Gen. 2. Lophotes of Giorna-Head surmounted by a light bony crest, to the summit of which is articulated a long and sturdy ray, bordered behind with a membrane. L. Lacepede of Giorna. Mediterranean. Gen. 3. Regalecus of Ascan.—No anal nor caudal fins; and the ventral are reduced to long filaments. Gymnetrus remisses of Schn. G. russelii of Shaw. Gen. 4. Gymnetrus of Blum.—A single fin upon the back, and co-extended with it G. cepidianus of Risso. Gen. 5. Tachypterus of Gouan.—Dorsal very long and supported by round rays, of which the anteriors are toothed like a saw. T. taenia of Schn. ; cepola tachyptera of Gmelin. Gen. 6. Gymnogaster.—Destitute of ventral as well as of anal fins. G. arcticus. Second division.—Snout pointed and the gape deeply riven. Gen. 1. Trichiurus.—Teeth loug and barbed; tail terminating in a slender filament; stomach long and thick; coecal appendages numerous ; intestine straight; swimming bladder large and simple. T. lepturus. Gen. 2. Lepidotus.-Differ from the trichiurus in having a caudal fin of the ordinary shape. Trichiurus caudatus of Vandellius; lustianicus of Shaw; ziphetheca tetradens of Montague. Gen. 3. Stylephorus of Shaw.—Upon the end of the tail, which is extended into a filament longer than the body, there is a fin distinct from the first dorsal which is nearly co-extended with the body. S. chordatus of Shaw. Family 2. GobioIDEs. Dorsal spines slender and flexible; intestinal canal ample, equal, and without coecal appendages; swimming bladder none. BlenNII. Ventral fins placed before the pectoral and composed of two rays only; stomach thin, and without cul-de-sac. Gen. 1. Blennius.-Tentacula under each eyebrow. B. ocellaris of Blumenbach Gen. 2. Membranous prominence upon the vertus. Gen. 3. Pholis. Without either crest or tentaculum. Gen. 4. Clinus.-Snout more obtuse than any of the others. Gen. 5. First rays of the dorsal distinct; small bundles about the eye-brows. Gen. 6. First rays of the dorsal extended upon and forming a rayed crest upon the ventral. Gen. 7. Centronotus of Schn.—Ventral fins scarcely go; Sen. 8. Opithognathus of Cuvier—Maxillary bones very large, and extended behind into a sort of long flat whiskers. O. sonneratii of Cuvier. Gen. 9. Anarrhichas of Linné. Gobii. Branchiostegous membrane with only four rays. Stomach without cul-de-sac or coecal appendages. Males with an appendage behind the anus. Some of the species are viviparous. Gen. 1. Gobius. G. niger of Linné. Gen. 2. Gobioides of Lacep.—Dorsal fins united. Gen. 3. Trnioides of Lacep.–Eyes obliterated. Gen. 4. Periophthalmus of Sch.—Eyes furnished with eye-lashes.

Found rarely in the

Gen. 5. Elestris.—Ventral fins distinct; eyes crossing; branchial membrane with six rays.

Gen. 6. Sillago of Cuvier. Mouth protractile, furnished with fleshy lips; opercula armed with a * ...” slightly toothed.

... acute of Cuvier.

S. domina of Cuvier. ; Indian Sea.

CallionyMr.—Branchial aperture reduced to a small orifice. Ventral fins under the throat, larger than the pectoral.

Gen. 1. Trichonotus of Schn.—Body very much elongated; first two rays of the dorsal lengthened into bristles.

C. avacunculus.

Gen. 2. Comephorus of Lacepede.—Snout oblong, broad, and depressed.

C. Baicalensis.

Family 3. LABRo:DEs.

Body oblong, scaly; one dorsal, supported by strong spines, furnished oftentimes with a membranous lappet: lips fleshy; intestinal canal without or with two very small coecal appendages; the swimming bladder strong.

Gen. 1. Labrus.
L. vetule.
Gen. 2. Sulis.
L. sulis.

Gen. 3. Crenclabrus-Distinguished from the labrus in having the preopercula denticulated.

Gen. 4. Coricus of Cuvier. Mouth very protractile.

Gen. 5. Cheilinus of Lacepede.—Labrus with a scaly head.

Gen. 6. Epibulus of Cuvier.—Mouth suddenly forming a tube.

Sparus insidiator.

Gen. 7. Elops.-Head quite smooth; mouth assuming the form of a tube by the prolongation of the surrounding parts.

