British troops during their occupation of it in 1809. WALDO (Peter), a merchant of Lyons, who

flourished in the end of the eleventh century. Applying himself to the study of the Scriptures, and finding no warrant there for several of the Romish doctrines, particularly that of transubstantiation, he publicly opposed them. . His followers, who were from him called Waldenses, being chased from Lyons, spread over Dauphine and Provence; upon which Philip II. is said to have razed 300 gentlemen's seats, and destroyed several walled towns, to stop their growth; but this, instead of suppressing, spread them over a great part of Europe. The articles of their faith, which they drew up and dedicated to the king of France, agreed in most points with those of the present Protestants. WALES, a country situated in the south-west part of Britain, into which the ancient Britons retired from the persecution of the Saxons. Anciently it was of greater extent than it is at present, and comprehended all the country beyond the Severn; that is, besides the twelve counties included in it at present, those of Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, which now are reckoned a part of England, were then inhabited by three different tribes of the Britons, viz. the Silures, the Dimetae, and the Ordovices. The Romans were never able to subdue them till the reign of Vespasian, when they were reduced by Julius Frontinus, who placed garrisons in their country to keep them in awe. Though the Saxons made themselves masters of all England, they never got possession of Wales, except the counties of Monmouthshire and Herefordshire, formerly a part of Wales. About 870 Roderic, king of Wales, divided it among his three sons; and the names of these divisions were Demetia, or South Wales; Povesia, or Powis-Land; and Venedotia, or North Wales. Another division is mentioned afterwards in the records, viz. North Wales, South Wales, and West Wales; the last comprehending the counties of Monmouth and Hereford. The country derived the name of Wales, and the inhabitants that of Welsh, from the Saxons, who by those terms denote a country and people to which they are strangers; for the Welsh in their own language call their country Cymry, and their language Cymraeg. They continued under their own princes and laws from the above-mentioned period, and were never entirely subjected to the crown of England till the reign of Edward I., when Llewellin ap Gryffith, prince of Wales, lost both his life and dominions. Edward, the better to secure his conquest, and to reconcile the Welsh to a foreign yoke, sent his queen to lie in at Caernarvon, where she was delivered of a prince; to whom the Welsh on that account the more readily submitted. On this occasion, Edward used a very pardonable piece of policy. Calling together the Welsh nobles, he took their oath, that they would choose a prince of their own blood royal, whom he would recommend, and a native, who could not speak a word of English. Ever since that time the eldest sons of the kings of England have commonly been created princes of Wales, and as such enjoy certain revenues from that country. As to the character of the Welsh, they are a brave hospitable people; and, though very jealous of affronts, passionate, and hasty, yet are easily reconciled. The common people look with a suspicious eye on strangers, and bear an hereditary grudge to the English nation, by whom their ancestors were expelled from the finest parts

of the island. The gentlemen are apt to value themselves upon the antiquity of their families. All the gentry both in town and country can speak English, especially in the counties bordering upon England. The common people in general only speak their own language, which is the ancient British; and not only differs entirely from the English, but has very little affinity with any of the western tongues, except the Gaelic, Erse, or Irish. It is said to be a dialect of the ancient Celtic, and in many respects to resemble the Hebrew. Most of the clergy are natives of the country, and understand English so well that they could exercise their functions in any part of Britain. The public worship, however, is as often performed in Welsh as in English, excepting in the towns, where the latter is the prevailing language. The country, though mountainous, especially in North Wales, is far from being barren. The hills, besides the metals and minerals they contain, feeding vast herds of small black cattle, deer, sheep, and goats, and their valleys abounding in corn, as their seas and rivers do in fish. Here are also wood, coal, and turf for fuel, in abundance. Wales is bounded on all sides by the Severn, except on the east, where it joins the counties of Chester, Salop, Hereford, and Monmouth. Its length, from the south part of Glamorganshire to the extremity of Flintshire north, is computed at about 113 miles; and its greatest breadth, from the Wey east, to St. David's in Pembrokeshire west, is nearly of the same dimensions, about ninety miles. After the conquest of Wales by Edward I. very material alterations were made in their laws, to bring them nearer to the English standard, especially in the forms of their judicial proceedings; but they still retain very much of their original polity, particularly their rule of inheritance, viz. that their lands are divided equally among all the issue male, and do not descend to the eldest son alone. By other subsequent statutes their provincial immunities were still farther abridged ; but the finishing stroke to their independency was given by stat. 27 Hen. VIII., c. 26, which at the same time gave the utmost advancement to their civil prosperity, by admitting them to a thorough communication of laws with the subjects of England. Thus were this brave people gradually conquered into the enjoyment of true liberty; being insensibly put upon the same footing, and made fellow citizens, with their conquerors. . It is enacted by 27 Hen. VIII., 1. That the dominion of Wales shall be for ever united to the kingdom of England. 2. That all Welshmen born shall have the same liberties as other king's subjects. 3. That lands in Wales shall be inheritable according to the English tenures and rules of descent. 4. That the laws of England, and no other, shall be used in Wales: besides many other regulations of the police of this principality. And 34 and 35 Hen. VIII., c. 26, confirms the same, adds farther regulations, divides it into twelve counties, and in short reduces it into the same order in which it stands at this day; differing from the kingdom of England in only a few particulars, and those too of the nature of privileges (such as having courts within itself, independent of the process of Westminster-hall), and some other immaterial peculiarities, hardly more than are to be found in many counties of England itself.

