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THURSDAY, June 4, 1885. 11–41.

PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND OF GENERAL

JURISPRUDENCE.

Not more than eight of these questions are to be attempted.

1. WHAT was the nature of the Patria Potestas among the Romans? Estimate briefly the evidence for the existence of something like the Patria Potestas among other Aryan peoples.

2. What forces are most effective in combining disunited elements into a united people? Illustrate their action.

3. How do the Greek conception of a tóls, the Roman conception of the

, Respublica and the modern conception of a State differ from one another? What have they in common?

4. Examine the various agencies by which law is formed. Illustrate from the history of Roman law and English law.

5 5. “The penal law of ancient communities is not the law of Crimes; it is the law of Wrongs, or, to use the English technical word, of Torts." Sir H. J. S. Maine.

Explain this with illustrations from any ancient collection of laws. How did a law of Crimes properly so called arise (1) at Rome, (2) in England ?

6. What were the earliest forms of Testament at Rome and in what respects did they differ from the later forms ?

7. State and criticise Austin's definition of the word law.

8. What are the dangers or weaknesses to which a community with democratic representative institutions is most commonly exposed ?

9. Within what limits should the action of a representative assembly in your opinion be confined ?

10. What do you deem to be the criterion of a good form of government ?

11. State Aristotle's classification of Polities. How far is it applicable to modern governments ?

12. Discuss the proposition That the power of a monarch properly so called, or the power of a sovereign number in its collegiate and sovereign capacity, is incapable of legal limitation.

FRIDAY, June 5, 1885. 9-12.

POLITICAL ECONOMY AND ECONOMIC HISTORY.

Not more than four questions out of the first six are to be attempted, nor more than four out

of the last six.

1. DEFINE Economic History and examine its relation to Economic Science.

2. Montesquieu said, “Si les riches ne dépensent pas beaucoup, les pauvres mourront de faim.” Comment on this statement.

3. Explain what is meant by saying that rent does not enter into cost of production.

4. What causes determine the value of (a) a cotton shirt, (6) a picture by Raphael, (c) a sheep, (d) the day's work of a bricklayer ?

5. A statesman desirous of raising money deliberates whether he shall effect the object

(a) By a land tax;
(b) By an ungraduated income tax;
(c) By a graduated income tax;
(d) By duties on imported food products;

(e) By duties on imported manufactured products. What economic considerations might move him for or against each of these courses?

6. Examine the advantages and disadvantages of joint stock companies as competitors with private enterprise. To what extent, in your opinion, should the State control the formation and action of such companies ?

7. “Latifundia perdidere Italiam.” Examine this statement; and compare the agrarian questions arising in ancient Rome and in modern England.

8. Describe the economic condition of England at the date of the “Black Death," and examine the effects of the depopulation caused thereby.

9. Trace the history of the English Poor Laws.

10. To what extent is it true that the Revolution created peasant proprietorship in France ?

11. Give an account of the circumstances under which Trades Unions arose in England. Examine their effects on the public welfare.

12. What countries have been from time to time in the history of modern Europe the chief seats of the ship-building and carrying trades? Explain, in each case, the causes which have determined the migrations of these industries.

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FRIDAY, June 5, 1885. 11–41.

PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW IN CONNEXION WITH SELECTED

TREATIES (1763-1802).
Not more than nine questions are to be attempted.

1. Give instances of differences between nations concerning international law which have lasted into the 18th or 19th centuries. In what directions may the range of international law be expected to expand ?

2. Discuss and illustrate the proposition: “International law protects only such states as retain vitality.” What is meant by the denationalisation of a state ?

3. Examine the conditions under which the right of acquiring territory may be founded (a) upon discovery, (6) upon settlement. Sketch the history of the conflict as to boundaries brought to a close by the treaties of San Ildefonso and the Prado.

4. What is meant by a treaty of guaranty, and for what ends have such treaties usually been concluded ? Give some account of the treaty of Teschen.

5. Define contraband of war, adding some account of the origin and history of the term. How did the question of contraband affect the relations between Great Britain and the United Provinces before the rupture of 1780 ?

6. What projects and policy was the Fürstenbund of 1785 intended to thwart ? Examine the character and historical significance of this league, and mention any analogies to it in the previous history of the Empire.

7. Illustrate from American or other constitutional history the difference between sovereignty and independence of states.

8. In what measure was the outbreak of war between Great Britain and France in 1792 brought about by the question of the Schelde? Cite any other modern instances of conflicts concerning freedom of intercourse by means of rivers, and show what principles have been at issue.

9. Briefly describe the circumstances of the Second Partition of Poland, and shew how far “the inveterate and mutually well-grounded jealousy of the German Powers” contributed to the result.

10. Under what political circumstances, and with what objects, were the Armed Neutrality of 1780 and that of 1800 respectively declared ? Review the history of the relations between Great Britain and Denmark in the year 1801. 11.

