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Mustard; adulterants, flour, tumerie, Martin's yellow, peas, corn meal, gypsum, ginger, salt.
It will be seen that the adulterations met with are very numerous and the list is constantly changing as the supply of material and sources of refuse may suggest.
Pepper is the most common of all the spices and is subject to the greatest adulteration. Blyth gives a list among which are "pepperdusts” known as “P. D.”, “ H. P. D.”, “W. P. D.” “P. D.” composed of linseed cake; “H. P. D.” hot pepper dust, ma'le chiefly of mustard husks; and “W. P. D.” white pepper dust, composed of ground rice. The adulterants are usually coarsely ground and it is not difficult on examination to pick out yellow corn, rice, cocoa nut shells, ground olive stones, etc. The appearance of the spice in its ground form makes it possible to use many kinds of refuse for adulteration, and advantage is taken of this fact to the utmost limit. Samples received at this laboratory have been so mild in flavor that it could hardly deserve the name of pepper.
Mustard is the flour of the white or black mustard seed from which the hulls have been separated by bolting. In the process of manufacture two customs have arisen which materially change the nature of the product. These are, first, the addition of flour for the purpose of improving its keeping qualities, and second, the removal of part of the fixed oil. The addition of flour gives the mustard such a white color that the addition of a coloring matter becomes necessary to restore the yellow color. The dye stuff is usually tumeric, but sometimes Martin's yellow is added. The last named is to some degree poisonous and should be prohibited. The removal of the oil is beneficial as it adds nothing to the flavor of the mustard and its presence injures the keeping qualities of the condiment. Although the addition of flour is harmless and has the sanction of long custom, it is gradually being given up and mustard
containing nothing but the ground and bolted seed is now found in the market.
Cayenne pepper consists of the ground pods of the sev. eral species of Capsicum. It is said to be adulterated with brick dust, red lead, and coloring matters. Yellow corn, tumeric, ground rice and red ochre have been found in it.
Ginger is the powdered root of a tropical plant, Zingiber officinale. Owing to carelessness in the preparation of the root, a large number of qualities and varieties are found on the market. The adulterations are the addition of flour or starch, coloring with tumeric. Mustard hulls and cayenne pepper have been found. Perhaps the most common adulteration is the addition of exhausted ginger, the refuse left from the manufacture of ginger extract. This adulteration has the appearance of the genuine article but lacks its flavor and pungency. Only a careful chemical analysis will show the adulteration.
The flower buds of the clove dried and ground, constitute the spice. The flavor is due to a volatile oil which they contain. This oil being an article of commerce. is extracted and the spent cloves remaining are largely used for adulteration. Clove stems and pimento are also added. Pimento has a clove-like flavor but is much inferior. Its price is less than one-fifth that of cloves. The addition of the coarser adulterants is not common.
CINNAMON AND CASSIA.
These spices are ground barks of several species of the genus cinnamonum. The barks vary greatly in appearance and quality. The cassia, although inferior to cinnamon in flavor, is frequently substituted for the finer flavored and higher priced cinnamon. Exhausted cinnamon is also used.
In one case the sweet taste of the exhausted cinnamon was made up by the addition of sugar.
Poivrette (ground olive stones) was also found.
Allspice is one of the cheaper spices, but its low price does not prevent its adulteration. Exhausted cloves, clove
. stems, corn and ground shells have been found.
The results of the above analyses only confirm the results found in other parts of the country.
Spices found on the market are enormously adulterated. Over 200 samples have been gathered from various parts of the state. We have been able to examine but a few of each kind and therefore a detailed analysis is not included in this report. As soon as the samples on hand have been investigated a circular will be issued from the office of the commissioner which will give a comprehensive statement of adulieration in spices.
F. G. SHORT,
DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1889.
38 65 50 00
5 50 77 84 25 60 38 85 2 85 5 50 15 21 19 65
H. C. Thom, commissioner, postage....
98 63 74 07 17 40 4 00
156 56 11 82
2 90 1 02 4 60 15 00 7 23 6 75
DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1890.
H. C. Thom, traveling expenses..
$205 60 338 22 124 59 90 72
6 50 125 00
Democrat Printing Co., stereotyping..
$8 00 6 40 1 83 36 35
2 95 12 39 500 2 20 20 70 11 50
4 11 85 00 17 03
3 20 18 87 129 51 23 92
2 00 17 86
2 50 24 00