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BRITISH AMERICAN COLONIES.
FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA, IN 1733, TO THE
PEACE OF PARIS, IN 1763.
The trustees of Georgia lost no time in the prosecution of J. Ogletheir design for planting a colony: James Oglethorpe, esquire, iles acol. one of the trustees, had embarked at Gravesend for Georgia, in ony in November, with 116 persons, destined for settlement in the Georgia. country. On the 15th of January he arrived at Charlestown, where he was treated with hospitality and respect by the governor and council of South Carolina, and received great encouragement and assistance. Arriving on the 1st of February at Yamacraw, on the Savannah river, he explored the country, and fixed on a high spot of ground, in the vicinity of that Indian town,” as
the most convenient and healthful situation for the settlers. The
1 The general assembly, at governor Johnson's motion, voted, that Oglethorpe should be furnished, at the public expense, with 104 head of breeding cattle, 25 hogs, and 20 barrels of good rice; and, beside a small craft to carry these supplies, sent the scout boats, and a body of rangers, to protect the adventurers from the insults of the Indians. Univ. Hist. xl. 440. Wynne, ii. 268, 302.
2 My authorities do not expressly say this; but, comparing the historical accounts with my own observations in Georgia, I presume to say, Savannah was laid out near Yamacraw. In the suburbs of Savannah there is a section, called to this day by that name. VOL. II.
tents were set up that night; and the people were occupied until the 7th in unloading and making a crane. Oglethorpe
then employed some of them in erecting a fortification, and in felling the woods, while he marked out the town and common. The first house was begun on the 9th; and the town, after the Indian name of the river, which ran by it, was called Savannah. The fort being completed, the guns mounted, and the colony put in a state of safety, the next object of Oglethorpe's attention was, to treat with the Indians for a share of their possessions. The territory was principally occupied by the Upper and Lower Creeks, who were computed to amount to about 25,000, men, women, and children; and these tribes, according to a treaty formerly made with governor Nicholson, laid claim to the lands lying southwest of Savannah river. The tribe of Indians at Yamacraw was inconsiderable. It appeared therefore of the highest consequence to procure the friendship, not of that tribe only, but of the more formidable Creeks. By the assistance of an Indian woman, who had married a trader from Carolina, and who could speak both the English and Creek languages, Oglethorpe summoned a general meeting of the chiess, to hold a congress with him at Savannah, in order to procure their consent to the peaceable settlement of his colony.
A congress was accordingly holden, at which 50 chieftains were present. Oglethorpe represented to them the great power, wisdom, and wealth of the English; and the many advantages that would accrue to Indians in general from a connexion with that nation; and expressed his hope, that, as they had a plenty of lands, they would freely resign a share of them to his people, who, for their benefit and instruction, had come to settle among them. After he had distributed presents among the Indians, an agreement was made; and Tomochichi, in the name of the Creek warriors, made a speech to him. Among other observations, he said, “ Here is a little present," and then gave him a buffalo's skin, painted on the inside with the head and feathers of an eagle, and desired him to accept it, “because the eagle signified speed, and the buffalo, strength. The English,” he proceeded, “ are as swift as the bird, and as strong as the beast; since, like the first, they fly from the utmost parts of the earth over the vast seas, and, like the second, nothing can withstand them. The feathers of the eagle are soft
, and signify love; the buffalo's skin warm, and signifies protection ; he hoped, therefore, that they would love and protect their little families.” Oglethorpe, having concluded this treaty of friendship with the natives,
1 For raising their goods, doubtless, up the steep and lofty bank on which the town stands; an elevation of 40 feet. This bank, “ on the edge of the town," was then called Yamacraw-bluff: M‘Call, Hist. Georgia, i. 245.
and placed his colony in the best posture of defence, returned to 1733. England, carrying with him Tomochichi, his queen, and several other Indians.
The number of warriors of the principal Indian nations, in the Number of neighbourhood of Carolina and Georgia, is estimated to have Indian warbeen, at this period, upwards of 14,000.2
John Peter Pury, a native of Neufchatel in Switzerland, A colony of having visited Carolina and informed himself of the situation of
. to Carolina; that province, applied to the government of Great Britain for a grant of land there for settlement. The government having enter into a contract with him, and agreed to give lands and £400 sterling for every 100 effective men whom he should transport from Switzerland to Carolina ; he now brought over 170 poor Switzers, who were, not long after, joined by 200 more. The governor of Carolina, according to instructions, allotted 40,000 acres of land, for the use of the Swiss settlers, on the north east side of the Savannah river. A town was here marked and build out for their accommodation, which, from the name of the prin- burgh. cipal promoter of the settlement, he called Purysburgh.3 According to a plan that had been recently adopted in England Townships
marked out for the more speedy population and settlement of Carolina, 11
on the great townships were marked out on the sides of rivers, in square plats, rivers. each consisting of 20,000 acres. Two of these townships were
1 Hewatt, ii. 19–22. The day of the treaty is not there mentioned. It must have been before the 9th of June ; for in a letter of that date Oglethorpe mentions this treaty to his correspondent at London. In the account of Tomochichi's speech, I have strictly copied Oglethorpe's own words. See London Magazine for 1732, 399, 400.
