« ForrigeFortsett »
WEDNESDAY, October 8, 1884. 9 A.M. to 12 m.
PART I. PAPER 2.
1. GIVE a detailed account of the “ Ammonia process” of Water Analysis. What is the value of the inforniation obtained from it?
2. Explain Montgolfier's formula. How is it used ? What correction must be applied to the results obtained by it?
3. Classify disinfectants and Antiseptics, and describe the ways in which they act.
4. What is meant by hydraulic mean depth, and what is it in a circular sewer 36 inches in circumference? How does it enter into calculations of the flow of sewage ?
5. Describe the methods of ascertaining the state of Ventilation of a room.
5 The air of a room occupied by 6 persons, and containing 5000 cubic feet of space yields 7-5 parts of carbonic acid per 10,000 parts. How much air is being supplied per person per hour?
6 6. What are the properties of Ozone? What are its natural and artificial
? sources, and what methods are employed for its identification ?
THURSDAY, October 9, 1884. 9 A. M. to 12 M.
PART II. PAPER I.
1. GIVE statistics of the mortality from small-pox before the introduction of the practice of vaccination. Point out in what respects they differ from small-pox statistics at the present day.
Describe the different ways in which small-pox is known, or may be suspected, to spread. Add, in each case, a description of the precautions which should be taken by a Medical Officer of Health.
are they to be guarded
2. What dangers may attend vaccination ? against ?
3. As Medical Officer of a Port,
(a) What precautions would you take or advise against the introduction of cholera ?
(6) What regulations would you recommend in respect of emigrants landing from abroad?
4. Give in outline any typical instances you are acquainted with (referring to your authorities) of infectious diseases spread by milk.
What legal control is there over dairies and cow-sheds? By what authorities is that control exercised?
5. Discuss the difficulties of sewer-ventilation. How are they affected by the tide when the sewer outfall is between high and low water levels ? How are sewers flushed ?
Describe any form of automatic flushing apparatus that you know.
6. What regular meteorological observations would you suggest as useful to be taken by a Medical Officer of Health ? What would be their use ?
FRIDAY, October 10, 1884. 9 A.M. to 12 A.M.
PART II. PAPER II.
1. How do the laws of the realm affect manufacturers as regards the employment of children? Give an outline of the principal sections which bear upon this point.
2. How are
the damage produced by the mortality of a given district by :(1) Unhealthy occupations. (2) Overcrowding.
(2) Overcrowding. (3) Defective water supply. (4) Unwholesome food.
Shew definite reasons for referring each to its own class.
3. How would you establish before a Court of Summary Jurisdiction, that a given nuisance such as “bone boiling" is injurious to health? What reasons would you adduce for your opinions ?
4. Discuss the question of floor space; give its bearings, how does its consideration apply sanitarily in: (1) Work houses: as to day rooms and dormitories. Lying in rooms. (2) Schools. (3) Hospitals. (4) Lodging Houses.
5. In preparing a dietary for an able-bodied population, what are the points to be considered so as to get the best results ? What influence has diet upon the sewage of a district ?
6. How does occupation influence the mortality of a given district ? Shew that it is possible for a district to have a death rate of moderate amount to figures, and yet to be very unhealthy in a sanitary point of view.
An Examination in so much of State Medicine as is comprised in the functions of Officers of Health, will be held yearly in Cambridge, beginning on the first Tuesday in October, and ending on the following Friday afternoon.
Any person whose name is on the Medical Register of the United Kingdom may present himself for this examination provided he be in his 24th year at least when he presents himself for Part I., and have attained 24 years of age before he presents himself for Part II.
The Examination will be in two parts.
Part I. will comprise :-Physics and Chemistry. The principles of Chemistry, and methods of analysis with especial reference to analyses of air and water. Application of the microscope. The laws of heat, and the principles of pneumatics, hydrostatics and hydraulics, with especial reference to ventilation, water-supply, drainage, construction of dwellings, disposal of sewage and refuse, and sanitary engineering in general. Statistical Methods.
Part II. will comprise :-Laws of the realm relating to public health. Origin, propagation, pathology, and prevention of epidemic and infectious diseases. Effects of overcrowding, vitiated air, impure water and bad or insufficient food. Unhealthy occupations and the diseases to which they give rise. Water-supply and drainage in reference to health. Nuisances injurious to health. Distribution of diseases within the United Kingdom, and effects of soil, season and climate.
The examination in both parts will be oral and practical as well as in writing.
Candidates may present themselves for either part separately or for both together at their option; but the result of the examination in the case of any candidate will not be published until he has passed to the satisfaction of the Examiners in both parts.
Every candidate will be required to pay a fee of four guineas before admission to each part of the examination.
Every candidate who has passed both parts of the examination to the satisfaction of the Examiners will receive a certificate testifying to his competent knowledge of what is required for the duties of a Medical Officer of Health.
All applications for admission to this examination, or for information respecting it, should be addressed to Professor Liveing, Cambridge.
Candidates who desire to present themselves for examination in October next, must send in their applications, and transmit the fees, to Professor Liveing, Cambridge, on or before Sept. 28. Cheques should be crossed “Mortlock and Co." No fees can in any case be returned.
The applications of candidates, whose names have not been on the register three years, should be accompanied by a Certificate of Birth, or other proof of age.
The following suggestions have been drawn up by the Syndicate for superintending the Examination in State Medicine as some guide to candidates preparing for that Examination.
Part I. The principles of Chemistry are sufficiently set forth in any of the ordinary manuals. Candidates will be expected to understand the application of the general laws to such cases as occur in the practice of an Officer of Health, but will not be expected to shew an acquaintance with those details of Chemistry which have no direct bearing on sanitary questions. No importance will be attached to the use of any particular chemical notation. It is not expected that Officers of Health will in general be able to act as public analysts, but that they will know the methods of analysis and be able to interpret correctly the results of professional analysis. The kinds of applications of the several sciences of which the candidates are expected to shew a competent knowledge will be best understood by a perusal of Parkes's Manual of Practical Hygiene. In the actual analysis of water and air candidates will not be expected to make complete quantitative analyses, but to know how to apply ordinary chemical methods for the detection and discrimination of mineral and organic substances in the samples. Candidates will be expected to shew a practical acquaintance with the use of the microscope.
Part II. Candidates will be expected to shew an acquaintance with the sanitary laws in force in England; but if any candidate has information respecting alternative laws in force in the Metropolis or in Scotland or in Ireland, opportunity will be given him, alternatively, of shewing his acquaintance with such laws.
The rest of Part II., besides the subjects expressly mentioned, is to be understood as including those of Vaccination, Disinfectants, the management of outbreaks of Infectious Diseases, with the construction of Hospitals temporary or permanent; Endemic Diseases; Birth-rates and Death-rates; the qualities and suitableness of various Waters used for domestic purposes; the inspection of factories, mines, workshops and common lodging-houses.
The following list of works, with the names of the publishers, will probably be found valuable to some of the candidates, but the necessity of reading all or any one of them is not urged upon them. On Parts I. and II.
Parkes's Manual of Practical Hygiene. Churchill. .