PROP. XIII. THEOR. The angles which one straight line makes with another upon one side of it, are either two right angles, or are together equal to two right angles. Let the straight line AB make with CD, upon one side of it the angles CBA, ABD; these are either two right angles, or are together equal to two right angles. For, if the angle CBA be equal to ABD, each of them is a right angle (Def. 7.); but, if not, from the point B draw BE at right angles (11. 1.) A E A D B D B to CD; therefore the angles CBE, EBD are two right angles. Now, the angle CBE is equal to the two angles CBA, ABE together; add the angle EBD to each of these equals, and the two angles CBE, EBD will be. equal (2. Ax.) to the three CBA, ABE, EBD. Again, the angle DBA is equal to the two angles DBE, EBA; add to each of these equals the angle ABC; then will the two angles DBA, ABC be equal to the three angles DBE, EBA, ABC; but the angles CBE, EBD have been demonstrated to be equal to the same three angles; and things that are equal to the same are equal (1. Ax.) to one another; therefore the angles CBE, EBD are equal to the angles DBA, ABC; but CBE, EBD, are two right angles; therefore DBA, ABC; are together equal to two right angles. COR. The sum of all the angles, formed on the same side of a straight line DC, is equal to two right angles; because their sum is equal to that of the two adjacent angles DBA, ABC. PROP. XIV. THEOR. If, at a point in a straight line, two other straight lines, upon the opposite sides of it, make the adjacent angles together equal to two right angles, these two straight lines are in one and the same straight line. At the point B in the straight line AB, let the two straight lines BC, BD upon the opposite sides of AB, make the adjacent angles ABC, ABD equal togethe. to two right angles. BD is in the same straight line with CB. For if BD be not in the same straight line with CB, let BE be in the same straight line with it; therefore, because the straight line AB makes angles with the straight line CBE, upon one side of A E C B D it, the angles ABC, ABE are together equal (13. 1.) to two right angles; but the angles ABC, ABD are likewise together equal to two right angles: therefore the angles CBA, ABE are equal to the angles CBA, ABD: Take away the common angle ABC, and the remaining angle ABE is equal (3. Ax.) to the remaining angle ABD, the less to the greater, which is impossible; therefore BE is not in the same straight line with BC. And in like manner, it may be demonstrated, that no other can be in the same straight line with it but BD, which therefore is in the same straight line with CB. PROP. XV. THEOR. If two straight lines cut one another, the vertical, or opposite angles are equal. Let the two straight lines AB, CD, cut one another in the point E: the angle AEC shall be equal to the angle DEB, and CEB to AED. a For the angles CEA, AED, which the straight line AE makes with the straight line ČD, are together equal (13. 1.) to two right angles: and the angles AED, DEB, which the straight line DE makes with the straight line AB, are also together equal (13. 1.) to two right angles; therefore the two angles CEA, AED are equal to the two AED, DEB. Take away the common angle AED, and the remaining angle CEA is equal (3. Ax.) to the remaining angle DEB. In the A -B E D same manner it may be demonstrated that the angles CEB, AED are equal. COR. 1. From this it is manifest, that if two straight lines cut one another, the angles which they make at the point of their intersection, are together equal to four right angles. COR. 2. And hence, all the angles made by any number of straight lines meeting in one point, are together equal to four right angles. PROP. XVI. THEOR. If one side of a triangle be produced, the exterior angle is greater than either of the interior, and opposite angles. Let ABC be a triangle, and let its side BC be produced to D, the exterior angle ACD is greater than either of the interior opposite angles СВА, ВАС. Bisect (10. 1.) AC in E, join BE and produce it to F, and make EF equal to BE; join also FC, and produce AC to G. Because AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF; AE, EB are equal to CE, EF, each to each; and the angle AEB is equal (15. 1.) to the angle CEF, because they are vertical angles; therefore the base AB is equal (4. 1.) to the base CF, and the triangle AEB to the triangle CEF, and the remaining angles to the remaining angles each to each, to which the equal sides are opposite; wherefore the angle BAE is equal to the angle ECF; but the angle ECD is greater than the angle ECF; therefore the angle ECD, that is ACD, is greater than BAE: In the same manner, if the side BC be bisected, it may be demonstrated that the angle BCG, that is (15. 1.), the angle ACD, is greater than the angle ABC. PROP. XVII. THEOR. Any two angles of a triangle are together less than two right angles. Let ABC be any triangle; any two of its angles together are less than two right angles. A A Produce BC to D; and because ACD is the exterior angle of the triangle ABC, ACD is greater (16. 