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travel would be entailed in fixing dates and establishing a perfect understanding with the attorney. Every plan of action could be determined upon before a complaint was made out, which is impossible from the nature of things when the attorney is one or two hundred miles distant.

Again in some actions which the department has been very desirous to bring before courts, the district attorney has shown a spirit inimical to the just administration of the law. An element in some parts of the state has been found that is not in accord with the purposes of the commission, and this feeling must be dissipated before good results can be accomplished in these localities. The only way this can

. be brought about is by having the people thoroughly understand that the sole object of the department is to give the buyer exactly what he pays for, thus protecting his pocket book and his health, and at the same time place the manufacturers of spurious goods in such a position that they are unable to displace honest products by misrepresentation.

No one questions but that it is good commercial policy to foster home manufacture, and in no way can a more potent agent be employed than by urging retailers to patronize honest firms, within the confines of our own state.

We find that adulteration of many of our food products results in cheapening the products of the farm, thus lessening the profits of the husbandman and robbing both consumer and producer. The great evil lies in the practice of selling a cheapened article under a false name at the same price of the pure article, thus defrauding the producer out of the price which he might have received for the genuine product, while at the same time the consumer is made to pay for what he does not ask and what he does not want. The special agent of the United States department of agriculture very pertinently remarks: “It must not be forgotten that even though food be adulterated with matter not positively injurious to health, such food or drugs can not be as nutritious and wholesome as pure articles, and especially important does this feature of adulteration become in the matter of drugs used to cure or prevent disease. To be fed on debased and poisoned food, tainted or diseased meat,

until the body sickens, is surely bad enough, without the efforts of the physician to prevent or allay disease being frustrated by his inability to secure unadulterated drugs and remedies fitted to do his work.” A large correspondence from interested persons reveals the extent of adulterations, and without a single exception, unite in denouncing them as an outrage against the public health and the wel. fare of trade. The total value of food consumed in the United States, according to the American Grocer, is $4,500,000,000 annually. Mr. Wedderburn estimates that $675,000,000 of this $4,500,000,000 is displaced by the manufacturer of fraudulent food stuffs. This immense sum of money is simply stolen from the people each year by men who are cheating the consumers to enhance their own fortunes. Our export trade, of which such a large part consists of agricultural products, is also suffering from the same cause. Seventy-three per cent of our annual export grows upon the soil; $700,000,000 is received in America for goods shipped across the water. The United States has good reason to know that European governments are always ready to exclude or embarrass the American export trade and will avail themselves of every opportunity or pretext to do so.

On the other hand the countries of the old world have the most strenuous laws relating to adulteration and it is most unlikely that they will tolerate a class of food stuffs from America that are not allowed to be made at home. As a result of this America has been a dumping ground for goods of questionable character from Europe. This fact commended itself to the last congress and laws of protection against importation of fraudulent food stuffs are now to be found upon our statute books and the general sentiment upon the subject has become so strong that they will undoubtedly be enforced by the government.

All of the states that have taken legislative measures upon the subject of adulteration of food have urged upon congress the necessity of national laws to control this matter. If food standards are to be established it is obvious that the same standard should obtain in all states,

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otherwise manufacturers who have extensive trade would have great trouble in meeting unlike requirements in the several states.

In the month of November, 1889, a call was made to the dairy and food commissioners throughout the United States to meet in convention at Cleveland, Ohio. A national association was formed and a constitution adopted. The commissioner from Wisconsin was selected as president, and F. A. Derthick, commissioner of Ohio, was made secretary. The most important measure which came before the association was the framing of a pure food bill, which was forwarded to congress with an aim to secure national legislation which would affect all states alike.

Membership to the association can be obtained by persons who are described by the following section of the constitution:

Any person who is connected with the dairy and food commission of any state as chief or assistant, or any person who is a member in good standing in a state dairy association, who presents credentials which show that such person is especially delegated by the board of directors of said state dairy association, or a member of the national, or any state board of health; or a person appointed by the governor of any state to represent the production of pure food in that state, may become a member of this association."

The governor of Illinois appointed a gentleman who represented the oleomargarine interest of that state, and he was promptly denied the privilege of becoming a member. Great good will emanate from this organization, which meets annually.

Commissioners can come together from the various states for the purpose of comparing laws and methods, perfecting the laws already existing and formulating new ones that are constantly demanded by the exigencies of trade.

A general outline of the work that has been done in this state and such suggestions as are of interest to the honest manufacturer and the consumer are respectfully submitted.

CITY MILK.

There is no article that is more generally used for food than milk. Nearly if not quite 60 per cent. of milk produced is consumed before being made into butter or cheese. It is of vital importance than an article which is used so extensively should be furnished in as wholesome and cleanly a condition as possible, and that it should be of that quality which the law contemplates when it says it shall contain at least 3 per cent. of butter fat. A dealer should be put in stocks who will distribute from door to door an inferior article which is so universally used by invalids and small children. The analysis of over 300 samples taken from every part of the state demonstrates the wisdom of fixing the standard at 3 per cent.

There have been found no herds in Wisconsin that fall below this mark, while the general average ranges from 31 to 41. A careful perusal of the tables submitted by the chemist will be of interest to the general reader especially if he is the owner of one or more cows. The figures have a commercial significance which appeals to most men with a potent voice. One who has “profit” as a motto has little business in forming partnership with a cow that is not branded with “better than 3 per cent. of butter fat.” A cow that skims her milk to less than 3 per cent. is amenable to the law and holds her owner responsible for damages. The opinion is gathering strength that they are less guilty cows in this respect than men. At the solicitation of the board of health, of Milwaukee, a number of samples of milk were taken in that city from wagons and milk depots. At the time the work was being done inquiries were made as to what kind of food the cows were getting. It was discovered that the health board of Milwaukee had taken active measures to suppress the feeding of brewery slops. This is a wise measure because this character of food has a material influence upon the quality of the milk produced. Brewery grains and malt sprouts are much better if they are fed while fresh and sweet. It was also discovered that inspectors regularlv visited the

. places where cows were kept that furnished the city with milk. This is the only city in the state where these precautions are taken, and the result is that Milwaukee is very fortunate in having, in the main, a wholesome and cleanly supply of milk.

Some of the samples fell below the 3 per cent. standard, and the following suits were instituted in the municipal court before Judge Walber.

Carle Oelke, found guilty, $10 and costs.
J. T. Drefhl, found guilty, $10 and costs.
Chas. Siegel, found guilty, $10 and costs.
C. L. Porath, found guilty, $10 and costs.
Waukesha Milk Co., found guilty, $10 and costs.
C. Willis, acquitted.
Ferdinand Meister, acquitted.
Thos. Kaemerling, jury trial; acquitted.

Four other parties fell slightly below the standard, but it was not deemed expedient to begin action against them. They were personally notified to furnish better milk. The prosecutions had a very desirable effect upon the entire city supply. Dr. Martin kindly gave the assistance of his inspectors and the use of his offices for analysis.

Letters have been received from many Milwaukee residents that milkmen were furnishing a better quality of milk and seemed very anxious that their customers should be satisfied. The general public was much interested and so many requests came to the office to have the list with the percentages published that the names of the dealers and a description of quality was given to the press. While this is the best possible method of controlling this matter, if all could be reported, there is an injustice to those who are doing an honest business and yet were not mentioned because no samples had been taken from them.

A partial list of baking powders was given to the public and immediately scores of protests were made to the effect that certain firms were manufacturing honest goods and they were not on the list, consequently their brand was not recognized. The same objection applies to milk dealers. If some method could be adopted so that all could be

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