Fighting men. 2 The Cherokees upwards of
6000 The Chactaws about
5000 The Upper Creeks about
2500 The Chickasaws between 600 and 800 about
14,200 This estimate of the Cherokees is from Adair's History of the American Indians [p. 327.] ; which says the Cherokees had 64 towns and villages full of women and children. The estimate of the three other tribes is from Hewatt, ii. 33, 34, 49. This author cites a Memorial and Representation of the state of Carolina transmitted to the king, dated 9 April, 1734, in which it is said, “ one nation, called the Choctaws, by estimation consists of about 5000 fighting men, and who were always deemed a very warlike nation; the Upper Creeks are a nation very bold and daring, consisting of about 2500 fighting men.” The Lower Creeks, “ by diseases and war, had been reduced to a smaller number.” The Chickasaws “ were the firm allies of Britain, and the bravest nation of savages on the continent, but consisted only of between 600 and 800 gun men.” Charlevoix (as cited in Univ. Hist. xl. 334.] says, the Chickasaws, in 1730, could bring into the field 1000 warriors. “The tribe of Indians settled at Yamacraw was inconsiderable.”
3 Hewatt, ü 26. Ramsay, Hist. S. Car. i. 108. Mr. Bignion, a Swiss minister, having received episcopal ordination from the bishop of London, settled among them.
1733. laid out on the Alatamaha ; 2 on the Savannah; 2 on the Santee;
1 on the Pedee; 1 on the Wacamaw; 1 on Wateree; and 1 on Black river. The lands in these townships were divided into shares of 50 acres for each man, woman, and child, who should
come over to occupy and improve them." Fort at The colony of Rhode Island, having rebuilt a handsome fort R. Island.
on an island which commanded the harbour of Newport, furnish-
built in Salem.3 There were exported, this year, from South Carolina, 36,584 Exports barrels of rice, 2502 barrels of pitch, 848 barrels of turpentine,
60 tons of lignum vitæ, 20 tons of Braziletto wood, 27 tons of sassafras, and 8 chests of skins.4
The first paper of the New York Weekly Journal was pubW.Journal. lished in November.5
The first lodge of Freemasons in Boston was holden this year.
Nathaniel Byfield died at Boston, in the 80th year of his age.?
from Caro lina.
1734. Regulations A COLONY being now planted in Georgia, the trustees proof the truse ceeded to establish certain regulations. The following were Georgia. some of them; that each tract of land granted shall be con
sidered as a military fief, for which the possessor is to appear in arms and take the field when called on for the public defence ; that, to prevent large tracts from falling, in process of time, into one hand, their lands shall be granted in tail male ; that, on the termination of the estate in tail male; the lands shall revert to the trust, to be granted again to such persons as the common council of the trust shall judge most advantageous to the colony, special regard, in this case, being had to the daughters of such
1 Hewatt, ii. 27, 28. 2 Callender, 82. 3 Coll, Mass. Hist. Soc. vi. 226, 274. The land was given by Mr. Philip English.
4 Anderson, iii. 200. The rice, exported from Carolina to Spain and Portugal, had become so cheap in those countries, as to put almost an entire stop to the importation of that commodity from Venice and other parts of Italy.
5 Brit. Emp. ii. 269. Thomas, ii. 287. It was encouraged by the citizens of New York, as a medium through which they might publish strictures on an arbitrary government. See A. D. 1735.
6 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 273. Their first public procession in Boston was in 1739. Pemberton, MS. Chron.
7 He was judge of the vice admiralty, and member : Ithe ccuncil of Massachusetts. He was an eminent merchant when he came from England to Boston in 1674; and soon after Philip's war was one of the four proprietors, and the principal settler of the town of Bristol in Rhode Island. He lived there till 1724, when he returned to Boston. Allen. In 1689, he published an “ Account of the late Revolution in New England.” Biblioth. Amer. 107.
persons as shall bave made improvements on their lots, especially 1733. when not provided for by marriage; that the wives of such persons as shall survive them, shall, during their lives, be entitled to the mansion house, and one half of the lands improved by their husbands; that the use of negroes, and the importation of rum, be absolutely prohibited ; and that none of the colonists shall be permitted to trade with Indians, without a special license.
In the apprehension of an invasion from the Indians under French Defensive influence, the province of New York voted £6000 for fortifying
preparathe city of New York; £4000 for erecting a stone fort and other N. York. conveniences for soldiers and artillery at Albany ; £800 for a fort and block houses at Schnectady; and £500 for managing the Senecas, and, if practicable, for building fortifications in their country.
The third episcopal church in Boston was built in Summer Episc. chh.. street.3
in Boston. Many inconveniences arising from the want of a public market Market in in Boston, the freeholders of the town, meeting at the town house Boston. to consider the subject, voted and ordered, that £700 be paid out of the town treasury for that purpose, and three places be assigned for the markets.
Maryland now contained about 36,000 persons, of white men Maryland. from 16 years of age and upwards, and negroes male and female from 16 to 60.5
1735. The government of New York, now in the hands of governor Trial of J. Crosby, was arbitrarily administered. Free strictures being 2. Zenger made on him and his council in the Weekly Journal, the council for printing ordered three numbers of that gazette to be burnt by the sheriff. John Peter Zenger, the printer, was at length imprisoned, by a warrant from the governor and council ; and, after a severe imprisonment of 35 weeks, was tried for printing those offensive papers. Andrew Hamilton, an eminent lawyer
of Philadelphia, though aged and infirm, learning the distresses of the prisoner and the importance of the trial, went to New York to plead Zenger's cause, and made so able a plea, that the jury brought
1 Hewatt, ii. 41–43. 2 Univ. Hist. xxxix. 358. Brit. Emp. ii. 268. 3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 263. “A spacious wooden building.” 4 Pemberton, MS. Chronology. The places assigned were the flats, fronting Orange street (at the south end) leading to Roxbury; the town's ground on the town dock, or Dock Square; and the open space before the Old North church. The market was to be opened at the ringing of the bell at sunrise, every day, excepting the Lord's day.
5 Brit. Emp. iii. 17. On an “accurate scrutiny,” when every taxable was allowed 30 shillings out of a large emission of paper currency.