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reached the person who handled an inferior article would soon go begging for patronage. This plan has been tried with splendid results in the city of London, Canada. The work was inaugurated about four years ago. The city council passed a by-law requiring every milk dealer to take out a license, paying therefor $1 annually, the standard of butter fat being fixed at 34 per cent. as the lowest limit. This license is liable to be revoked at any time if the dealer fails to comply with the regulations. Ninety dealers and 1,200 cows came within the range of this inspection. Twice each year all milk is examined. Every herd is visited. The herd, the stable, the food and the water supply, is carefully looked after. A record of observation is taken. Twice a year a report of this examination of milk and inspection of surroundings is published in the city papers. No column of news is more closely read. The matron turns to the name of her milkman and if she reads “ 21 per cent. of butter fat," "stables and cows filthy,” “water supply poor,” the poor fellow never forgets his next visit. The result is that the general average of the milk furnished contains over 31 per cent. of fat, and cramped and unclean stables have become more roomy and healthful, and greater care is exercised regarding food and water. If a simi.

a lar system could be adopted in Wisconsin, the work could be carried on by this department. A dealer who holds a license and knows that it will be revoked if he does not comply with its requirements, will be very careful to do an honest, cleanly business. Then the office would be in possession of name, number and address, and when the list was completed it would be ready for publication. It would perhaps be unadvisable to have this regulation apply to cities under 2,000 inhabitants. The experience we have had with milk from villages demonstrates that it is, as a rule, uniform in quality and clean.

A number of the larger cities have been visited and the general supply has been examined as far as practicable. As will be seen by the examination of the tables submitted by the state chemist, the milk is of fair quality in nearly every city. Adam Thuerer, of Baraboo was arrested and found guilty of selling adulterated milk, and fined $10 and costs.

While the cases were in progress in Milwaukee, Judge Walber took occasion to say that the law for controlling the sale of city milk was a commendable one, and hoped all offenders would be prosecuted. The fine imposed was the minimum one that could be rendered, on the ground that the law was a new one and dealers had not been given sufficient time to acquaint themselves with its details. In every case the judge warned the defendants that upon a repetiton of the offense the penalty would be much more severe. It is our

irpose to make a more extended examination of milk in Milwaukee as well as other cities at an early date.

FACTORY MILK.

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The manufacturing of milk into butter and cheese has become one of the great industries of the state. Millions of dollars are invested in the business and thousands of farmers look to the income of the cow as their chief support. Over 1,200 factories, private and public, are in operation, and Wisconsin has secured an enviable reputation for turning out large quantities of first-class butter and cheese. The climate and pastures seem especially adapted to this branch of agriculture. That this branch of industry has been carried to such a successful issue is largely due to the work of the State Dairyman's association. This association has been fortunate in having among its members men of public spirit who have been animated to their great work by a devotion to the public good and an abiding faith that they were encouraging a business that would be profitable to the people, to the farms and to the state. The result of this singleness of purpose is clearly demonstrated by the rank Wisconsin takes among the states of the Union.

The legislature is to be commended for its co-operation and liberality in this connection.

The Farmers’ Institute has been a powerful auxiliary in disseminating thought and skill in every county in the

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state, and is therefore entitled to no little credit for its assistance in establishing the reputation we enjoy as a state.

The Experiment Station has done yeoman's service in bringing home to the farmers the economic questions that enter so largely into farm management. To Wisconsin belongs the honor of establishing the first dairy school, and the instruction received by young men is a constant stream of information that promotes the intelligence of our dairymen. No one gainsays that the legitimate manufacture of butter and cheese should be protected by the administration of law. Chap. 425, laws of 1889:

SECTION 1. Any person who shall sell or offer for sale or furnish or deliver, or have in his possession, with intent to sell or offer for sale or furnish or deliver to any creamery, cheese factory, corporation, person or persons whatsoever, as pure, wholesome and unskimmed, any unmerchantable, adulterated, impure or unwholesome milk, shall upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars for each and every offense.