Gen. 8. Novacula of Cuvier.—Similar to the labri in the form of the body, but the forehead descends suddenly in an almost vertical line.

Gen. 9. Chromis-Lips and intermaxillaries protractile; vertical fins filamentous.

Sparus chromis of Linné.

Gen. 10. Scarus of Linné.

Gen. 11. Labrar of Pall.—Very long; furnished with ciliated scales.

Family 4. PERCE. See PERCA.
Series 1, SPARoi DES.

A dorsal fin running the greater part of the length of the back.

Gen. 1. Smaris.-Jaws extensible into a sort of tube by means of the long pedicles of their intermaxillary bones; body nearly in the form of a herring; jaws furnished with a row of fine teeth, with some rows behinds it.

Sparus moena of Linné.

S. smaris of Linné.

Gen. 2. Boops of Cuvier.—Jaws scarcely extensible; a simple row of teeth in each jaw.

Sparus sulpa of Linné.

S. melamiurus.

S. boops.

Gen. 3. Sparus of Cuvier.—Jaws scarcely extensible; molar teeth round.

Gen. 4. Surgus of Cuvier.—Incisors like those of man.

Sparus sargus of Linné.

Gen. 5. Four or six conical teeth in each row ; the rest paved.

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Gen. 6. Pagrus of Cuvier.—A great number of small teeth forming a brosse before.

Sparus erythrinus.

S. argenteus of Schn.

Gen. 7. Denter of Cuvier.—Jaws armed before with some long and stout hooks.

Sparus dental of Linné.

Gen. 8. Lutjanus—Preoperculum with denticulations; operculum without a spine.

Gen. 9. Diacope of Cuvier.—A deep notch for the articulation of the interoperculum.

Gen. 10. Cirrhitis-Similar to the lutjanus, but the lower rays of the pectoral fins are thicker and longer than the rest and free at their extremities.

Gen. 11. Bodianus.-Preoperculum without denticulations; operculum with spines.

Gen. 12. Serranus.-Preoperculum with denticulations; operculum with spines.

Gen. 13. Plectromas of Cuvier.—Teeth or spines of the preoperculum thick and directed before.

Gen. 14. Cantharus.-Numerous ranks of teeth forming a carded surface.

Gen. 15. Cichla of Schn.—Teeth carded; mouth more protractile than the last; operculum without spines and teeth.

Gen. 16. Pristopomas of Cuvier–Separated from the lutjanus by Cuvier; body o compressed; scales large; mouth small; edge of the preoperculum denticulated.

Gen. 17. Scolopsis-The characters of the last, save in the suborbital which is spiny behind.

Gen. 18. Diagramma of Cuvier–Six large pores under the lower jaw.

Gen. 19. Cheilodactylus of Lacepede.—Inferior rays of the pectoral fins in a measure springing from the membrane.

Gen. 20. Micropterus of Lacepede.—The last soft rays of their dorsal fin detached.

Gen. 21. Priacanthus—Preoperculum denticulated and terminated below in a spine which is also denticulated.

Gen. 22. Polyprion.—A denticulated ridge, terminated by two or three points under the operculum.

Gen. 23. Holocentrus of Artedi.-Scales thick, hard, and denticulated; a strong spine at the base of each preoperculum; operculum with one or two others at its upper edge.

Gen. 24. Acerina of Cuvier.—Head without scales, and pitted.

Perca cernua of Linné.

Gen. 25. Steliferus of Cuvier.—Head like the last; snout inflated.


Gen. 1. Scorpaena.

S. scrofa of Linné.

S. porca of Linné.

S. dactylapteras.

S. gibbosa.

Gen. 2. Synanceia of Schn.—The gape and eyes directed upwards.

Gen. 3. Pterois-Head with divers fleshy appendages.

Gen. 4. Taenianotis of Linné.-Body compressed; dorsal fin forming a large riband upon the back.

Series 2. PERCAE.

Dorsal fin deeply divided generally into two separate ones.

Gen. 1. Atherina of Linné.

Gen. 2. Sphyraena of Lacep.

Esox sphyraena.