"Il faut dépayser l'Allemagne." Show to what extent this principle of policy was carried out in the Peace of Lunéville.

12. (a) Explain the terms right of reputation ; eminent domain ; retorsion.

(6) What was meant by the privilegium de non appellando; the Joyeuse Entrée; the gabelle d'émigration ? (c) What

were the Dunkirk Commissioners, the Cisalpine Republic, the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 ?

(d) Date the Congress of Reichenbach, the Peace of Basel, the end of Venetian independence.

WHEWELL SCHOLARSHIPS.

SATURDAY, June 6, 1885. 9-12.

INTERNATIONAL LAW.

1. ENUMERATE the sources of International Law, and discuss their relative importance.

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2. Give an historical account of the efforts made by Great Britain for the suppression of the Slave Trade from 1815 to the present time.

3. The British Extradition Act of 1870 provides that “a fugitive criminal shall not be surrendered if the offence in respect of which his surrender is demanded is one of a political character.” How would you distinguish offences of a political character from offences in respect of which surrender may be made ?

4. Under what jurisdiction does each of the following offences come ?

(a) A seaman from a British vessel of war lying in a foreign port commits an assault in the streets of the town.

(6) A British seaman, escaping in a boat on the Pacific from a burning British vessel, quarrels with another member of the crew and kills him.

(c) Under similar circumstances of shipwreck the officer in command of the boat refuses to land on a coral island for the purpose of attacking the natives, and taking possession of the spot. The crew, therefore, throw off his authority, pinion him, and then proceed to carry out their plan.

5. What is meant by Ratification ? Are States under an obligation to ratify the treaties into which they have entered ?

6. A State bombards some of the ports of another State, blockades a portion of its coast, and endeavours to take possession of a few of its fortified places, while at the same time it contends that it is not at war, and continues negotiations with the State it is attacking. Examine the validity of the contention, and discuss the proper course for other powers to take with regard to such hostilities.

7. Does the position which the Great Powers of Europe have occupied since 1814 necessitate in your judgment any modification in the received doctrine of the Equality of all Independent States before the law ?

8. Discuss the question whether the Declaration of Paris is binding on power which has signed it in a war with a power which has not signed it.

9. A foreign ironclad is in a British port when the State to which it belongs is involved in war with a third power. Shew to what extent the enforcement of the Foreign Enlistment Act renders unlawful proceedings on its part which would previously have been allowable.

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10. Under what circumstances is devastation of territory justifiable in warfare ?

SATURDAY, June 6, 1885. 1-4.

INTERNATIONAL LAW.

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| Not more than FIVE questions are to be attempted.] 1. Discuss the statements contained in any one of the following quotations :

“And here, Sir, I may be permitted to express my surprise that the honourable and learned gentleman......should have spoken so slightingly of the Law of Nations, as if, instead of being a code matured by the wisdom and experience of ages, it was, as he would have us believe, only a bundle of medley maxims got together by chance and expediency.”

LORD BEACONSFIELD. I do not intend to disparage Intervention. It is a high and summary procedure which may sometimes snatch a remedy beyond the reach of law. Nevertheless, it must be admitted that in the case of Intervention, as in that of Revolution, its essence is illegality, and its justification is its success. Of all things,

the most unjustitiable and the most impolitic is unsuccessful Intervention.”

SIR WILLIAM HARCOURT. “ The visit which the cruisers of belligerent powers exercise with respect to vessels which they meet at sea, is not founded upon the Natural Law of Nations, but only on the Conventional Law of Nations; and it cannot, consequently, be extended beyond the limits fixed for it by treaties.”

SCHLEGEL. Answer the three following enquiries on the supposition that Great Britain is at war with Russia, the other powers of Europe being neutral.

(a) May the British fleet attack the Black Sea ports of Russia ?

(6) Germany, Denmark and Sweden declare the Baltic a neutral sea, and prohibit hostilities in it ?

(c) May the British Government institute a blockade of the Sound and the two Belts ?

3. Endeavour to estimate the effect of commercial considerations in modifying International Law during the last half century.

4. Discuss to what extent the doctrine of Continuous Voyages applies to Blockade; and illustrate your arguments by the case of the Springbok.

5. If you were put in command of a squadron with orders to cruise along the enemy's coast, and do as much damage as the laws of war allow, how would you treat (a) a fortified naval port, (6) an open commercial town, (c) a fleet of fishing boats found engaged in their usual avocation within three miles of the shore ?

6. What is necessary in order that State may acquire a valid title to territory by Occupation? Point out how, and to what extent, the decisions of the recent West African Conference affect this subject.

7. Write a brief history of the controversy between Great Britain and the United States with regard to the Recognition by the former of the Belligerency of the Southern Confederacy in the great American civil war; and deduce therefrom the true principles of International Law applicable to Recognition of Belligerency.

8. Give the various tests of contraband character which have been adopted by British Prize Courts; and discuss the circumstances under which provisions may lawfully be captured as contraband of war.

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