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i. DEFINE the terms “Morality”, “ Positive Morality”. By what method and with what degree of accuracy can positive morality be known ? Discuss the current distinction between Constitutional Law and Constitutional Morality.

ii. Examine the relation of Justice to Law.

To what extent, and on what grounds, does Justice require (1) that an individual should conform to unjust laws, and (2) that a community should give compensation to individuals whose pecuniary interests are injured by the abolition of unjust laws ?

ii. Discuss the question whether Punishment should be Retributive or Preventive; and examine its practical importance.

Examine the following statement:

“The benefits which criminal law produces are two-fold. In the first place, “it prevents crime by terror; in the second place it regulates, sanctions, and provides “a legitimate satisfaction for the passion of revenge.

Compare this view with that of Butler or Bentham.

iv. Discuss the principles on which the right of private property is based, and apply them in examining the grounds of the following current opinion:

That foreign publishers are morally wrong in reprinting and selling English books, without remunerating those who own the copyright of the books, during the period of copyright determined by English law: but that English publishers are not morally wrong in reprinting such books and appropriating the whole profits of their sale, after the period of copyright has expired.

5. Est et tertia iuris significatio quae idem ualet quod lex, quoties uox legis largissime sumitur, ut sit regula actuum moralium obligans ad id quod rectum est.

Translate and discuss this definition, pointing out the connexion between this meaning of ius and the other two meanings recognized by Grotius, or their influence upon it.

6. Inter prima naturae nihil est quod bello repugnet, immo omnia potius ei fauent.



Hereby it is manifest that, during the time men live without a power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called War.

HOBBES. Examine the apparent similarity of these conclusions and shew how they follow from very different first principles.

7. Grotius' scheme does however explain the relation of the Emperor of Germany, the Kings of the Romans, and the Pope; and thus makes a jural transition from the ancient to the modern world.

WHEWELL. What is the theory referred to, and how does the subject arise in the treatise De iure belli et pacis ?

8. Sciendum quoque est reges, et qui par regibus ius obtinent, ius habere poenas poscendi, non tantum ob iniurias in se aut subditos suos commissas, sed et ob eas quae ipsos peculiariter non tangunt, sed in quibusuis personis ius naturae aut gentium immaniter violant.

GROTIUS [de Jure 2. 20. 40. 1]. Translate this passage and discuss the principle involved, adducing any modern instances in which it has apparently been acted upon.

9. Enumerate the topics treated in Grotius' third book of the treatise De iure belli et pacis, particularly those which continue to be of importance at the present time.

June 8, 1885. 1-4.

WRITE an Essay on one only of the following subjects :

1. Arbitration as a mode of settling international disputes.

2. The advantages and disadvantages of the rule that neutral ships make neutral goods to a state possessing a large commercial navy, and great maritime power.

3. Comparison between the two Mills, James and John Stuart.

4. The personal and political character of Milton as evidenced by his prose writings.

Colonial Federation, the extent to which it is feasible or expedient.

6. The causes of the dissolution of the “Holy Roman Empire.”



FRIDAY, June 5, 1885. 9-12.


1. Discuss the date and authorship of these Epistles. What do we learn from the Second Epistle to Timothy of the writer's circumstances, and of the place to which it is addressed ?

2. Describe the condition of Christianity in Crete implied in the Epistle to Titus.



3. What are the relations between purity of faith and moral consistency of life as laid down in these Epistles ?

4. Give, with explanations, the substance of the precepts about widows in the First Epistle to Timothy.

5. Translate, commenting on the words and phrases between asterisks :
(α) τούτο καλόν και αποδεκτον ενώπιον του σωτήρος ημών Θεού,

* ος πάντας ανθρώπους θέλει σωθήναι και εις επίγνωσιν αληθείας ελθείν *. Εις γαρ θεός, εις και μεσίτης θεού και ανθρώπων άνθρωπος Χριστός Ιησούς, ο δούς εαυτόν * αντίλυτρον * υπέρ πάντων, ή το μαρτύριον καιροίς ιδίοις *: είς και ετέθης εγώ κήρυξ και απόστολος.-* αλήθειαν λέγω, ου ψεύδομαι *,-διδάσκαλος εθνών εν πίστει και αληθεία.

Explain the connexion of είς γαρ θεός, κ.τ.λ. with the preceding verse: and explain the construction of the clause between +...+.

(1) ταύτα δίδασκε και παρακάλει. εί τις ετεροδιδασκαλεί και μη προσέρχεται υγιαίνουσι λόγοις, τους του κυρίου ημών Ιησού Χριστού, και τη κατ' ευσέβειαν διδασκαλία, τετύφωται, μηδέν επιστάμενος, αλλά νοσών περί ζητήσεις και λογομαχίας, εξ ών γίνεται φθόνος, έρις, βλασφημίαι, υπόνοιαι πονηραί, διαπαρατριβαι διεφθαρμένων ανθρώπων τον νούν και απεστερημένων της αληθείας, νομιζόντων πορισμός είναι την ευσέβειαν, έστιν δε πορισμός μέγας ή ευσέβεια

. μετά αυταρκείας: ουδέν γαρ εισηνέγκαμεν εις τον κόσμον, ότι ουδε εξενεγκεϊν τι δυνάμεθα· έχοντες δε διατροφής και σκεπάσματα, τούτοις αρκεσθησόμεθα.

Comment on any words or phrases in this passage which are found only in these Epistles, or are used in them in a peculiar sense. 15

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