Gen. 3. Paralepis of Cuvier.—Second dorsal so frail and small that it might almost be taken for an adipose fin. en. 4. Mullus. Gen. 5. Pomatomus-Eyes of an unusual size; scales large and caducous. Gen. 6. Mugil. Perca. Propria of Linné. Gen. 1. Perca. P. fluviatilis P. labrax. Gen. 2. Centropomus. Perca nilotica. Gen. 3. Enoplosis of Lac.—The external appearance of chaetodons. Gen. 4. Prochilus of Cuvier. Gen. 5. Sander.—Lucio perca. Gen. 6. Terapon of Cuvier.—An impressure between the spiny and soft part of their dorsal fin. Gen. 7. Apogon of Lacep-Differ from the surmullets in the want of cirrhi. Sciaenae. Gen. 1. Zingel. Percazingel. Gen. 2. Umbrina of Cuvier; sciaena cirrhosa of Linné. Gen. 3. Lonchurus.--Differ from the last genus in a pointed tail. Gen. 4. Sciena. Sciaena umbra. L. aquila. Gen. 5. Pogonias of Lacet.—Numerous small filaments under the lower jaw. Gen. 6. Otolithus of Tuvier.—Snout not inflated; teeth of the last row stronger. Gen. 7. Ancylodons of Cuvier–Head bare of scales, compressed, armed with teeth, and spines: Gen. 8. Percis of Schn.—Head depressed; body elongated. Gen. 9. Trachinus of Linné. Series 3. Head plated; suborbital region distinguished by its hardness and solidity. Gen. Uranoscopus of Linné. Trigla. Úen. 1. Trigla. T. hirundo of Linné. T. lyra. Gen. 2. Peristedion of Lacet.—Body furnished with bony plates. Gen. 3. Boipura-tigavolen. of Linné.

Gen. 4. Cephalacanthus—Gasterosteus spinarella

of Linné. Monocentris of Schn.—A genus intermediate-between the sciaenae and the Triglao.


Gen. 1. Cottus.

C. gobio of Linné.

C. scorpius of Lin.

Gen. 2. Aspidopherus of Lacepede–Body covered with scaly plates; squared like paving stones.

Cottus cataphractus of Bl.

Gen. 3. Platycephalus of Bl-Head flattened; the large wide suborbitals resembling a buckler upon the disk.

Gen. 4. Batrachus of Schn.—Head flattened, wider than the body; gape and gill openings fairly cloven; lips generally furnished with filaments.

Series 4. Lophii. Skin without scales; pectoral fins supported as it were by two arms; skeleton cartilaginous; stomach wide; intestine short. Gen. 1. Lophius. L. juxatorius of Linné. Gen. 2. Antennarius.-Free rays upon the head, often terminated by a crest. Gen. 3. Malthe.—Head in a wonderful manner widened and flattened, principally by the putting out of the suboperculum.

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Family 5. Scomberoides.

Scales small; ofttimes imperceptible except towards the termination of the lateral line, where they form a rising ridge; sometimes this ridge is formed by the skin itself. and is then supported by the transverse apophyses of one or two vertebrae. Intestines ample; stomach a cul-de-sac ; coecal appendages generally numerous.

First series of genera.


Gen. 1. Scomber.

S. scombrus.

S. colias

Gen. 2. Thynnus—First dorsal prolonged nearly as far as the second.

Scomber thynnus.

S. sarda.

S. pelamys.

S. Mediterranea.

Gen. 3. Orcynus of Cuvier.—Pectoral fins nearly as far as the anus.

Gen. 4. Caranr of Lacepede.—Each of the imbricated scales, forming a lateral line, is armed into a ridge.

C. trachurus.

Gen. 5. Citula.-Differ from the caranx in having their dorsal and anal fins elongated.

Gen. 6. Seriola of Cuvier.—Scales of the lateral line scarcely forming a ridge.

Gen. 7. Nomeus of Cuvier.—Ventral fins very large and wide, and attached to the belly by their internal edge.

VoMeREs of Cuvier. Transverse diameter or width exceeding the length; scales scarcely visible except upon the lateral line.

Gen. 1. Selena of Lec.—Anterior dorsal short.

Gen. 2. Gallus-Ventral fins long

Gen. 3. Argyreiosis.--Dorsal and anal elongated.

Gen. 4. Vomer.—All the fins short.

TETRAGoNURus. Body elongated; two prominent crests upon each side at the base of the caudal fin.

Second series of genera.

Distinct spines in the room of the first dorsal.

Rhy Ncopelells of Schn. Body elongated and deprived of ventral fins.

Gen. 1. Macronathus of Lacepede.

Gen. 2. Mastacembelus of Gron.