SECTION 2. In all prosecutions or other proceedings under this or any other law of this state relating to the sale or furnishing of milk, if it shall be proven that the milk sold or offered for sale, or furnished or delivered, or had in possession with intent to sell or offer for sale, or to furnish or deliver as aforesaid, as pure, wholesome and unskimmed, contains less than three per centum of pure butter fat, when subjected to chemical analysis or other satisfactory test, or that it has been diluted or any part of its cream abstracted, or that it or any part of it was drawn from cows known to the person complained of to have been within fifteen days before or four days after parturition, or to have any disease or ulcers or other running sores, then and in either case the said milk shall be held, deemed and adjudged to have been unmerchantable and adulterated, impure or unwholesome, as the case may be.

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Numerous complaints have been made by factorymen, and so far as possible we have accommodated them by a personal inspection of the factories and examination of the milk. It is impossible to answer all demands. The State Dairyman's association has had four instructors at work the past two seasons. They have done much to lighten the work of this office and have rendered valuable service to the state in establishing better methods of manufacture, thus ensuring better returns for milk. These instructors report that the factories are in much more cleanly condition and greater skill has been acquired in handling milk under all conditions.

2-D. & F.

Several suits are now pending against parties who have been delivering skimmed or watered milk to factories.

The department takes every precaution to clearly establish a man's guilt before prosecution is begun. A sample of milk is tested by the chemist by the Short or the Babcock method, and if it is found to contain less than three per cent. of butter fat it is then given a careful chemical analysis. While this is going on the assistant commissioner

. visits the herd and takes a sample immediately after milk. ing. This is tested at once. By comparing the results of the three analyses it can be determined at once whether the patron in question has been doing crooked business. Factorymen report that a visit from the officers have a marked effect upon the amount and quality of milk some of their patrons deliver.

The dairy boards are taking an active interest in this matter and are using every endeavor to have the factorymen protected. When the dairymen thoroughly understand that the profits of their business depend upon the character and quality of the milk they deliver to the factories, no other inducement but personal interest will be required to enable all factories to receive milk that comes from hands that are clean and honest. When once an even quality of milk is delivered to the butter and cheese makers Wisconsin goods will be more largely sought and command better prices than in the past.

CHEESE.

Sixty million pounds of cheese is annually made in this state. There is not an article of commerce that requires greater skill in handling in order to secure favorable markets. No industry has been so perverted. No business exists that has been so basely manipulated, and no article of food has been so degraded by counterfeiters. In no time has the honest manufacturer met with such dishonest competition. Matters have come to such a pass that the genuine article is under the ban of suspicion at home and abroad. The result has been that the subject has been thoroughly investigated by importers and steps have been taken to reduce the exportation of filled cheese from the United States. The following letters explain very clearly the action that has been taken in England regarding this matter, and how the nefarious business is regarded by the commissioners of the several states:

THE LIVERPOOL TRADE ASSOCIATION AND EXCHANGE COMPANY, LIMITED.

Secretary's Office, 24 North John Street.

LIVERPOOL, March 26, 1890. DEAR SIR — We desire to inform you that a committee of the undersigned has been appointed by this association to watch the interests of the cheese trade, which are being seriously menaced by the continued increase in the manufacture of the article known as “ filled” cheese.

We desire to co operate with you in the direction of obtaining such legislation as will lead to the suppression of the manufacture of this article.

The legitimate interests of the “ Trade” are seriously imperiled, and the reasonable expectation of the consumer disappointed, and we are clearly of opinion that the distribution of “filled” cheese is disgusting the British public with the pure article, and that our Trade and mutual interests are in danger of suffering a permanent and lasting injury.

We are in communication with our Home Sanitary authorities, and are placing the matter before our Agricultural Government department, and members of the House of Commons.

We venture to suggest that you call upon your government and state Legislatures to prohibit the manufacture of these goods.

We would ask you to inform us what steps are being taken on your side, and what course should, in your opinion, be adopted to bring about the end we have in view. We await the favor of your reply.

Yours faithfully,

W. CARSON, C. HOLLAND.
A. W. DUNN, T. LONSDALE,
J. L. GRANT, SAMUEL WHITE,

J. S. HARMOOD BANNER, Secretary To H. C. THOM, Madison Wis.

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