1.) than the interior and opposite angle ABC; to each of these add the angle ACB; therefore the angles ACD, ACB are greater than the angles ABC, ACB; but ACD, ACB are to- B gether equal (13. 1.) to two right an C D gles therefore the angles ABC, BCA are less than two right angles. In like manner, it may be demonstrated, that BAC, ACB as also CAB, ABC, are less than two right angles. PROP. XVIII. THEOR. The greater side of every triangle has the greater angle opposite to it. Let ABC be a triangle of which the side AC is greater than the side AB; the angle ABC is also greater than the angle BCA. From AC, which is greater than AB, cut off (3. 1.) AD equal to AB, and join BD: and because ADB is the exterior angle of the triangle BDC, it is greater (16. 1.) than the interior and opposite B D angle DCB; but ADB is equal (5. 1.) to ABD, because the side AB 18 equal to the side AD; therefore the angle ABD is likewise greater than the angle ACB; wherefore much more is the angle ABC greater than ACB PROP. XIX. THEOR. The greater angle of every triangle is subtended by the greater side, or has the greater side opposite to it. Let ABC be a triangle, of which the angle ABC is greater than the angle BCA; the side AC is likewise greater than the side AB. For, if it be not greater, AC must either be equal to AB, or less than it; it is not equal, because then the angle ABC would be equal (5. 1.) to the angle ACB; but it is not; therefore AC is not equal to AB; neither is it less; because then the angle ABC would be less (18. 1.) than the angle ACB; but it is not; therefore the side AC is not less than AB; and it has been shewn that B A it is not equal to AB; therefore AC is greater than AB. PROP. XX. THEOR. Any two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third side. Let ABC be a triangle; any two sides of it together are greater than the third side, viz. the sides BA, AC greater than the side BC; and AB, BC greater than AC; and BC, CA greater than AB. Produce BA to the point D, and make (3. 1.) AD equal to AC; and join DC. D A Because DA is equal to AC, the angle ADC is likewise equal (5. 1.) to ACD; but the angle BCD is greater than the angle ACD; therefore the angle BCD is greater than the angle ADC; and because the angle BCD of the triangle DCB is greater than its angle BDC, and that the greater (19. 1.) side is opposite to the greater angle; therefore the side DB is greater than the side BC; but DB is equal to BA and AC together; therefore BA and AC together are greater than BC. In the same manner it may be demonstrated, that the sides AB, BC are greater than CA, and BC, CA greater than AB. B SCHOLIUM. C This may be demonstrated without producing any of the sides: thus, the line BC, for example, is the shortest distance from B to C; therefore BC is less than BA+AC or BA+AC>BC. PROP. XXI. THEOR. If from the ends of one side of a triangle, there be drawn two straight lines to a point within the triangle, these two lines shall be less than the other two sides of the triangle, but shall contain a greater angle. Let the two straight lines BD, CD be drawn from B, C, the ends of the side BC of the triangle ABC, to the point D within it; BD and DC are less than the other two sides BA, AC of the triangle, but contain an angle BDC greater than the angle BAC. Produce BD to E; and because two sides of a triangle (20. 1.) are greater than the third side, the two sides BA, AE of the triangle ABE are greater than BE. To each of these add EC; therefore the sides BA, AC are greater than BE, EC: Again, because the two sides CE, ED, of the triangle CED are greater than CD, if DB be added to each, the sides CE, EB, will be greater than CD, DB; but it has been shewn that BA, AC are greater than BE, EC; much more then are BA, AC greater than BD, DC. B D A E Again, because the exterior angle of a triangle (16. 1.) is greater than the interior and opposite angle, the exterior angle BDC of the triangle CDE is greater than CED; for the same reason, the exterior angle CEB of the triangle ABE is greater than BAC; and it has been demonstrated that the angle BDC is greater than the angle CEB; much more then is the angle BDC greater than the angle BAC. PROP. XXII. PROB. To construct a triangle of which the sides shall be equal to three given straight lines; but any two whatever of these lines must be greater than the third (20. 1.). Let A, B, C be the three given straight lines, of which any two whatever are greater than the third, viz. A and B greater than C; A and C greater than B; and B and C than A. It is required to make a triangle of which the sides shall be equal to A, B, C, each to each. Take a straight line DE, terminated at the point D, but unlimited towards E, and make (3. 1.) DF equal to A, FG to B, and GH equal to C; and from |