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After the starch is extracted the process of converting it into glucose is the same, although each manufacturer introduces slight modifications according to the grade of glucose to be produced. If corn is used as the source of starch, the following method is employed: The corn is steeped in water from 50 to 60 hours, the water being drawn off and a fresh supply added every ten hours. After steeping, the corn is thoroughly washed with clean water to rid it of all fermenting substances. While it is still wet it is ground by mill stones and the pasty mass is placed on sieves and washed. The starch passes through the sieves while the coarser parts including the albuminoids remain on the sieves. The starch which passes through the sieves is run into the settlers; cylinders ten feet in diameter and eight to ten feet high, and allowed to remain for four to six hours. After the starch is completely settled the water is run off as waste. The starch is then treated with a solution of caustic soda, to remove any remaining albuminoids, after which the mixture of starch and water is run into shallow vats and allowed to settle. It is then washed repeatedly to remove the alkali, the washing requiring about 60 hours. Fresh water is then added to the starch and it is drawn off into wooden converters. The temperature of the mixture is raised to 212° Fah., and to the starch paste from one and a half to two per cent. of sulphuric acid is added and the mixture boiled for about three hours. At the end of this time the starch has been converted into glucose and dissolved in the acid water. The acid solution is now treated with marble dust or chalk which combines with the acid forming sulphate of lime. The lime salt being insoluble settles to the bottom of the tank, leaving the “sweet water” nearly neutral; to remove any traces of acid lime, cream is added till the test shows no acid reaction. The solution is allowed to stand for several hours until the sediment settles to the bottom. The clear liquid is drawn off and decolorized by being filtered through bone black. It is then concentrated to the desired degree by evaporation. If glucose in mass is required the syrup is concentrated to 40° or 42° Baume, and after cooling run into barrels to solidify. When granular glucose is desired, it is evaporated to 32° Baume, and allowed to stand for 24 hours and cool as quickly as possible. The resulting syrup is placed in vats containing a small amount of sulphurous acid in solution to prevent fermentation. In about eight days crystallization begins and after two-thirds of the syrup has crystallized, the liquid is run off through holes in the bottom of the vat. The crystals are then dried. Besides glucose, these starch syrups contain as high as 40 per cent. of dextrine, together with ten to fifteen per cent. of maltose and fifteen per cent. of ash. The ash consists mostly of calcium sulphate which is left in syrup owing to incomplete purification. The glucose has a very extended use in the arts. Brewers and vinegar makers, as well as manufacturers of fancy sugars, sweetmeats, and preserves, use them in large quantities. Physiologically considered, glucose as found in the market is a good and wholesome food, and if it were sold as glucose no objection could be made to its use. But in being sold as a substitute for the sweeter and more valuable varieties of sugar, it is an adulterant.
SUMMARY OF SYRUPS.
Of the thirty-two samples of syrup examined, ten, or nearly one-third are found to be glucose syrups. The inferior sweetening power of glucose syrups make them an imposition upon the purchaser. It costs much less to produce a glucose syrup, yet there is but little difference in the retail prices of the genuine article and the cheap imitation.
For such articles of consumption as are compounded or mixed in such a manner that it is impossible to determine their make up, it is suggested that a law be passed that obliges a manufacturer to place upon his goods a label that discloses the per centum of the ingredients that are found in these compounds.
The samples of ground spices examined in the laboratory confirm the results found in other states and prove that in this article of food, adulteration is the rule and purity the exception. The high price of the pure spices and the popu. lar demand for a cheap ground article has called forth much skill on the part of the dealer to satisfy the demand; and now he is able to put on the market an article which will satisfy all demands except those for purity and flavor.
A mixture of ground cocoa nut shells, buckwheat hulls and a little cayenne pepper for flavoring, passes for pure black pepper. Corn meal, ground olive stones and cayenne pepper passes for white pepper. Corn meal and tumeric and cayenne passes for pure ginger. Wheat flour, tumerio or Martin's yellow, and cayenne sells for pure mustard. New adulterations are constantly being discovered and the analyist is constantly called on to identify new adulter
The adulterations usually found are: 1. The bran and hulls of various seeds, as buckwheat, wheat, mustard and flaxseed. 2. Damaged farinaceous substances such as spoilt flour, corn meal, bread, middlings of various kinds. 3. Leguminous seeds peas, beans, etc.
Ground shells of the cocoa nut, almond and peanut. Ground olive stones are largely used. 5. Various coloring
matter, as tumeric, Martin's yellow, charcoal, sienna and red ochre, etc. By a judicious mixing of the above materials a fair imitation of any spice can be made and placed on the market and the compound will meet with a ready sale if it is cheap enough. The use of the above articles has called into existence an industry of some magnitude, having for its object the manufacture of spice mixtures known as pepper dust. The term is usually abbreviated to “P. D.," and the manufacture of “P. D. Pepper,” “P. D. Ginger” and “P. D. Cloves” is a large and increasing industry. These imitations, resembling the genuine article very closely and only lacking the necessary flavoring, are sold at from three to four cents per pound. Manufacturers openly advertise themselves as dealers in these articles. A journal devoted to spice milling contains advertisements like the following:
St., New York. Manufacturers of all kinds of spice mixtures. My celebrated brand of “P. D.” pepper is superior to any made. Spice mixtures a specialty. Spices ground for the trade.”
As the result of the practice above quoted spices are found containing the following adulterants:
Allspice; adulterants, spent cloves, clove stems, cracker dust, ground shells or charcoal, mineral color, yellow corn.
Cayenne; adulterants, rice flour, salt and ship stuff, yellow corn, tumeric, mineral red.
Cassia; adulterants, ground shells, crackers, tumeric, minerals.
Cinnamon; adulterants, Cassia bark, peas, starch, mustard hulls, tumeric, minerals, cracker dust, burnt shells, sugar.
Cloves; adulterants, spent cloves, clove stems, minerals, allspice, roasted shells, wheat flour, peas.
Ginger; adulterants, cereals, tumeric mustard hulls, cayenne, peas, exhausted ginger.
Mace; adulterants, cereals, buckwheat, wild mace.
Pepper; adulterants, pepper dust, ground crackers, rice, mustard hull, charcoal, cocoa nut shells, cayenne, beans, bran, white and yellow corn, ground olive stones.