It appears that there are in Wales 900,000 acres arable, and 2,600,000 pasturage, leaving 1,700,000

Vol. X... I

acres in a state of waste, of which quantity about 700,000 acres are capable of being brought into cultivation. The principality is divided into North and South Wales, containing twelve counties. North Wales comprehends the counties of Anglesea, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Merioneth, and Montgomery; and South Wales, the counties of Brecknock, Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan, Pembroke, and Radnor. The whole contains 751 parishes, and fifty-eight market towns. The amount of the sum raised for the maintenance of the poor, in 1815, was £298,251, which was at the rate of 2s. 9%d. in the pound. The amount of the rate under the act granting a tax on property, in 1815, was £2,153,801. Wales sends twenty-four members to parliament, viz. one for each county, and one for the principal town in each county, except that of Merioneth, in the room of which two towns in the county of Pembroke each send one member. The general aspect of the principality is bold and romantic, consisting of almost continued ranges of lofty mountains, and impending craggs, intersected by numerous deep ravines, with extensive valleys. The principal range in North Wales is that of which the lofty Snowdon occupies the centre. In South Wales the mountains are not so considerable, yet they are far from being deficient in elevation. Among these, numerous lakes are scattered, and, though none of them are of remarkable magnitude, many are distinguished for the beauty of the surrounding scenery. The language, manners, and customs, of Wales are still widely different from those of England. In point of population and fertility, South Wales has by far the superiority over the North; and, although the whole is very mountainous, its produce is fully sufficient for its abstemious inhabitants. Those counties bordering on the sea-coast have a mild climate, but are wet; and the interior parts have the usual sharpness of other mountainous regions, though, on the whole, the air in general is highly salubrious, and the country healthy. The cattle in general are small, but the flesh is particularly good, and provisions in general are reasonable. Numbers of goats are wild among the mountains. Wales is distinguished for the profusion of its rivers and streams; the principal are the Severn, Dee, Wye, Uske, Conway, Clwyd, and Tivy. Most of these streams are valuable for their fisheries, and many of its rivers, aided by numerous canals, are of the first importance to its commercial prosperity. The whole of Wales is distinguished for the abundance of its mineral productions. Silver, lead, iron, quartz, copper, spar, coals, &c., are found in many parts. The agriculture of Wales is also in a course of rapid improvement. Travelling has also been greatly facilitated by the attention which has recently been given to the better construction of the roads. The commerce of the principality arises from its numerous manufactories of flannels, webs, stockings, wigs, gloves, sacks, cottons, and cotton-twist, and principally from its extensive establishments of copper, iron, tin-plates, and lead-works. It contains a great number of roadsteads and harbours, some of which are extremely commodious, and many may be made so by the erection of piers and other improvements. Ecclesiastically Wales is in the province of York; and is divided into the dioceses of St. David's, Bangor, Llandaff, and St. 2 MI

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