Gen. 1. Gasterosteus of Cuvier.

G. aculeatus.

Gen. 2. Spinachia of Cuvier.

Gasterosteus spinachia of Linné.

Gen. 3. Centronotus.

Gasterosteus ductoro of Linné.

Gen. 4. Lichia of Cuvier.—Lateral line with keel or armature.

Gen. 5. Trachinotes.—Points of their dorsal and anal fins prolonged.

Gen. 6. Blepharis–Body nearly in the form of a perfect rhombus; anal fin with long filaments.

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Gen. 1. Centrolophus-A spiry protuberance before the dorsal, sensible to the touch. Gen. 2. Oligopodes of Risso-Dorsal and anal united to the caudal. Gen. 3. Coryphaena. Coryphaena hippurus. . Gen. 4. Pterachus of Gronov.–Remarkable for the extraordinary height of the dorsal and anal. Fourth series of genera. One dorsal; teeth cutting placed in a single row. Amphacanthus of Schn.—A short spine at each edge of the ventral fin. AcANTHURI. A strong sheathing spine at eash side of the tail. Our old acquaintances at Oahu. Gen. 1. Apisurus. Gen. 2. Proinurus. Gen. 3. Naseus.—Commeos. rest in having the teeth conical.


A considerable portion of the fins upon the back and anus covered with scales, which consequently are in a manner confounded with the rest of the

Differ from the

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Gen. 1. Stromateus of Linné. Gen. 2. Frutola of Cuvier.—Scales of the body and fins so thin that they cannot be seen but when the skin is dried. Stromateus fratola of Linné. Gen. 3. Seserinus-First spine of the dorsal and anal bent forwards. PIMELEPTER1. Both of the equal teeth promiment towards the mouth, that the membranous lips may cover them; scales soft, which cover the fins. Gen. 1. Kyphosis.-Differ from the last in having a prominence before the dorsal fin. Gen. 2. Plectorynchus of Lacepede.—A row of teeth just appearing through the gum. Gen. 3. Glyphisodon.—Lateral line terminates opposite to the end of the dorsal fin; preoperculum not denticulated. Gen. 4. Pomacentrus.—Lateral line the same; preoperculum denticulated. Gen. 5. Amphiprion.—Sub-orbitals and the four pieces of their opercula denticulated. Gen. 6. Premnas of Cuvier.—Strong spines upon the suborbital plate.

Third series of genera.

Two dorsal fins without a scaly thickness, so that we might, as Cuvier remarks, refer them to the second series of the family of perches. Gen. 1. Temnodon.—A row of compressed teeth in each jaw; first dorsal frail and low; the second as well as the anal are scaly. Gen. 2. Eques of Bl.-Body elongated and tapering to the end of the tail; head flat; rays of the first dorsal prolonged; swimming bladder very large and stout; stomach moderate size; coecal appendages five to six in number. Gen. 3. Polynemus of Linné.

Family 7. RostRo F1GURA FISTULE. Characterised by the muzzle being lengthened into a tube by the prolongation of the ethmoid vomer, of the preopercula, interopercula, pterygoid, and tympanique, at the end of which we find the mouth composed as usual of the intermaxillary, olas, and palatine bones, and of the mandies.


Gen. 1. Fistularia.--One dorsal fin; from between the two lobes of the dorsal springs a filament which is sometimes as long as the body.

Gen. 2. Aulostomus-Dorsal fin preceded by several free spines.

Centrisci. With a tubulous muzzle, but without the tubulous muzzle of the fistularia.

Gen. 1. Centriscus.

Centriscus scolopax of Linné.

Gen. 2. Amphisile.—Back plated, with wide scaly pieces.

Centriscus nutatus.

C. velitaris.


The molluscous animals are destitute of a bony skeleton, and of a vertebral canal; their nervous system is not united into a spinal marrow, and only exists in the form of medullary masses, which are dispersed in different parts y the body: of these the principal is called the brain, and is seated across the oesophagus, which it surrounds like a nervous collar. The circulation of the molluscae is always double, that is to say, their pulmonary circulation always makes a semi and complete circulation. This function is always assisted at least by a fleshy ventricle, placed, not as in the fish between the veins of the body and the arteries of the lungs, but, on the contrary, between the veins of the lungs and the arteries of the body. This assemblage is divided by Cuvier into six classes, with reference to the general form of the body, which bears a certain ratio to the complication of the internal organisation.

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