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corporation or corporations, eagaged in the manufacture of sale of any aiiieated or countereit azice or articles of fordd or drink or d:17.cootrary to the laws of this state.

SESTIOT 4 Sait comarcissioner or any assistant shall have power in he penance of his ora' dates to enter into any creanery, farory, s:oze, sa ason or other place or buiding where he has reason to believe that any food or drink o: dziz is male, prepared, sold or offered for sale, and to 45:n any cask, tıb, package or receptacle of any kind containing or supposed to contain. anysuch article, and toezaninegrate to be examined and analyzed the contents thereof, and the commissioner or any of his assistants may size or take any article of food or drink or drug for analysis, but if the person from whom sich sample is taken shall refisst him to do so he shall at the same time, and in the presence of the person from whom such property is taken, securely seal up tw) samples of the article seized or taken, the one of which shall be for examination oranalysis under the direction of the commissioner, and the other of which shall be delivered to the person from whom the articles was taken. And any person who shall obstruct the commissioner or any of his assistants by refusing to allow him entrance to any place which he desires to enter in the discharge of his official duty, or who refuses to deliver to him a sample of any article of food or drink or drug made, sold, offered or exposed for sale by such person, when the same is requested and when the value thereof is tendered, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not exceeding twenty-five dollars for the first offense and not exceeding five hundred dollars or less than fifty dollars for each subsequent offense.

SECTION 5. It shall be the duty of the district attorney in any county of the state, when called upon by the commissioner or any of his assistants to render any legal assistance in his power to execute the laws, and to prosecute cases arising under the provisions of this act, and all fines and assessments collected in any prosecution begun or caused to be begun by said commissioner or his assistants shall be paid into the state treasury.

SECTION 6. With the consent of the governor, the state board of health may submit to the commissioner, or to any of his assistants, samples of water or of food or drink or drugs, for examination or analysis, and receive special r.

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ports showing the results of such examinations or analysis. And the governor may also authorize the commissioner or his assistants, when not otherwise employed in the duties of their offices, to render such assistance in the farmers' institutes, dairy and farmers' conventions, and the agricultural department of the university, as shall by the authorities be deemed advisable.

SECTION . The salaries of the commissioner and his assistants shall be paid out of the state treasury in the same manner as the salaries of other officers are paid, and their official expenses shall be paid at the end of each calendar month upon bills duly itemized and approved by the governor, and the amount necessary to pay such salaries and expenses is hereby appropriated annually.

SECTION 8. The commissioner may, under the direction of the governor, fit up a laboratory, with sufficient apparatus for making the analysis contemplated in this act, and for such purpose the sum of fifteen hundred dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, and for the purpose of providing materials, and for other necessary expenses connected with the making of such analyses, there is also hereby appropriated so much as may be necessary, not exceeding six hundred dollars annually. The appropriations provided for in this section shall be drawn from the state treasury upon the certificates of the governor.

SECTION 9. Said commissioner shall be furnished a suitable office in the capitol, at Madison, and shall make an annual report to the governor, which shall contain an itemized account of all expenses incurred and fines col. lected, with such statistics and other information as he may regard of value, and with the consent of the governor, not exceeding twenty thousand copies thereof, limited to three hundred pages, may be published annually as other official reports are published, and of which five thousand copies shall be bound in cloth.

SECTION 10. All acts and parts of acts conflicting with this act are hereby repealed.

SECTION 11. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage and publication.

Approved April 16, 1889.

Note to section 4, supra.-If there is contradictory evidence concerning the sufficiency of the seal of a sample,

Milwaukee...

44

ANALYSIS OF BAKING POWDER.

Lab.
No.

Name of Dealer,

Address.

Name of
Manufacturer.

Address.

Trade Mark.

Contains.

Per ct.

Other Ingredients.

Milwaukee..

Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid

12.9
9.5

Cream tartar, starch.
Alum.

30 Roundy, Peck

ham & Co.. Milwaukee.. 31

Roundy, Peck

ham & Co.. Milwaukee.
82
33 Sanders & Ver-
plank..

Milwaukee.
34 Bandew & Heath. Milwaukee....
35 J. G. Flint.

Milwaukee...
36 J. G. Flint.

Milwaukee....
37

H. Scheftels &
Son.

Milwaukee
38 Cromby, Smith &
Co.

Milwaukee
39

C. E. Andrews &

Co
Not known
Jewett, Sherman

Co
Not known.
Not known...
Not known...
Not known.

Milwaukee..

Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid
Carbouic acid
Carbonic acid

11.6
10.8
11.3
11.2
8.

Cream tartar.
Cream tartar.
Alum.
Creain tartar.
Alum.

Chicago

Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid

9.34
9.53

Alum, phosphate.
Cream tarlar.

Red Cross

Thompson & Tay

lor
Not known
Jewett, Sherman

& Co..
Not known.
Jewett, Sherman

& Co.
Not known.

King..
Cream Foam.

Milwaukee..

Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid

13.
11.4

40
41

Alum.
Cream tartar.

Banden & Heath. Milwaukee.

Milwaukee..

White Lilly.
Cupid

Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid

13.35
10.85

Starch, alum, tartaric acid.
Starch, alum, phosphate.

42
43

Milwaukee..

E. A. Smith
Jewett, Sherman

& Co..
Cromby, Smith &
J. G. Flint.
Ferris & Alvord.

Milwaukee..

Co.

Ladies. Guld Seal. White Rose

Milwaukee. Milwaukee. Whitewater

Carbonic acid Carbonic acid Carbonlc acid

9. 10 35 7 55

Starcb, alum. Starch, alum, phosphate. Starch, aluin, phosphate.

45 201

Carbonic acid

9.55

Cream tartar.

341

James Hanson.

Racine

Whitewater Chicago

Echo

Carbonic acid

5.55

342

I. L. Esson.

Racine..

C. E. Andrews &

Co
Not known.
Not known
Sent by C. R.

Beach
Spencer Blueing

Paddle Co.
Spencer Blueing

Paddle Co
L. E. Taylor.
J. Wellauer.
Royal Bk. P. Co..
Craig B. P. CO
Ruitord Chemi-

cal Works..

343 314 815 346

Chicago
Chicago
Milwaukee..
New York,

Racine..
Racine.
Racine..

Starch, alum, phospbate.
Starch, alum, phosphate.
Cream tartar, starch, alum
Alum.
Cream tartar.

Eassons
Excelsior
White Flake.
Royal...

Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid

3.50

.9
2.2
12.8

A. O. Burch.
E. H. Brill.
James Hanson.
Wickham & Will.

iams.
James Hanson.

Racine. Racine..

247

[blocks in formation]

349
850

Starch, alum, phosphata.
Starch, alum, phosphate,
Starch, alum, phosphate.
Starch, alum.
Cream tartar, starch, alum.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.

James Hanson Raote.

Zipp Chora dorfer

Cleveland, Ohio Zipps Grape Crys. tal.

Carbonic acid 9. €
Hanley Bros.. Racine.. Chapman & Smith Chicago Chicago Yeast
Schacht Bros. Racine..
Durham Coffee &

Powder.

Carbonic acid 10.50
Spice Co... La Fayette,

Ind. Winner

Carbonic acid 10.7
James Hanson. Racine.. Vonwie Bros Cleveland &
Grand Union Tea

Chicago Forest City.. Carbonic acid 8.65
Co.

Racine.
Acme B. P. Co... New York. Acme.

Carbonic acic 10.45
I. L. Easson. Racine..

Concordia B. P.
Co
Milwaukee. Lulu.

Carbonic acid 5.50
I. L. Easson Racine.
Prices B. P. Co... New York, Prices

Carbonic acid 11.25
Wickham & Will-
iams
Racine.. Shaw & Thomas.. New York. Silver King..

Carbonic acid 7.65
James Hanson. Racine.. Wolfe & Schmetz. Chicago Grape

Carbopic acid 9.25
A. O. Burch

Racine.

Bengal Coffee &
Wickham & Will

Spice Co
Chicago. Snowball

Carbonic acid 11.60
iams.

Racine.
Geo. P. Vasbrinkt Chicago Vasbrinkt.

Carbonic acid 10.35
Hanley Bros.. Racine.

Queen City Chem.
Wickham & Will-

ical Co.
Buffalo, N. Y. Oriole..

Carbonic acid 8.95
iams

Racine,

Jewett, Sherman
& Co.

Milwaukee. Good as Gold, Carbonic acid 7.15
Schacht Bros. Racinc
J. C. Grant B.P.CO Chicago

Hotel

Carbonic acis

7.15
Schacht Bros. Racine.
Superior B. P. Co. Milwaukee. Morning Lily. Carbonic acid

9.40
Wickham & Will-
iams...

Racine.

Jewett, Sheman &
Co..
Milwaukee.. Kahala

Carbonic acid 11.1
G. A. Robbins Sheboyg‘n Fls Barton B. P. Co. Fairport, N. Y

Carbonic acid 9.9
John Davis & Co.. Detroit, Mich. New Era.

Carbonic acid 10.35
Otto Lontz
Marinette, John Davis & Co. Detroit, Mich. New Era.

Carbonic acid 10.6
Otto Lontz

Marinette J. P. Dieter. Chillicothe, O. Crown King Carbonic acid 10.55
Otto Lontz

Marinette, White Rose B. P.
Cu

Green Bay.. White Rose.. Carbonic acid 8.25
C. Rienke.
Marinette. De Land Co. New York ... Gilt Edge..

Carbonic acid 7.80
J. A. McDonald.. La Crosse.. Potter, Parlin &

Co
Cincinnati, O. Kenton

Carbonic acid 8.05
J. A. McDonald... La Crosse... La Crosse Spice

Mills.
La Crosse.. Badger

Carbonic acid 3.4
J. A. McDonald... La Crosse. J. J. Hogan. La Crosse. Princess..

Carbonic acid 3.20
W. W. Taylor. La Crosse... Granger & Co..... Buffalo, N. Y. Safe

Carbonic acid 5.95
W. W. Taylar.. La Crosse.. Rosewater Bros. Cleveland, 0..1 0. K.

Carbonic acid 6.25
E. A. Wilson.. La Crosse, Columbia B. P. Co Chicago

Columbia

Carbonic acid 3.3
E. A. Wilson... La Crosse.. M Kalbsfiaeischs.. New York

Wheat..

Carbonic acid 2.4 J. J. Berghoust. La Crosse, Boston B. P. Co.. Fairport, N. Y Boston

Carbonic acid 3.45
J J. Bergboust. La Crosse.. John Davis & Co. Detroit, Mich. Coral

Carbonic acid 4.85
R. Chase.

Madison

De Land & Co Fairport, N. Y Pride of Madison. Carbonic acid 10.7

361
362
363

Alum, starch.
Alum, starch.
Alum, starch.

[blocks in formation]

Alum, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, siarch.
Alnm, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, cream tartar, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch,
Phosphate.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.
Alum, phosphate, starch.

[blocks in formation]

the acid in a pure state. The dry distillation of wood was known to produce an acid body but it was supposed to be a peculiar acid, and it was not till 1800 that Fourcroy and Vauquelin recognized this acid as acetic acid. It was not until the nineteenth century that the chemical constitution of acetic acid and its relation to alcohol was known. In 1822 Döbereiner discovered that acetic acid was produced from alcohol.

The manufacture of vinegar consists in the fermentation of organic fluids containing alcohol or sugar. Fermentation is a series of decompositions by which the sugar of a liquid is first broken up into alcohol and carbonic acid, with the formation of other compounds in small quantities; and, second, breaking up the alcohol into acetic acid and water. The changes which take place during fermentation are caused by agents called ferments. The organisms producing fermentation are named after certain products which they form in larger quantities. That found in vinous fermentation consists of low forms of vegetable growth called torula or saccharomyces. They are globular or cell shaped in form and multiply by budding. This fermentation is the first that occurs in the process of making vinegar. After the first or alcoholic fermentation is over, a second fermentation commences, resulting in the decomposition of alcohol into acetic acid and water. The ferment which causes this change is a micro organism known as mycoderma acetic. It is widely distributed through the atmosphere, and develops upon the surface of liquid as a thick white skin. Under the microscope this skin is seen to consist of numerous small cells or collection of cells having the general form of the figure eight.

In a more advanced stage of the fermentation they appear as chains and strings of beads. In many of the cells oval forms, slightly contracted, appear. This contraction

. becomes more marked and the cell finally splits into two new cells. These cells only live for a short time and then sink to the bottom of the liquid and become dormant. In this condition they may remain a long time without destruction. When these dormant cells or germs are placed

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